First list for the Aeneid

Be able to decline:  haec fortis vis or illud altum mare

Anchises, -ae (m) acc. =Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argi, -orum (m. pl.) Argos, city in Greece where Juno is worshipped 

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek 

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Ganymēdēs, -is (m) Trojan boy and son of Laomedon, king of Troy

Lāvīnius, a, um - Lavinian, of Lavinium 

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates 

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan (Teucer was a king of Troy)

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn 

Trōs, Trōis (m) Trojan

 

Words of Special Significance:

 

moles, molis (f) a mass, weight, burden 

pietas, pietatis (f) 

pius, a, um 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

vatēs, vatis (m) bard, prophet, singer; poet

 

accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage 

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter 

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain 

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive 

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent 

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour 

furo, furere, furui - to rage, rave, be frantic 

iacto (1) to toss, buffet 

impello, impellere, impulī, impulsus - to strike against, drive, force 

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to stride; go forth; walk 

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, to slide 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to hurt, strike, offend 

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow 

ruo, ruere, rui - fall; rush; sink

sino, sinere, sivi - to permit, allow

tendo, tendere, tetendi, tentus - to stretch

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea 

altum, -i (n) the deep, the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) cultivated field 

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason 

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune, chance

cura, -ae (f) care, anxiety, 

currus, -ūs (m) chariot

donum, -i (n) gift

fatum, -i (n) fate

fors, fortis (f) chance, fortune

fluctus, us (m) wave, tide, flood, sea

furia, -ae (f) rage, madness 

genus, generis (n) race; kind, origin, 

gens, gentis (f) clan, race, nation

litus, litoris (n) shore

moenia, -ium (n) walls

numen, numinis (n) divine authority, divinity

ora, -ae (f) shore 

pontus, -i (m) sea

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring 

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul 

relinquiae, ārum (fe. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star

socius, -i (m) ally, comrade, follower 

sanguis, -inis (m) blood

somnus, -i (m) sleep, slumber; dream 

turbo, turbinis (m) whirlwind 

vetus, veteris (adj.) old 

 

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh 

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black, gloomy

caelestis, -e(adj.) of the sky, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) rich 

fessus, a, um - tired, weary 

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous 

insignis, -e- marked, distinguished 

invīsus, a, um - hated 

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed 

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage

 

enim - for, indeed, in truth 

insuper (adv.) above, besides 

lātē (adv.) widely, far and wide 

longe (adv.) far off

necdum (adv.) not yet

olim (adv.) once upon a time, once

praeterea (adv.) besides, hereafter

qua (adv.) where, in anyway

quippe - truly, indeed surely 

una (adv.) together, at the same time 

unde - from which, whenc 


Vocabulary List for Book One of Vergil’s Georgics 

audeō, audēre, ausus sum - to dare (audacious, audacity) 

appareō, apparēre, apparuī, apparitus to appear; be evident/visible (apparition) 

careō, carēre, caruī - to lack + ablative case 

denuntiō (1) to announce (denounce) 

comprendō, comprendere, comprendī, comprensus - to catch/seize/grasp firmly

condō, condere, condidī, conditus - to establish, to found, to place (AUC = ab urbe conditā)

faveō, favēre, favī - to favour (+ dative case - intransitive verb) 

foveō, fovēre - to cherish, to keep warm

incipiō, incipere, incēpī, inceptus - to begin (inception, inceptive) 

miseror, miserārī, miserātus sum - to pity 

manō, manāre - to drip; to flow

maneō, manēre, mansī, mansus - to remain 

moneō, monere, monuī, monitus - to remind, warn, advise (admonition, admonish) 

operiō, operīre, operuī, opertus - to cover, to conceal; to atone for  

prosum, prodesse, profuī - to be useful, to benefit + dative case (profit) 

queror, querī, questus sum - to complaint, to lament 

respiciō, respicere, respexi, respectus - to look back at (respect) 

rideo, ridēre, risi, risus - to laugh (risible)

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus - - to burst, break (rupture, rumpēns ilia

salio, salīre, saluī - to leap, jump, hop (salient, resilient) 

succurrō, succurrere - to aid, to help (sub + curro) + dative case (succor) 

soleō, solēre, solitus sum -to be accustomed + infinitive (como di solito

solvō, -solvere, solvī, solutus -  free, resolve, undo, release

surgō, surgere, surrexī, surrectus - to rise (surge, insurrection)  

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tactus - to touch (tangent, tactile) 

tego, tegere, texi, tectus - to cover (protect)

volvō, volvere, volvī, volutus - to roll (revolve, revolution) 

vehō, vehere, vexī, vectus - to carry; in passive voice =  to travel (convey, convection, survey) 

 

aciēs, aciēī (f) edge, battleline, battle, sight 

amnis, amnis (m) river 

casus, casūs (m) change; misfortune

carcer, carceris (m) prison, jail, starting barriers/gates (incarcerate) 

cruor, cruoris (m) blood, gore 

dolor, doloris (m) pain, suffering 

dolus, dolī (m) trick; deceit 

ignis, -is (m) fire (igneous rock) 

insidiae, insidiārum (f) ambush (plural for singular), deception, treachery.

ensis, ensis (m) sword 

faciēs, faciēī (f) face, appearance (facial, facade)

fraus, fraudis (f) deceit, deception; a crime 

fīnis, fīnis (m/f) end, limit; boundary (imperium sine fīne)

fulgur, fulguris (n) lightening, flashing

fūlmen, fūlminis (n) lightening bolt  

lucus, lucī (m)  grove (sacred)

macula, -ae (f) stain, spot (immaculate, The Immaculate Conception) 

mōs, mōris (m) custom, mores, habits (mos maiorum

motus, motūs (m) motion, movements (terramota) 

nemus, nemoris (n) grove 

nubes, nubis (f)  cloud; smoke

orbis, orbis (m) ring, disk, hoop, orbit (orbis terrarum) 

ortus, -ūs (m) rising, a rising 

occāsus, occāsūs (m) setting, a falling (occasion) 

onus, oneris (n) burden (onus probandī) 

ōra, ōrae (f) shoreline; boarder 

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face

os, ossis (n) bone

regia, regiae (f) palace 

saeclum, -i (n) age; period of time 

signum, signī (n) sign; signal; battle standard 

tectum, tectī (n) roof, building (from tego, tegere, texi, tectus) 

tergum, tergī (n) back

tellūs, tellūris (f) earth; mother earth; Tellus 

tumultus, tumultūs (m) an uproar, violent commotion; tumult; civil war

unda, -ae (f) a wave; water (und

 

caecus, a, um - blind 

dirus, a, um - dreadful, ugly, ill-omened, fearful 

dūrus, a, um - hard (obdurate) 

grandis, grande - large, great

indignus, indigna, indignum (+ ablative) unworthy, undeserving (indignate) 

igneus, a, um - of fire (igneous) 

levis, leve - light; floating

maestus, maesta, maestum  - sad, gloomy

nitidus, a, um - bright, shining, radiant 

pallidus, pallida, pallidum -  pale (pallor) 

umidus, a, um - wet, full of moisture (humidity) 

 

magis (adv.) more greatly, more, rather 

magnopere (adv.) greatly

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, anything

quippe (adv.) of course; surely 

quisque, quidque - each one, each thing

quis, quid? (interrogative pronoun) who? what? 

qui, quae, quod? (interrogative adjective) What? which? 

quamquam (conj.) - although

totiēns (adv.) so often 

quotiēns (adv.) how often? how often!

quisque, quidque - each one, each thing

, Eclogue Vocabulary

(re) cubo, cubāre, cubuī, cubitus,- to recline, to relax, go to bed, recline at dinner 

mīrōr, mīrārī, mīrātus sum - to wonder at, marvel 

cano, canere, cecinī, cantum - to sing 

cernō, cernere, crēvī, crētus - to separate; distinguish by senses; perceive; discern 

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround; to equip; put on (in passive/middle voice)

faveo, favere, favi + DATIVE CASE - to favour 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour 

iuvo (1) to please; to help, aid

fateor, fatērī, fassus sum - to admit, to confess 

invideō, invidēre - to envy

labor, labī, lapsus sum - to slip, to slide 

memini, meminisse (defective verb- look up its paradigm) - to remember (coepī and odī are also defective)

mūto (1) to change (mutation) 

nascor, nascī, natus sum - to be born (neonatal, pregnant) 

nancīscor, nancīscī, nactus sum - to obtain 

oblīvīscor, oblīvīscī, oblitus sum - to forget + genitive case (oblivious) 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to strike, drive (repellent, repulsive) 

pendeō, pendēre, pependī, pensus - to hang (pendent) 

prōdō, prōdere, prōdidī, prōditus - to hand over, betray 

potior, potīrī, potitus sum - to get/gain possession of + genitive or ablative case

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; to allow (passive, patience) 

pateō, patēre, patuī - to lie open, to be revealed (patently) 

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward (procession) 

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - to rule, guide, direct 

redeo, redire - to return, come back 

regno (1) to reign, to have royal power

rideo, ridere, risi, risum - to laugh (risible) 

resonō, resonāre - to echo (resonate)  

respicio, respicere, respexi, respectus - to behold, to look back at 

relinquō, relinquere, reliquī, relictus, a, um -to leave behind (relinquish)

rideo, ridere, risi, risus - to laugh

soleō, solēre, solitus sum -to be accustomed + infinitive (como di solito

solvō, -solvere, solvī, solutus -  free, resolve, undo, release

surgō, surgere, surrexī, surrectus - to rise (surge, insurrection) 

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry, convey 

suadeo, suadēre - to urge 

aetās, aetātis (f) age (aetas aurea

aestās, aestātis (f) summer

aes, aeris (n) bronze

āēr, āēris (m) air 

agnus, agnī (m) lamb (agnus dei) 

arvum, arvī (n) plowed fields 

carmen, carminis (n) song; poem (charm) 

fons, fontis (m) spring, fountain (font of knowledge) 

frigus, frigoris (n) cold (frigid) 

grex, gregis (m) a flock (egregious, gregarious)  

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) youth 

lac, lactis (n) milk (Madonna Lactans

mundus, mundī (m) world

mensis, mensis (m) month 

mensa, mensae (f) table

mūrus, mūrī (m) wall (intramural, mural) 

nūmen, nūminis (n) divinity, divine power

otium, otiī (n) leisure, free time, holiday 

onus, oneris (n) burden, load (onus probandī, onerous)

pondus, ponderis (n) weight

rupes, rupis (f) cliff, outcrop; bank 

saeclum, saeclī (n) age; period of time 

scelus, sceleris (n) crime, evil 

spēs, speī (m) hope

tellūs, tellūris (f) earth; mother earth 

venenum, venenī (n) poison 

vestigium, vestigī (n) traces, footsteps 

uva, -ae (f) grape

umbra, umbrae (f) shade, shadow; ghost, shade in underworld 

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak, ill, suffering  

agrestis, agreste - rustic

ferreus, a, um - made of iron (FE)

dūrus, a, um - hard, unyielding 

humilis, humile - low, on the ground; humble. lowly 

iners, inertis (adj) inactive, lazy, immobile; without skill (inert) 

lentus, a, um - slow, calm 

maestus, a, um - sad 

mollis, molle - soft (mollify) 

parvus, a, um - small

serus, a, um - late (buona sera

stultus, a, um - foolish, stupid 

tenuis, tenue - slender, thin; refined (tenuous) 

modo (adv.) recently, just now

quot? (interrogative adj.) how many? 

postquam (subordinating conjunction) after

posteā (adv.) afterward

post (prep. + acc.) after 

passim (adv.) here and there; scattered about 

paulatim (adv.) little by little 

paulō (abl. of degree of difference) by a little, a little

paulum (adv.) a little distance 

tantus, a, um…quantus, a, um (correlatives rabbits) as great as; as much as 

tantum (adv.) only

undique (adv) from or on all sides

usque (adv.) continuously, without interruption

Vocabulary List for Cicero, Philippics

accedo, accedere, accessi, accessus - to approach (ad + cedo, cedere)

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn 

cohibeō, cohibēre, cohibuī, -itus - to hold together, restrain, confine, check, curb, repress,

cogito (1) to think, to reason, to plan 

conloco (1) to bring together, to set in order; invest 

constat (constabat, constabit, etc - used impersonally) -  it is settled, established, undisputed, certain, well known, etc.),

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - ought + infintive 

ecfundo, ecfundere, ecfudi, ecfusus - to pour out, to lavish

fio, fieri, factus sum - to happen, to become 

imbuo, imbuere, imbui, imbutus - to make wet

intelligo, intelligere, intellexi, intellectus - to understand

inter-eō, -īre -iī, -itūrus, (perf.interīsse, C.) -to to go among, be lost

imbuō, imbuere, imbuī, imbūtus - to wet, moisten; stain,

iugulo (1) to strangle 

iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussus - to order

minor (1) to threaten 

opto (1) to wish, to pray 

parco, parcere, peperci (+ dative) to spare 

praetereo, praeterire - to go by, to pass by

propulso (1) beat back

postulo, postulare, postulavi, postulatus - demand, claim; require; ask/pray for

respergo, respergere, respersi, respersum - to sprinkling

trucido (1) to slaughter

utor, uti, usus sum - to use, to employ (+ abl. case) 

 

animus, -i (m) mind, spirit, heart 

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) authority, personal power, influence 

consilium, -ii (n) plan, strategy, advice 

copia, -ae (f) troops, forces, resources 

crudelitas, crudelitatis (f) cruelty 

exercitus, -ūs (m) army 

furor, furoris (m) madness, passion

gratia, -ae (f) thanks, influence, charm 

genus, generis (n) kind, class

hospes, hospitis (m) - one who either gives or receives the entertainment of a guest; a guest

impetus, -ūs (m) attack 

mens, mentis (f) mind, intension 

patrimonium, -ii (n) inheritance 

pestis, pestis (f) plague, disease 

pes, pedis (m) foot 

reditus, -ūs (m) return (re-eo) 

salus, salutis (f) health, safety, salvation 

scelus, sceleris (n) wickness, bad deed

tectum, -i (n) roof, building

 

crudelis, crudele - cruel, savage, blood thirsty 

firmus, a, um - strong, solid 

ignarus, a, um (+ gen.) unaware, ignorant of 

iratus, a, um - angry

nefarius, -a, um - wicked, evil 

pestifer, pestifera, pestiferum - pestilential; destructive

privatus, a, m - private 

publicus, a, um - official, public

 

dum (subordinating conj.) + indicative = while  

dum (subordinating conj.) + subjunctive = until  

deinde - afterwards, then, next 

hūc - to this place

hinc - from this place

hīc - in this place, here

interim - in the meantime 

interea (adv.) meanwhile

iterum (adv.) again 

inde - from that place, thence

unde - from where, whence 

aliter (adv.) otherwise

fundĭtus (adv.)  from the very bottom, from the foundation

maximē (adv.) especially 

magis (comp. adv.) more

potius (comp. adv.) more

omnīno (adv.) -  wholly, entirely, altogether,

paene (adv.) almost 

potius (comp. adv.) more, rather

quamquam (adv.) although 

quia (subordinating conj.) because 

tandem (adv. ) at last, finally

quo…usque   = How long?  To what extent?

Vocabulary List for Suetonius’ Account of Caesar’s Death from De Vita Caesarum

adripio, adripere, adripui, arreptus - to seize, grasp

adsideo, adsidere - to sit near

animadverto, animadvertere, animadverti, animadversus - to notice

accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum (+ dative case) - to approach 

cado, cadere, cecidī, casurus - to fall

clamo (1) to shout

conor, conārī, conātus sum - to try

conspiro (1) to conspire

dependeo, dependēre - to hang down 

differo, differre, distuli, dīlatum - to scatter about , to put off

irruo, irruere - to rush in (in + ruo, ruere)

obvolvo, obvolvere - to wrap up, to cover

occīdo, occīdere, occīdi, occīsus - to kill

publico (1) to make public, confiscate 

prosilio, prosilīre -- to leap forth

rogo, rogāre (1) to ask 

reperio, reperīre, repperī, repertus - to ascertain, to discover

stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictus - to draw

suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, susceptus - to undertake, to begin 

tardo (1) to slow

trado, tradere, tradidi, traditus - hand down

traicio, traicere - to pierce 

velo (1) to cover

vulnero (1) to wound

Deponent Verbs that Govern the Ablative Case as Direct Objective

ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum  + ablative - to use, to employ, to enjoy (use)

abutor, abuti, abusus sum - to abuse + ablative

fruor, fruī, fructus sum - to enjoy + ablative                  

fungor, fungī, functus sum - to perform  + ablative                   (function) 

potior, potīrī, potītus sum - to gain possession of + ablative or genitive case 

nītor, nītī, nīsus sum -  to lean or rest upon, to strive, to rely on + ablative

vescor, vescī - to feed on + ablative

 

animus, -i (m) mind, intention

bracchium, -ii (n) arm

crus, cruris (n) shin, leg

eques, equitis (m) cavalry, horseman 

graphium, -i (n) stilus, sharply pointed instrument for writing

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan 

gestus, -ūs (m) gesture, posture

ictus, ictūs (m) a blow, striking 

iugulum, -i (n) throat 

medicus, -i (m) doctor

metus, -ūs (m) fear

officium, -iī (n) duty, business 

plaga, -ae (f) blow, wound

pugio, pugionis (m) dagger

pars, partis (f) part side, direction, role,  party 

servolus,-i (m) diminutive of servus, -i (m) 

sinus, ūs (m) fold (in a toga); lap; bosom; bay 

speciēs, specieī (f) appearance, pretext

umerus, -i (m) shoulder

vis, vis (f) violence, force

 

adversus, a, um - turned toward, facing 

aversus, a, um - turned away (here: from the back) 

cunctus, a, um - all

exanimis, -e  -  lifeless

honestus, a, um - respectable, honorable

imus, a, um - lowest

inferior, inferius - lower

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm) - each (of two) 

uter?, utra?, utrum? (-ius paradigm) - which one (of two)?

 

aliquamdiu = for some time

donec = until 

etsi (conj.) even if, although 

ilico (adv.) immediately, on the spot

infra + acc. = below

propius (comp. adv) nearer, closer

quasi = as if

undique (adv.) on all sides, from all sides

Ecce Romani III, Chapter 58 & 59 - Murder of Clodius on the Via Appia

Expect a verb game on eo, ire, ii, iturus

abutor, abuti, abusus sum - to abuse + ablative

fruor, fruī, fructus sum - to enjoy    + ablative               

fungor, fungī, functus sum - to perform  + ablative                   (function) 

potior, potīrī, potītus sum - to gain possession of + ablative or genitive case 

nītor, nītī, nīsus sum -  to lean or rest upon, to strive, to rely on + ablative

arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum - to judge, to think 

augeo, augere, auxi, auctus - to increase (augmentation, augment) 

alloquor, alloqui, allocutus sum - to address (allocution) 

complector, complectī, complexus sum - to embrace 

confluo, confluere, confluxi - to flow together (confluence) 

impero (1) to command + dative of person 

intelligo, intelligere, intellexi, intellectus - to realize, to learn 

iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus - to join (conjunction, conjugal) 

lateo, latere, latui (intransitive verb) - to hide (latent) 

licet, licere, licuit - it is permitted + dative + infinitive 

mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum - to wonder, to be amazed (miracle) 

nuntiō (1) to announce

occīdo, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to kill (ob + caedo) 

occido, occidere, occidī, occāsus - to fall, to set (occident, occasion) (ob + cado)

occurro, occurrere, occurri, occursus - to meet + dative case (ob + curro) 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to arise (orient, oriental) 

    adorior, adorīrī, adortus sum - to attack, to rise against 

ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentus - to show (ostensible, ostentation) 

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out, to depart 

regredior, regredi, regressus sum - to go back, to step back (regression) 

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus - to burst, to break (rupture) 

sequor, sequi, secutus sum - to follow (segue, consecutive) 

succurrō, succurrere, succurī - to help, to aid (succor) + dative

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tactile) 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - to lift, to raise; to raze, to destroy 

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live, to be alive; to be 

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry (convey, convention) 

 

aequor, aequoris (n) level surface; sea 

agmen, agminis (n) marching line, column 

comes, comitis (m) companion 

facies, faciei (f) face

flamen, flaminis (m) priest 

ignis, ignis (m) fire (i-stem) (igneous, ignition) 

invidia, -ae (f) hatred, ill-will 

lītus, lītoris (n) shore

luctus, -us (m) mourning, sorrow 

mōs, mōris (m) custom (mos maiorum, mores) 

mūs, mūris (m/f) a mouse (muscle) 

mūnus, mūneris (n) gift, duty, service, games (munificent) 

municipium, -ii (n) town 

poena, -ae (f) punishment (subpoena, punitive) 

rostrum, rostrī (n) beak of bird or ship 

rostra, -ōrum (n. pl.) speaker’s platform 

rūs, rūris (n) countryside (rural, rustic) 

    rūrī (locative)= in the countryside; rūs (acc.) - to the countryside; rūre (abl.) = from the countryside 

tēlum, tēlī (n) weapon, spear 

tumultus, -us (m) uproar, commotion (tumult) 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound (vulnerable) 

vultus, vultūs (m) face, countenance

vulgus, -vulgī (n) mob (vulgar) 

umerus, umerī (m) shoulder 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, someone, anyone, anything 

aliquis, aliquid = quis, quid after nē, sī, nisi, num

quisque, quaeque, quidque - each one, each thing

quīcumque, quaecumque, quodcumque - (indef. rel.), whoever, whatever, whosoever, whatsoever

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, wounded

crudelis, crudele (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) cruel, bloody

felix, felicis (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) happy, fortunate

ferox, ferocis (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) savage, wild 

imperītus, a, um - unskilled, ignorant 

inscius, a, um - unaware 

lēnis, lēne (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) smooth, relaxed, calm, gentle 

levis, leve - light; floating 

līber, lībera, līberum - free 

mollis, molle - soft, effeminate (mollify) 

pristinus, a, um - former, previous, old-fashioned (pristine) 

posterus, a, um - next, following (posterity) 

saucius, a, um - wounded 

similis, simile (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) like, similar + genitive or dative 

talis, tale (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) - such 

tristis, triste - sad, grim 

vetus, veteris (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.)  old (veteran) 

vivus, a, um - alive 

 

at or ast (adversative) but

autem (post positive) but, however 

crās (adv.) tomorrow (procrastinate) 

circā (prep. + acc.) around 

dein or deinde - then, next

dum (+ indicative) while 

dum (+ subjunctive) until 

(adv.) to that place, there

eōdem (adv.) to the same place

ferē (adv.) generally, for the most part, usually 

forte (adv.) by chance 

item (adv.) in the same way, likewise 

identidem (adv.) again and again 

itaque (adv) and so, therefore 

iterum (adv) again

iuxtā + acc, beside, next to

seu…seu or sive…sive - whether…or 

quia (subordinating conj.) because

paulisper (adv.) for a little while 

paulo - by a little

paulum - a little distance

paulatim (adv.) little by little 

rursus (adv.) again 

ultra (prep. + acc.) beyond 

vix (adv.) barely, hardly

List for Pro Caelio, 450-520 & Lucretius, De Rerum Natura

Verb game on:  volo, velle, volui or nolo, nolle, nolui or malo, malle, malui or fio, fieri, factus sum   See appendix in Wheelock and videos on Latin II Website

 

conficiō, conficere, confēcī, confectus - to complete, to finish off 

cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum - to try 

dēsum, dēesse, dēfuī -to be away, be absent; to fail, be wanting + dative case 

doleō, dolēre - to suffer

dēficiō, dēficere, dēfēcī, dēfectus - to desert, leave, forsake, fail, be wanting, be exhausted, fail; give way, sink (deficient, defective, defect)

efficiō, efficere, effēcī, effectus - to accomplish (effective, effect) + ut = substantive/noun clause

exorior, exorīrī, exortus sum - to rise out, to arise 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - to pour (refuse, refund, infuse, effusive, diffuse, fundation, fundamental) 

gignō, gignere, genuī, genitus - beget, bear, bring forth (pp., genitus, a, um, + abl. of source) - begotten of, born of (genital, congenital) 

gubernō (1) to pilot, to control (gubernatorial, government) 

incutiō, incutere, incussī, incussus - to strike, to dash 

iuvō, iuvāre, iūvī - to delight, to help

ludō, ludere - to play

labor, labī, lapsus sum - to slide, to glide, to slip (lapse, relapse, prolapse) 

mutō (1) to change (mutation, immutable) 

natō (1) to swim

niteō, nitēre, nituī - to shine (intransitive) 

pangō, pangere, pepigī, pactus - to arrange, to compose 

regō, regere, rexī, rectus - to guide, to rule, to direct 

reperiō, reperīre, repperī, repertus - to find out, seek out, discover

rideō, ridēre, rīsī - to laugh, to smile (ridiculous, risible) 

sapio, sapere, sapiī or sapīvī - to have sense, to know, to sense, to taste (sapient, homo sapiens)

sōpiō, sōpīre, sōpīvī or sōpiī, sōpītus - to put to sleep; pp. =  sōpītus, a, um - lulled to sleep, 

studeō, studēre, studuī - to be eager for, to support + dative 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea

amnis, amnis (m) river 

aura, aurae (f) breeze 

auris, auris (f) ear (aural) 

aurum, aurī (n) gold (AU)

disciplina, -ae (f) teaching, training (academic discipline) 

cervīx, cervīcis (f) neck 

convivium, conviviī (n) banquet, feast, dinner party 

cursus, cursūs (m) a course, a running (discourse, cursūs honōrum) 

causa, causae (f) cause, reason; case 

    causā + proceeding genitive = for the sake of 

casus, casūs (m) a falling, chance, misfortune (cado, cadere) 

    casū = by chance 

facultās, facultātis (f) opportunity, occasion 

ius, iuris (n) law, right (jurisdiction, jurisprudence) 

genetrix, genetrics (f) mother (Venus Genetrix worshipped in Caesar’s Forum)

genus, generis (n) class, race, kind (generic, genre, sui generis, genus) 

genū, genūs (n) knee (genuflect) 

gena, genae (f) the cheek

gremium, gremiī (n) lap 

pecus, pecudis (f) herd

pectus, pectoris (n) chest

ludus, ludī (m) game; play; school 

mōs, mōris (m) custom (mores, moral) 

mūnus, mūneris (n) duty, service; gift (munificent, remuneration) 

mūs, mūris, (m/f) a mouse (muscle) 

quies, quietis (f) rest, quiet 

salūs, salūtis (f) health, safety, salvation 

speciēs, speciēī (f) appearance (species) 

spiritus, spiritūs (m) breath (respiration, expire)

studium, studiī (n) eagerness; a pursuit, study

tellūs, tellūris (f) earth; mother earth 

versus, versūs (m) verse 

voluptas, voluptatis (f) pleasure; desire (voluptuary) 

 

 

quisque, quaeque, quidque (indefinite) each one, each thing, each 

 

 

almus, a, um - nurturing, kindly, nourishing 

blandus, a, um - charming (blandishments) 

infelix, infelicis - unfortunate, ill-fated

pristinus, a, um - former, characteristic (pristine) 

suavis, suave - sweet, agreeable, pleasant (suave) 

vernus, a, um - of spring, vernal  (vernal equinox) 

vicinus, a, um - neighboring (vicinity) 

 

 

simul ac = as soon as 

forte (adv.) by chance

ferē (adv.) generally 

aliquō (adv.) to some place 

quō?  (adv.) where, to where 

quia (conj) because

quid?, what?, why?

quārē - why? 

quot? How many (number) 

quantus, a, um - how great? what size? (magnitude) 

qualis, quale (adj.) what sort? 

quando?  when? (time) 

quis? quid? (interrogative pronoun) who? what? 

quidem (post positive/adv) certainly, in fact, indeed

aliō (adv.)  to another place 

(adv. ) to that place, there 

prope (adv.) nearly 

vicissim (adv.) in turn 

vix (adv.) scarcely, barely, hardly 

PreAP Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, 416-450

Be able to decline:   ista infelix rēgīna  or hic līber liber 

Verb Game on: loquor or pello or eō, īre

arbitror, arbitārī, arbitrātus sum - to judge, to consider (arbiter bibendi, arbitration) 

ardeō, ardēre, arsī, arsus - to burn, to be inflamed, to be passionate (ardent, arson, arsonist) 

devinciō, devincīre, devinxī, devinctum - to tie up, bind; lay under obligation 

calcitro (1) to strike with heals, to kick (recalcitrant) 

confīdo, confīdere, confisus sum (semi-deponent, like audeo, soleo, gaudeo) to trust in, be confident in + dative case or accusative subjunctive + infinitive (confidant, confident) 

credō, credere, credidī, creditus - to belive, to trust + dative case

dīluo, dīluere, dīluī, dīlūtum - to wash away; remove (dilution) 

doleō, dolēre - to suffer, to suffer pain 

expōnō, exponere, exposuī, expositus - to place out, expose, explain (exposed, exponent, exposition) 

fateor, fatērī, fassus sum - to confess, acknowledge (also: profiteor, confiteor

gradior, gradī, gressus sum - to walk, to go (grade, gradual, graduation

iactō (1) to toss about (frequentive form of iacio, iacere

loquor, loquī, locutus sum - to speak

metuō, metuere, metui - to fear 

miror, mirārī, mirātus sum - to wonder, be amazed (miracle) 

mōlior, mōlīrī, mōlītus sum - to labour at, to construct, build (mōlēs, mōlis f. - mass, burden) 

natō (1) to swim (Spanish;  nadar

nascor, nascī, natus sum - to be born + abl. of source/origin 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure, allow + acc. + inf. (patient, passive) 

pateō, patēre, patuī - to be open, to lie open (patent) 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive (repel, repulsive)

pervulgō (1) to publish, make common, prostitute one’s self

probō (1) test, try, prove, inspect, examine, approve, validate (head verb) (probe, probation, probate, approve)   

putō, putāre, putāvī, putātus - to think (dispute, computer) 

reperiō, reperere, reperī, repertus - to discover 

repellō, repellere, repulī, repulsus - drive back, repulse 

rumpō, rumpere, rupī, ruptus - to break, to burst (rupture) 

sequor, sequī, secutus sum - to follow (consecutive, sequence; non sequitur

sumō, sumere, sumpsī, sumptus - take, take up, assume  (assumption, presumption) 

trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditus - to hand over, to surrender (trade, tradition) 

trahō, trahere, trāxī, tractus - to drag, to pull (detractor) 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear + ut/ne + subjunctive 

oportet, oportēre - it is necessary, it is proper + ut/ne + subjunctive (noun clause) or acc. + inf.

necesse est + ut/ne + subjunctive (noun clause) or  acc. + inf.

 

aedēs, aedis (f) temple

aedēs, aedium (f. pl.) palace, dwelling place

amnis, amnis (m) river 

cor, cordis (n) heart (discord, concord) 

fāma, fāmae (f) rumor, reputation, report 

famēs, famis (f) hunger (famine; tango hambre)

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract, agreement (federal, federalism)

foris, foris (f) door (generally in plural - double doors) 

ianua, -ae (f) door (janitor, Janus) 

hortus, hortī (m) garden (horticulture) 

iuventus, -ūs (m) youth 

gravitas, gravitatis (f) weight, seriousness, dignity 

liber, librī (m) book (ex lībrīs) 

metus, metūs (m) fear (Metus Gallicus - fear of Gauls) 

mēns, mentis (f) mind, intention (mens rea, mens sana in corpore sana

mensis, mensis (m) month 

mensa, mensa (f) table (prīma mensa = first course) 

mōs, mōris (m) custom, habit (mos maiorum; mores) 

ratiō, rationis (f) a reckoning, accounting, reasoning; method (ratio, rational)   

senex, senis (m) old man (senile) 

signum, signī (n) sign, signal; battle standard

studium, studiī (n) pursuit, eagerness, training, study

vestis vestis (f) clothing, garment

vestigium, -iī (n) trace; footprint (vestigial, vestiges) 

vitium, vitiī (n) vice

vīta, -ae (f) life (vital) 

voluptās, voluptātis (f) pleasure (voluptuary) 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun)  - anyone, anything, someone, something

quisquam  quaequam, quidquam, or quicquam: (indef. pron. subst.) - anyone, any, anything (in negative sentences, freq.)

 

agrestis, agreste - rustic, of the countryside

alienus, a, um - of another, belonging to another, foreign (aes alienum = debt) 

clārus, a, um - bright; famous, illustrious 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh 

dubius, a, um - doubtful, dubious 

foedus, a, um - foul, vile, polluted

ferreus, a, um - made of iron (FE) 

effrēnatus, a, um - unbridled, unrestrained 

infelix, infelicis (adj. one termination) unhappy, ill-fated (felix, felicis - happy, lucky, fortunate) 

inanis, inane - empty, void (inane)

iniquus, -a, -um - unequal, unfair, unjust; hostile (in + aequus, a, um

līber, lībera, līberum - free

līberī, līberōrum (m. pl.) children

molestus, a, um - bothersome, annoying 

mollis, molle - soft (opposite durus, a, um)

parcus, a, um - frugal, stingy 

praeceps, praecipitis (adj.) plunging head long, impetuous, rash  

vērus, a, um - true 

quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque - whoever, whatever (indefinite adj.)

scelestus, a, um - wicked, evil 

severus, a, um - stern, severe 

talis, tale - such 

tristis, triste - sad, bitter

ultimus, a, um - far, distant; final (ultima, ultimatum, ultimate) 

 

autem (postpositive)  however, moreover

demum (adv.) at last, finally 

deinde (adv.) then; from that point 

forte (adv.) by change

igitur (postpositive) therefore

propter (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of (post hoc ergo propter hoc - "after this, therefore because of this")

praesertim (adv.) especially 

potissimum (superlative adv.) especially, chiefly 

potius quam = more than 

plurimum (superlative adv.) the most

ob (prep. + acc.)  on account of, because of

obviam īre = to meet + dative case

tam (adv) so

tamen (adv) nevertheless, however

tamquam (adv) just as, as if 

tandem (adv) at last, finally

tantum (adv.) only

tot (indecl) so many

trans + acc, across

tum (adv) then

tunc (adv.) then, at that time 

ubi (adv) where, in what place

ubi (conj) when

umquam (adv) ever

unde (adv) whence, from where 

usquam (adv) ever

usque (adv) as far as, continuously, all the way

ut/utī (sub.conj.) + indicative = as, just as, when; + subjunctive = that, in order that

ut? (interrogative adv.) how? 

valdē (adv.) strongly, very much

vel (conj) or; even 

vērō (postpositive) indeed, truly, in fact

vērum (adversative conj.) but

vērē (adv.) truly

vel . . . vel, either or

velut (adv) just as, even as

vix (adv) scarcely, hardly


PreAP Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, 385-415

Stop after correlative list at the inscription of Appius Claudius Caecus. See his road above.

Be able to decline istud grave foedus  and idem celer pes

Verb game on: progredior, progredī, progressus sum or cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctu

admoneo, admonere, admonui, admonitus - to warn, to advise (admonish, admonition) 

celebro (1) to frequent (a place) (celebrity, celebration)

complector, complecti, complexus sum - to embrace (complex) 

commodo (1) to furnish, to supply 

comito (1) to accompany, go along 

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus - to compel; to bring together

detraho, detrahere, detraxi, detractus - to drag down, pull down (detractor)

dirimo, dirimere, diremi, diremptus - to separate, to divide; to rip up; to destroy 

excito (1) call forth, arouse, stir up 

ferio, ferire - to strike

                  foedus ferire - to strike an agreement 

fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bear, to bring, to endure 

icio, icere, ici, ictus - to hit, strike (ictus) 

licet, licēre, licuit (impersonal verb + dative) it is permitted 

maculo, maculare, maculavi, maculatus - to stain (immaculate, macular)  

malo, malle, malui - to prefer (magis + volo) 

mereō, merēre, meruī, meritus - to earn, to gain; to deserve (merit, meretricious, demerit)

munio (4) to build; to construct; to fortify 

nubo, nubere, nupsi, nuptus - to cover, to veil; to marry (nubile) 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case

pariō, parere, peperī, partus - to give birth to, to produce (postpartum) 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus

postulo (1) to demand

probo (1) to prove, test, approve (probation) 

progredior, progredī, progressus sum - to go foward, to procede (progress, progression) 

pudet, pudere (impersonal) it causes an accusative (person) shame of a genitive (thing) or infinitive. Pudet me erroris mei = I am ashamed of my mistake.

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum - to seek; to inquire, to ask 

removeō, removēre, removī, remotus - to remove (remote) 

repeto, repetere, repetivi, repetitum - to seek back; recall

sumō, sumere, sumpsī, sumptus - to take up, to assume (assumption, consumption)

tueor, tuerī, tutus sum - to protect, to watch over (tutor)

utor, uti, usus sum - to use, to employ + ablative case

vendo, vendere - to sell

 

adventus, adventūs (m) arrival (advent) 

amor, amoris (m) love; love affair (amorous) 

avis, avis (m/f) bird (avis avi = grandfather’s bird; avus avis = the bird’s grandfather) 

avus, avī (m) grandfather, ancestor (avuncular) 

barba, barbae (f) beard

caput, capitis (n) head (decapitation, capital punishment) 

currus, -us (m) chariot, triumphal chariot

dolor, doloris (m) - pain, anguish, suffering 

foedus, foederis (n) agreement, treaty, contract (federal, federation) 

fons, fontis (m) spring, fountain (font) 

gloria, gloriae (f) reputation, renown 

imago, imaginis (f) image, likeness; wax death mask, portrait 

limen, liminis (n) threshold, doorway (liminal) 

mos, moris (m) costum (mores, mos maiorum - custom of ancestors

mulier, mulieris (f) woman (sp.  mujer

odium, odiī (n) hatred (odious) 

persona, -ae (f) mask; character; personality 

pes, pedis (m) foot; step (pedometer, pedestrian)

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring, descendent

temeritas, temeritatis (f) chance, accident, rashness

testis, testis (m) witness (testify, testimony, testicles)

vitium, vitiī (n) vices

vīta, vītae (f) life (curriculum vitae = CV)

venenum, venenī (n) poison 

 

alienus, a, um - belonging to another (alien, resident alien)

aliquot (indecl. indefinite adj.) some (number), several 

aeger, aergra, aegrum - sick, weak, wounded 

aemulus, a ,um - rivalling; as substantive = a rival (emulate)

amplus, a, um - large, spacious, ample 

barbatus, a, um - bearded, wearing a beard 

cognatus, a, um - related, kindred (cognate vs. derivative) 

clarus, a, um - clear, illustrious, bright; distinguished 

dignus, a, um - worthy of + ablative case

indignus, a, um - unworthy of + ablative case

īdem, eadem, idem - the same 

inferus, a, um - lower, below, infernal (infernal) 

inimīcus, a, um - hostile (inimical) + dative 

horridus, a, um - rough, bristling; terrifying 

muliebris, -e - of a mulier, mulieris (f) 

priscus, a, um - old, ancient (Tarquinius Priscus)

saucius, a, um - wounded

urbanus, a, um - of the city; refined, elegant, polite (urbane) 

 

aliquis, aliquid - anyone, someone, anything, something 

quisque, quidque - everyone, everything

quīdem, quaedam, quoddam (indef. adj.) a certain, some

 

opus est + ablative = there is a need of ___________. 

 

aliquanto - by somewhat, somewhat (abl. degree of difference) 

clam (adv.) secretly 

cotidie (adv.) daily, every day

cum…tum (correlative conj.) both…and; not only…but also 

ne...quidem = not even

quamdiu - as long as, however long

quidem (postpositive) indeed, infact 

magis quam - rather than 

mininē (superlative adv.) the least, not at all 

minus (adv.) less

minus (substantive nound) less  (minus amoris = less of love) 

minus quam = less than 

palam (adv.) openly, publicly 

potius quam = rather than 

potissimum (superlative adv.) especially 

prope (adv.) nearly

simul (adv.) at the same time together

usque (adv.) as far as one can go, all the way 

satis or sat (indecl. adj. or adv.) enough, sufficiently 

an (interrogative) whether 

untrum…an (interrogative) whether … or 

dēmum  - at length, at last precisely  

eiusmodi = of such a kind 

haud (adv.) no, in no way

itaque (adv.) and so 

omnino (adv.) entirely 

quidem (adv.) indeed

paulo (adv.) by a little

paulum (adv.) a litte distance 

paulātim (adv.) little by little 

utinam (introduces a volitive/optative subjunctive) - would that

 

correlative conjunctions: 

ita/sic . . . ut - just/in the same way . . . as

simul . . . ac/atque/ut  . . . as soon as

talis . . . qualis   - such (. . .) as

tam . . . quam -   as/so . . . as; (both . . . and)

tantus, -a, -um . . . quantus, -a, -um   - as much/great . . . as

tanto (+ comparative) . . . quanto (+ comp.)  - the _____er . . .the _____er

(ab. of degree of difference)

tot . . . quot   - as many . . . as

totiens . . . quotiens  - as often as . . . (so often)

alius/aliter . . . ac/atque   - different(ly)/otherwise . . . from/than

cum . . . tum  - both . . . and (especially); (not only . . . but also)


appius claudius Caecus Inscription .png

List for the exordium of the Pro Caelio

Be able to decline: opus acre and ops nulla as part of this quiz.  Expect a verb game on back of the quiz on dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus or patior, patī, passus sum

adsum, adesse, adfuī - to be present

cōnstituō, cōnstituere, constituī, constitūtus - to establish, put in place

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead

dubitō (1) to doubt, to be uncertain 

ignoscō, ignoscere, ignovī, ignotum - to pardon + dative case

improbō (1) to disapprove, condemn 

licet, licere, licuit - it is permitted + dative + infinitive 

miror, mirārī, mirātus sum - to wonder or marvel at

nitor,, nitī, nisus or nixus sum - to rely on + ABLATIVE CASE

probō (1) to approve, to prove (probate, probation)

oppugnō (1) to attack 

obsideō, obsidēre, obsēdī, obsessus - to besiege, to blockade (obsession) 

oportet, oportēre, oportui (impersonal verb) - it is proper, it is fitting + subjective acc. + infinitive

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to endure; to allow (passive, patient)

pateō, patēre, patuī - to be open, to lie open (intransitive verb)

paenitet, paenitēre, paenituit - it causes one regret + acc. + inf. or + acc. of person and genitive of thing regretted    e.g.   paenitet tē tuōrum facinorum - it cause you regret of your crimes = you regret your crimes.

studeō, studēre, studuī (+ dative)  to be eager for, support, to favour

tueor, tuērī, tutus sum - to protect, watch over, look at, to keep (tutor) 

utor, utī, usus sum + abl. case=  to use, to enjoy, to employ (abuse) 

vivo, vivere, vixi - to live, to be; to act (vivacious) 

versō (1) to turn over and over; to engage in 


aetās, aetātis (f) age, time of life; youth 

aestās, aestātis (f) summer (estival)

causa, -ae (f) reason, cause; case

crīmen, crīminis (n) charge (not a crime) 

cīvitās, cīvitātis (f) state, nation 

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; crime

gratia, -ae (f) charm, influence (ingratiate) 

iudicium, iudiciī (n) court, trial, judgment

lex, lēgis (f) law

ludus, ludī (m) game, games 

negotium, -iī (n) business, legal work 

odium, odiī (n) hatred, hate 

otium, otiī (n) leisure 

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence (opulent)

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour (magnum opus)

pietās, pietātis (f) devotion to father/family, gods and fatherland 

spes, speī (f) hope, expectation, ambition 

vīs, vis (f) force, violence; strength (in the plural) lex dē vī

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, anything

quisquam, quaequam, quicquam/quidquam (indef. pron.) - someone, anyone 

quisque, quidque - each one, each thing (cuique suum redde)

uter, utra, utrum? (interrogative pron.) which of two? 

 

ācer, ācris, ācre - sharp, fierce, bitter, harsh

acerbus, a, um - bitter, hostile 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same

inlustris, inlustre - bright, clear, eminent 

festus, a, um - of a holiday 

forensis, forense - of the forum, legal 

tantus, a, um - so great

 

cotidie - daily, on any day

forte (adv.) by chance 

nōn modo…sed etiam - not only …but also 

nec (coordinating conj.) nor,  and…not

neque (coordinating conj.) nor, and…not

ne…quidem  - not even 

nimis (adv.) too much, excessive 

quīn (conj.) that- generally following negative verbs or words of doubt

tam..quam (correlative) - as…as

tauntus…quantus (correlative) - as great…as

tot…quot (correlative) as many…as

vel… vel (conjunction) either..or

List for Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus

abrogo (1) - repeal, take away, remove (abrogate) 

accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptus - to receive, to take  

armo (1) to arm (armatus, a, um = armed) 

caveo, cavere, cavi, cautus, a, um - to guard against; beware of (Cave canem, Caveat Emptor, caution)

cieo, ciere, civi, citus, a, um - to move, stir, agitate 

constituo, constituere, constitui, constitutus, a, um - set up 

excido, excidere - to destroy 

fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bring, to bear (forms many compound verbs)

icio, icere, ici, ictus - to hit, strike (ictus) 

iudico (1) - to judge, to decide, to declare

incito (1) - to urge, put in montion, incite

ingredior, ingredī, ingressus sum - to enter

interimo, interimere, interemi - to destroy, to kill, to take away

iugulo (1) to cut the throat, to kill, to strangle (jugular) 

occīdo, occīdere, occīdi, occīsus - to kill (ob + caedere)

occupo (1) to seize 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek (petition), petere ab + abl = to ask 

rependo, rependere, rependi, repensus - to weigh again; ransom, repay 

succurro, succurrere, succurri succursus, a, um + dative - to aid 

sustento (1) to hold off, hinder 

veto, vetare, vetui - to forbid 

vindico (1) to avenge

 

animus, -i (m) mind, spirit (animus) 

causa, -ae (f) case; cause; reason

collega, -ae (m) colleague 

cupiditas, cupiditatis (f) desire

crudelitas, crudelitatis (f) cruelty 

cervix, cervicis (f) neck, nape of the neck  

dominus, -i (m) master 

eloquentia, -ae (f) eloquence

eques, equitis (m) equites, knights (Rome’s non-patrician aristocracy)

error, erroris (m) wandering, mistake; wandering from the correct path 

exemplum, -i (n) example, a sample, model (e.g. = exemplī gratiā)

frumentum, -i (n) grain, grain supply

furor, furoris (m) rage, madness (an important Roman political word)

iudicium, -ii (n) court, judgment 

mora, more (f) delay

mors, mortis (f) death 

mos, moris (m) manner, custom (mores

          mos maiorum - custom of ancestors

quies, quietis (f) rest, peace, quiet 

plebs, plebis (f) Roman Plebs, common people 

potentia, -ae (f) power

princeps, principis (m) leader, chief (princeps senātus)

status, -ūs (m) state, position, condition 

virtus, virtutis (f) courage; virtue 

 

acer, acris, arce - bitter, fierce; controversial

allius, alia, aliud - other

amplus, a, um -large, ample, full 

consularis, -e   of consular rank

deinde (adv.) next, then

fraternus, a, um - of a brother, brother’s 

mirus, a, um - miraculous, incredible 

praestantior, praestantius (comp. adj.) outstanding 

pravus, a, um - deformed, perverse, depraved 

privatus, a, um - private (opposite of “publicus”)

summus, a, um - highest 

 

quisquam, quidquam (indefinite pron.) - any

quisque, quidque (indefinite pron.) each one, each thing

gratiā or causā + preceding genitive case = for the sake of

 

quīn (conj.)- that; but indeed, rather;

aeque (adv.) equally, justly 

aliquando (adv.) at any time, once

aliquot (adj. indecl.) some number of, a few

adversus (prep + acc.) against

nefariē (adv.) impiously, abominably, unspeakable 

denique (adv.) at last, finally 

paene (adv.) almost, nearly 

plus (comp. adv. or substantive) more

minus (comp. adv. or substantive) less

Imperium Roman in the 3rd Century BC - List for quiz. 

adsumo, adsumere, adsumpsi, adsumptus - taken up, adopt, to claim 

affero, afferre, attuli, allātus - to bring to, to report 

apello (1) to name, to call (copulative in passive)  See Favale, the expert on copulative verbs.

coepi, coepisse, coeptus (defect verb - no present system) to begin + complementary infinitive 

credo, credere, credidi, creditus - to believe, to trust + dative or acc. + inf. 

creo, creare, creavi, creatus - to elect, to appoint, to create (copulative in passive)

decedo, decedere, decessi, decessus - to depart, to leave; to perish 

deleo, delere, delevi, deletus - to destroy

frango, frangere, fregi, fractus - to break, to destory, to subdue 

fundo, fundere, fūdi, fūsus - to pour; to slay; to slaughter 

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to wage; to manage  

gigno, gignere, genui, genitus - give birth to, to produce;  be born  

incipio, incipere - to begin  

infero, inferre, intuli, inlatus - to bring in or against; to inflict upon (inferre bellum + dative = to wage war on ) 

invideo, invidere, invidi, invisus - to hate, to be jealous of 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek 

pingo, pingere, pinxi, pictus - to paint (depict) 

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi, praecessus - to go before, precede

praedico, praedicere, praedixi, praedictus - to say beforehand

praefero, praeferre, praetuli, praelatus - to carry in front; to display; to perfer

sentio, sentire, sensi, sensus - to think, perceive, to feel 

statuo (1) to decide 

simulo (1) to fain, to pretend 

sto, stare, steti, statūrus - to stand, to remain 

supero (1) to conquer, to surpass 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - to remove, lift, take away; destroy 

vinco, vincere, vici, victus - to conquer 

volo, velle, volui - to wish 

 

acies, aciei (f) line, edge; battle line; battle

aemula, -ae (f) rival 

arma, -orum (n. pl.) arms, weapons

avus, -i (m) grandfather 

auctor, auctoris (m) author, instigator 

civitas, civitatis (f) state, city, citizen body

clementia, -ae (f) mercy, clemency 

consul, consulis (m) consul 

contumelia, -ae (f) insults, indignity, abuse 

currus, -us (m) chariot 

custodia, -ae (f) custody 

finis, finis (m or f) end, limit (infinitive) 

insignis, insignis (f) trappings, markings 

invidia, -ae (f) hatred, envy, jealousy  

ingenium, -ii (n) innate ability, genius, intellect 

mendacium, -ii (n) falsehood, pretense (mendacity) 

monimentum, -i (n) reminder, monument 

noxia, -ae (f) crime 

origo, originis (f) origin, source 

pars, partis (f) part, side, direction 

poena, -ae (f) punish (dare poenas = to pay the penalty or to be punished) (subpoena)

regnum, -i (n) kingship, 

saeculum, -i (n) age; period of time 

signum, signī (n) sign, signal, battle standard; statue; image 

stirps, stirpis (f) lineage, stock 

studium, -ii (n) zeal, pursuit; learning 

senatus, -us (m) senate 

tabula, -ae (f) document; placard

temeritās, temeritātis (f) rashness

triumphus, -i (m) triumphal procession, victory parade 

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour 

vis, vis (f) force, power, vigor; in plural = strength 

(vis, vis, vi, vim vi, vires, virium viribus, vires, viribus)

 

brevis, -breve  - short, brief 

gravis, grave - serious, heavy 

immanis, -e  - huge, vast, immense 

invisus, a, um - hateful to + dative case 

līber, lībera, līberum - free 

maior, maius (greater, larger, older)

paternus, a, um - paternal, fatherly 

praeclarus, a, um - illustrious 

prior, prius - earlier, former, previous 

securus, a, um - secure, safe, free from care

tūtus, a, um - safer

universus, a, um - all, entire, the whole 

ultimus, a, um - last, furtherest, most remote; worst 

 

quisquid, quidquid (indefinite pronoun) whoever, whatever 

 

ac (coordinating conj.= atque) and (like et)

abhinc - from this time, from his place 

aut…aut - either… or 

deinde (adv.) then, next 

quia (subordinating conj.) because

quippe (adv.) of course, obviously 

magis (comparative adv.) more, rather

maxime (adv.) especially, the most, chiefly  

neque - nor; and not, neither 

usquam (adv.) - in any place, anywhere 

Carthage destruction 3rd punic war .jpg



for Eclogue One and other things

(re) cubo, cubāre, cubuī, cubitus,- to recline, to relax, go to bed, recline at dinner 

mīrōr, mīrārī, mīrātus sum - to wonder at, marvel 

cano, canere, cecinī, cantum - to sing 

cernō, cernere, crēvī, crētus - to separate; distinguish by senses; perceive; discern 

fateor, fatērī, fassus sum - to admit, to confess 

invideō, invidēre - to envy

labor, labī, lapsus sum - to slip, to slide 

memini, meminisse (defective verb- look up its paradigm) - to remember 

nascor, nascī, natus sum - to be born (neonatal) 

nancīscor, nancīscī, nactus sum - to obtain 

oblīvīscor, oblīvīscī, oblitus sum - to forget + genitive case (oblivious) 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to strike, drive 

pendeō, pendēre, pependī, pensus - to hang (pendent) 

prōdō, prōdere, prōdidī, prōditus - to hand over, betray 

potior, potīrī, potitus sum - to get possession of + genitive or ablative case

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; to allow

resonō, resonāre - to echo (resonate)  

respicio, respicere, respexi, respectus - to look back at 

relinquō, relinquere, reliquī, relictus, a, um -to leave behind (relinquish)

rideo, ridere, risi, risus - to laugh

soleō, solēre, solitus sum -to be accustomed + infinitive (como di solito

suadeo, suadere - to urge 

 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

agnus, agnī (m) lamb (agnus dei) 

arvum, arvī (n) plowed fields 

lac, lactis (n) milk (Madonna Lactans

fons, fontis (m) spring, fountain 

frigus, frigoris (n) cold 

grex, gregis (m) a flock (egregious, gregarious)  

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) youth 

otium, otiī (n) leisure, free time, holiday 

rupes, rupis (f) cliff, outcrop; bank 

spēs, speī (m) hope

umbra, -ae (f) shade, shadow; ghost, shade in underworld 

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak, ill, suffering  

agrestis, agreste - rustic

iners, inertis (ad.) inactive, lazy, immobile; without skill 

mollis, molle - soft (mollify) 

lentus, a, um - slow, calm 

maestus, a, um - sad 

serus, a, um - late (buona sera

stultus, a, um - foolish, stupid 

tenuis, tenue - slender, thin; refined (tenuous) VERY IMPORTANT WORD

 

modo (adv.) recently, just now

quot? (interrogative adj.) how many? 

postquam (subordinating conjunction) after

posteā (adv.) afterward

post (prep. + acc.) after 

tantus, a, um…quantus, a, um (correlatives rabbits) as great as; as much as 

undique (adv) from or on all sides

usque (adv.) continuously, without interruption

Vocabulary List for Cicero, Philippics

 

accedo, accedere, accessi, accessus - to approach (ad + cedo, cedere)

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn 

cohibeō, cohibēre, cohibuī, -itus - to hold together, restrain, confine, check, curb, repress,

cogito (1) to think, to reason, to plan 

conloco (1) to bring together, to set in order; invest 

constat (constabat, constabit, etc.) -  it is settled, established, undisputed, certain, well known, etc.),

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - ought + infintive 

ecfundo, ecfundere, ecfudi, ecfusus - to pour out, to lavish

fio, fieri, factus sum - to happen, to become 

imbuo, imbuere, imbui, imbutus - to make wet

intelligo, intelligere, intellexi, intellectus - to understand

inter-eō, -īre -iī, -itūrus, (perf.interīsse, C.), to go among, be lost

imbuō, imbuere, imbuī, imbūtus - to wet, moisten; stain,

iugulo (1) to strangle 

iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussus - to order

minor (1) to threaten 

opto (1) to wish, to pray 

parco, parcere, peperci (+ dative) to spare 

praetereo, praeterire - to go by, to pass by

propulso (1) beat back

postulo, postulare, postulavi, postulatus - demand, claim; require; ask/pray for

respergo, respergere, respersi, respersum - to sprinkling

trucido (1) to slaughter

utor, uti, usus sum - to use, to employ (+ abl. case) 

 

animus, -i (m) mind, spirit, heart 

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) authority, personal power, influence 

consilium, -ii (n) plan, strategy, advice 

copia, -ae (f) troops, forces, resources 

crudelitas, crudelitatis (f) cruelty 

exercitus, -ūs (m) army 

furor, furoris (m) madness, passion

gratia, -ae (f) thanks, influence, charm 

genus, generis (n) kind, class

hospes, hospitis (m) - one who either gives or receives the entertainment of a guest; a guest

impetus, -ūs (m) attack 

mens, mentis (f) mind, intension 

patrimonium, -ii (n) inheritance 

pestis, pestis (f) plague, disease 

pes, pedis (m) foot 

reditus, -ūs (m) return (re-eo) 

salus, salutis (f) health, safety, salvation 

scelus, sceleris (n) wickness, bad deed

tectum, -i (n) roof, building

 

crudelis, crudele - cruel, savage, blood thirsty 

firmus, a, um - strong, solid 

ignarus, a, um (+ gen.) unaware, ignorant of 

iratus, a, um - angry

nefarius, -a, um - wicked, evil 

pestifer, pestifera, pestiferum - pestilential; destructive

privatus, a, m - private 

publicus, a, um - official, public

 

dum (subordinating conj.) + indicative = while  

dum (subordinating conj.) + subjunctive = until  

deinde - afterwards, then, next 

hūc - to this place

hinc - from this place

hīc - in this place, here

interim - in the meantime 

interea (adv.) meanwhile

iterum (adv.) again 

inde - from that place, thence

unde - from where, whence 

aliter (adv.) otherwise

fundĭtus (adv.)  from the very bottom, from the foundation

maximē (adv.) especially 

magis (comp. adv.) more

omnīno (adv.) -  wholly, entirely, altogether,

paene (adv.) almost 

potius (comp. adv.) more, rather

quamquam (adv.) although 

quia (subordinating conj.) because 

tandem (adv. ) at last, finally

 

quo…usque   = How long?  To what extent?

 

Vocabulary List for Suetonius’ Account of Caesar’s Death from De Vita Caesarum

adripio, adripere, adripui, arreptus - to seize, grasp

adsideo, adsidere - to sit near

animadverto, animadvertere, animadverti, animadversus - to notice

accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum (+ dative case) - to approach 

cado, cadere, cecidī, casurus - to fall

clamo (1) to shout

conor, conārī, conātus sum - to try

conspiro (1) to conspire

dependeo, dependēre - to hang down 

differo, differre, distuli, dīlatum - to scatter about , to put off

irruo, irruere - to rush in (in + ruo, ruere)

obvolvo, obvolvere - to wrap up, to cover

occīdo, occīdere, occīdi, occīsus - to kill

publico (1) to make public, confiscate 

prosilio, prosilīre -- to leap forth

rogo, rogāre (1) to ask 

reperio, reperīre, repperī, repertus - to ascertain, to discover

stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictus - to draw

suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, susceptus - to undertake, to begin 

tardo (1) to slow

trado, tradere, tradidi, traditus - hand down

traicio, traicere - to pierce 

velo (1) to cover

vulnero (1) to wound

Deponent Verbs that Govern the Ablative Case as Direct Objective

ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum  + ablative - to use, to employ, to enjoy (use)

abutor, abuti, abusus sum - to abuse + ablative

fruor, fruī, fructus sum - to enjoy + ablative                  

fungor, fungī, functus sum - to perform  + ablative                   (function) 

potior, potīrī, potītus sum - to gain possession of + ablative or genitive case 

nītor, nītī, nīsus sum -  to lean or rest upon, to strive, to rely on + ablative

vescor, vescī - to feed on + ablative

 

animus, -i (m) mind, intention

bracchium, -ii (n) arm

crus, cruris (n) shin, leg

eques, equitis (m) cavalry, horseman 

graphium, -i (n) stilus, sharply pointed instrument for writing

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan 

gestus, -ūs (m) gesture, posture

ictus, ictūs (m) a blow, striking 

iugulum, -i (n) throat 

medicus, -i (m) doctor

metus, -ūs (m) fear

officium, -iī (n) duty, business 

plaga, -ae (f) blow, wound

pugio, pugionis (m) dagger

pars, partis (f) part side, direction, role,  party 

servolus,-i (m) diminutive of servus, -i (m) 

sinus, ūs (m) fold (in a toga); lap; bosom; bay 

speciēs, specieī (f) appearance, pretext

umerus, -i (m) shoulder

vis, vis (f) violence, force

 

adversus, a, um - turned toward, facing 

aversus, a, um - turned away (here: from the back) 

cunctus, a, um - all

exanimis, -e  -  lifeless

honestus, a, um - respectable, honorable

imus, a, um - lowest

inferior, inferius - lower

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm) - each (of two) 

uter?, utra?, utrum? (-ius paradigm) - which one (of two)?

 

aliquamdiu = for some time

donec = until 

etsi (conj.) even if, although 

ilico (adv.) immediately, on the spot

infra + acc. = below

propius (comp. adv) nearer, closer

quasi = as if

undique (adv.) on all sides, from all sides

Theater of pompey Theatre_of_Pompey_3D_cut_out.png

Vocabulary List for Ecce Romani Chapter 59-61

Be able to decline: haec acies inermis or ille impetus infestus or hoc grave cornū

 

abūtor, abūtī, abūsus sum - to abuse, misuse + ablative case  (ab + utor) 

accidit - it happens + ut + subjunctive (noun clause)

adorior, adorīrī, adortus sum - to rise up against, to attack (ad + orior) 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus (intransitive) - to fall  

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, slaughter, to kill 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to give away; yield 

cohortor, cohortārī, cohortātus sum - to exhort, to encourage

cōnfīdō, cōnfīdere, cōnfīsus - to trust in, rely on + dative case  or indirect statement 

dēsiliō, dēsilīre, dēsiluī - to jump down, to leap down 

dēsum, dēesse, dēfuī - to be lacking + dative case 

diffīdō, diffīdere, diffīsus - to have no confidence in + dative case

excēdō, excēdere, excessī, excessus - to depart, withdraw

impero, imperāre, imperavi, imperatus - to command + dative case 

intercludo, intercludere, interclusi, interclusus - to cut off

instō, instāre, institī - press on, attack  

mereor, mereri, meritus um - to earn, to deserve

moror, morārī, moratus sum - to delay

morior, morī, mortuus sum  - to die (mortuary)

nitor, nitī, nisus sum + abl. - to strive, rely on        

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise, to arise (oriental) 

oportet, oportēre, oportuit - it is necessary + acc. + inf. or ut + subjunctive (noun clause) 

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum - to set out, to depart

prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī - to help, to profit + dative case  

sequor, sequī, secūtus sum - to follow (sequencial) 

succurrō, succurrere, succurrī, succursūrus - to help, assit + dative case (succor) 

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to 

supersum, superesse, superfuī - to be left, be remaining

superō (1) to defeat, surpass, conquer 

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be afraid + ut/ne (fearing clause) 

 

aciēs, aciēī (f) battle line, battle; edge; sight  (triplex acies

anima, anima (f) soul, darling 

caedēs, caedis (f) murder, slaughter 

calceus, -ī (m) shoe 

cornū, cornūs (n) horn; wing of an army 

dignitas, dignitatis (f) prestige, reputation 

facinus, facinoris (n) crime 

furor, furōris (m) rage, madness 

impetus, impetūs (m) attack 

impedīmenta, impedīmentōrum (neut. pl.) baggage 

insidiae, insidiārum (fem. pl.) ambush 

initium, initiī (n) beginning 

latus, lateris (n) side, flank 

officium officiī (n) duty; service  

ops, opis (f) aid, help; resources

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour  

ōrdō, ōrdinis (m) class; order, rank 

pars, partis (f) side, direction; part; faction 

pīlum, pīlī (n) spear, javelin 

praesidium, -iī (n) guard; protection 

spatium, -iī  - space, interval of time

tēlum, tēlī (n) weapon; spear 

 

apertus, a, um - open 

impedītus, a, um - loaded down, burdened 

inermis, -is, -e unarmed

incolumis, incolume (adj.), uninjured; unharmed, safe

infestus, a, um - hostile 

perītus, a, um - skilled at + genitive case 

praesēns, praesentis (adj.) present, at hand 

sollemnis, -is, -e  - customary, traditional 

 

equidem (adv.) certainly 

istīc (adv.) over there 

magnopere (adv.) greatly, seriously 

paulātim (adv.) little by little 

prīdiē (adv.) on the day before

prōtinus (adv) immediately

quoad (adv.) until, as long as, as far as 

 

Subordinating Conjunctions

(indicative mood vs. subjunctive mood) 

quod (+ indicative) - because 

quia (+ indicative) - because

quoad + subjunctive - as long as

cum - when (temporal clause + indicative mood) 

cum - when (circumstantial clause + subjunctive mood) 

cum - since/because (causal clause + subjunctive mood)

cum - although (concessive clause + subjunctive mood)

- if

nisi - unless, if…not; except

dum (+ indicative) while 

dum (+ subjunctive) until

ut + indicative mood = as, when 

   ut ante - as before 

   ut fit - as it happens, as usually

   ut factum est - as it happened 

   ut bene scis - as you know well 

   ut fama est - as the story is 

   ut traditur - as it is handed down

   ut traditum est - as it has been handed down 

   ut soleō - as I am accustomed 

   ut solēbat - as he was accustomed

ut + subjunctive = in order that (purpose clause) 

ut + subjunctive = that (substantive/noun clause or result clause)

Ecce Romani III, Chapter 58 & 59 - Murder of Clodius on the Via Appia

arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum - to judge, to think 

augeo, augere, auxi, auctus - to increase (augmentation, augment) 

alloquor, alloqui, allocutus sum - to address (allocution) 

complector, complectī, complexus sum - to embrace 

confluo, confluere, confluxi - to flow together (confluence) 

impero (1) to command + dative of person 

intelligo, intelligere, intellexi, intellectus - to realize, to learn 

iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus - to join (conjunction, conjugal) 

lateo, latere, latui (intransitive verb) - to hide (latent) 

licet, licere, licuit - it is permitted + dative + infinitive 

mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum - to wonder, to be amazed (miracle) 

nuntiō (1) to announce 

occīdo, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to kill (ob + caedo) 

occido, occidere, occidī, occāsus - to fall, to set (occident, occasion) (ob + cado)

occurro, occurrere, occurri, occursus - to meet + dative case (ob + curro) 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to arise (orient, oriental) 

    adorior, adorīrī, adortus sum - to attack, to rise against 

ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentus - to show (ostensible, ostentation) 

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out, to depart 

regredior, regredi, regressus sum - to go back, to step back (regression) 

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus - to burst, to break (rupture) 

sequor, sequi, secutus sum - to follow (segue, consecutive) 

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tactile) 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - to lift, to raise; to raze, to destroy 

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live, to be alive; to be 

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry (convey, convention) 

 

aequor, aequoris (n) level surface; sea 

agmen, agminis (n) marching line, column 

comes, comitis (m) companion 

flamen, flaminis (m) priest 

ignis, ignis (m) fire (i-stem) (igneous, ignition) 

invidia, -ae (f) hatred, ill-will 

lītus, lītoris (n) shore

luctus, -us (m) mourning, sorrow 

mōs, mōris (m) custom (mos maiorum, mores) 

mūs, mūris (m/f) a mouse (muscle) 

mūnus, mūneris (n) gift, duty, service, games (munificent) 

municipium, -ii (n) town 

poena, -ae (f) punishment (subpoena, punitive) 

rostrum, rostrī (n) beak of bird or ship 

rostra, -ōrum (n. pl.) speaker’s platform 

rūs, rūris (n) countryside (rural, rustic) 

    rūrī (locative)= in the countryside; rūs (acc.) - to the countryside; rūre (abl.) = from the countryside 

tēlum, tēlī (n) weapon, spear 

tumultus, -us (m) uproar, commotion (tumult) 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound (vulnerable) 

vulgus, -vulgī (n) mob (vulgar) 

umerus, umerī (m) shoulder 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, someone, anyone, anything 

aliquis, aliquid = quis, quid after nē, sī, nisi

quisque, quaeque, quidque - each one, each thing

quīcumque, quaecumque, quodcumque - (indef. rel.), whoever, whatever, whosoever, whatsoever

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, wounded

crudelis, crudele (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) cruel, bloody

felix, felicis (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) happy, fortunate

ferox, ferocis (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) savage, wild 

imperītus, a, um - unskilled, ignorant 

inscius, a, um - unaware 

lēnis, lēne (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) smooth, relaxed, calm, gentle 

levis, leve - light; floating 

līber, lībera, līberum - free 

mollis, molle - soft, effeminate (mollify) 

pristinus, a, um - former, previous, old-fashioned (pristine) 

posterus, a, um - next, following (posterity) 

saucius, a, um - wounded 

similis, simile (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) like, similar + genitive or dative

 

talis, tale (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) - such 

tristis, triste - sad, grim 

vetus, veteris (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.)  old (veteran) 

vivus, a, um - alive 

 

at or ast (adversative) but

autem (post positive) but, however 

crās (adv.) tomorrow (procrastinate) 

circā (prep. + acc.) around 

dein or deinde - then, next

dum (+ indicative) while 

dum (+ subjunctive) until 

(adv.) to that place, there

eōdem (adv.) to the same place

ferē (adv.) generally, for the most part, usually 

forte (adv.) by chance 

item (adv.) in the same way, likewise 

identidem (adv.) again and again 

itaque (adv) and so, therefore 

iterum (adv) again

iuxtā + acc, beside, next to

seu…seu or sive…sive - whether…or 

quia (subordinating conj.) because

paulisper (adv.) for a little while 

paulo - by a little

paulum - a little distance

paulatim (adv.) little by little 

rursus (adv.) again 

ultra (prep. + acc.) beyond 

vix (adv.) barely, hardly

Roman raeda travel .png

Verba Parva Maioribus Rānīs

Verb game on:  volo, velle, volui or nolo, nolle, nolui or malo, malle, malui or fio, fieri, factus sum   See appendix in Wheelock and videos on Latin II Website

ac = atque, and 

ad (prep.+ acc.) to, toward

adeō (adv) to this point, thus far, to such an extent 

adhūc (adv) up to this time; here 

alius, -ia, -iud, other, another

aliquantō - by some amount 

aliquot - some (number) 

aliquando (adv.) at some time, once, formerly

admodum (adv.) completely

alter, -era, -erum, the other (of two) an (conj) whether, or; perhaps

aliter (adv.) otherwise 

ante + acc, before, in front of

antea (adv) beforehand

antequam (adv) before, sooner than apud + acc, among

at (conj) but, yet

atque (ac) (conj) and, and also

aut (conj) or

aut . . . aut, either or

autem (conj) but, however

bene (adv) well

bis (adv) twice

certē (adv) surely

circum + acc, around, about

contra + acc, against

cras (adv) tomorrow

cum + abl, with

cum (conj) when; since, although  

cūr (adv) why?

de + abl, from, down from, away from; about, concerning 

deinde (adv) then

dēnique (adv) finally, at last 

diū (adv) for a long time 

dōnec (conj) until

dum (conj) while

ē (ex) + abl, out of, from,

ecce (interjection/adv) behold

enim (conj) for, to be sure, indeed 

, to that place, there

eōdem - to the same place

equidem (adv) indeed

ergō (adv) therefore, then

et (conj) and, also, even et…et, both and

etiam (adv) still, even

etiamnunc (adv) yet, still, even now 

ferē (adv.) almost, nearly

forte (adv) by chance

fortiter (adv) bravely 

heu (interj) alas!

hic, haec, hoc, this; these; the latter

hīc (adv) here, in this place

hinc (adv) from this place

hodiē (adv) today

hūc (adv) to this place, here

iam (adv) now, already

ibi (adv) there

ierī (adv) yesterday

igitur (adv) therefore

ille, illa, illud, that; these; the former 

illinc (adv) from that place

illūc (adv) to that place

in + acc, into, toward, against

in + abl, in, on

inde (adv) from there, thence

inter + acc, between, among

intereā (adv) meanwhile

interim (adv) meanwhle

iterum (adv.) again, a 2nd time 

intrā (adv) inside

intrā + acc, within

is, ea, id (pron) he, she, it

ita (adv) so, thus

itaque (adv) and so, therefore 

iterum (adv) again

iuxtā + acc, beside, next to

iuxtā (adv) close by

modo (adv.) just now, recently

mox (adv) soon

nam (conj) for

nec (neque) (conj) and not

nec . . . nec, neither nor

nempe (conf) truly, certainly

nēquīquam (adv.) in vain 

neu (nēve) (conj) or not, and not 

nisi (conj) unless, if not, expect

nōndum (adv) not yet

nōn iam (adv) no longer 

numquam (adv) never

nūper (adv) recently

ob + acc.  on account of

ōlim (adv) once upon a time, formerly, at one time

pariter (adv) in like manner

paulisper (adv) for a short time 

per + acc, through

plērumque (adv.) generally

post + acc, after, behind

posteā (adv) afterwards 

postquam (conj) after,

praesertim (adv.) especially 

praeter (prep. + acc.) expect

praetereā (adv.) besides

prior, prius (adj) before, earlier

prius (adv) before, earlier priusquam (sub. conj.) before

prō + abl, in front of, in place of, for, in return for 

prope + acc, near

propter + acc, because of, on account of

prōtinus (adv.) immediately 

quam (adv or conj) how, as, than 

quamquam (conj) although 

quasi (adv) as if, just as

-que (enclitic) and

quī, quae, quod (rel pron) who, which, etc.

quī, quae, quod (relative adjective) which, this, these

quī? quae? quod? (interrogative  adjective) which? what? 

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adjective) - some, a certain 

quisque, quaeque, quodque (indefinite pronoun) - everyone, everything

quia (conj) because

quid?, what?, why?

quārē - why? 

quot? How many (number) 

quantus, a, um - how great? what size? (magnitude) 

qualis, quale (adj.) what sort? 

quando?  when? (time) 

quis? quid? (interrogative pronoun) who? what? 

quidem (post positive/adv) certainly, in fact, indeed

ne…quidem = not even -  e.g. Ne Reona quidem id bene fecit = “not even Reona did it well”.

quō (adv) where? to what place?

quoad (sub. conj.) until

quod (conj) because

quōmodo (adv) how, in what manner

quondam (adv) formerly, once 

quoniam (conj) since, because 

quoque (adv) also

quot?  How many?

quotannis - every year, yearly

saepe (adv) often

satis (adv) enough

(refl pron) himself, herself, themselves (acc and abl)

semper (adv) always

seu (sīve) (conj) or

seu . . . seu, whether . . . or

, if

sīc (adv) thus, so, in this manner 

simul (adv) at the same time

simul ac (adv) as soon as

sine + abl, without

statim (adv) immediately

sub + acc or abl, under, beneath 

subitō (adv) suddenly

super + acc. or abl.  over, above

tam (adv) so

tamen (adv) nevertheless, however

tamquam (adv) just as, as if 

tandem (adv) at last, finally

tantum (adv.) only

tot (indecl) so many

trans + acc, across

tum (adv) then

tunc (adv.) then, at that time 

ubi (adv) where, in what place

ubi (conj) when

umquam (adv) ever

unde (adv) whence, from where 

usquam (adv) ever

usque (adv) as far as

ut/utī (sub.conj.) + indicative = as, just as, when; + subjunctive = that, in order that

ut? (interrogative adv.) how? 

valdē (adv.) strongly, very much

vel (conj) or

vel . . . vel, either or

velut (adv) just as, even as

vix (adv) scarcely, hardly

List for Pro Caelio, 450-520 & Lucretius, De Rerum Natura

Verb game on:  volo, velle, volui or nolo, nolle, nolui or malo, malle, malui or fio, fieri, factus sum   See appendix in Wheelock and videos on Latin II Website

 

conficiō, conficere, confēcī, confectus - to complete 

cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum - to try 

dēsum, dēesse, dēfuī - to fail + dative case 

doleō, dolēre - to suffer

efficiō, efficere, effēcī, effectus - to accomplish (effective, effect) + ut = substantive/noun clause

exorior, exorīrī, exortus sum - to rise out, to arise 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - to pour (refuse, refund, infuse, effusive, diffuse, fundation, fundamental) 

gignō, gignere, genuī, genitus - beget, bear, bring forth; pp., genitus, a, um, + abl. of source, begotten of, born of (genital, congenital) 

gubernō (1) to pilot, to control (gubernatorial, government) 

incutiō, incutere, incussī, incussus - to strike, to dash 

iuvō, iuvāre, iūvī - to delight, to help

ludō, ludere - to play

labor, labī, lapsus sum - to slide, to glide, to slip (lapse, relapse, prolapse) 

mutō (1) to change (mutation, immutable) 

natō (1) to swim

niteō, nitēre, nituī - to shine (intransitive) 

pangō, pangere, pepigī, pactus - to arrange, to compose 

regō, regere, rexī, rectus - to guide, to rule, to direct 

reperiō, reperīre, repperī, repertus - to find out, seek out, discover

rideō, ridēre, rīsī - to laugh, to smile (ridiculous, risible) 

sapio, sapere, sapiī or sapīvī - to have sense, to know, to sense, to taste (sapient, homo sapiens)

sōpiō, sōpīre, sōpīvī or sōpiī, sōpītus - to put to sleep; pp. =  sōpītus, a, um - lulled to sleep, 

studeō, studēre, studuī - to be eager for, to support + dative

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea

amnis, amnis (m) river 

aura, aurae (f) breeze 

auris, auris (f) ear (aural) 

aurum, aurī (n) gold (AU)

disciplina, -ae (f) teaching, training (academic discipline) 

cervīx, cervīcis (f) neck 

convivium, conviviī (n) banquet, feast, dinner party 

cursus, cursūs (m) a course, a running (discourse, cursūs honōrum) 

causa, causae (f) cause, reason; case 

    causā + proceeding genitive = for the sake of 

casus, casūs (m) a falling, chance, misfortune (cado, cadere) 

    casū = by chance 

facultās, facultātis (f) opportunity, occasion 

ius, iuris (n) law, right (jurisdiction, jurisprudence) 

genetrix, genetrics (f) mother (Venus Genetrix worshipped in Caesar’s Forum)

genus, generis (n) class, race, kind (generic, genre, sui generis, genus) 

genū, genūs (n) knee (genuflect) 

gremium, gremiī (n) lap 

pecus, pecudis (f) herd

pectus, pectoris (n) chest

ludus, ludī (m) game; school 

mōs, mōris (m) custom (mores, moral) 

mūnus, mūneris (n) duty, service; gift (munificent, remuneration) 

mūs, mūris, (m/f) a mouse (muscle) 

quies, quietis (f) rest, quiet 

salūs, salūtis (f) health, safety, salvation 

speciēs, speciēī (f) appearance (species) 

spiritus, spiritūs (m) breath (respiration, expire)

studium, studiī (n) eagerness; a pursuit, study

tellūs, tellūris (f) earth; mother earth 

versus, versūs (m) verse 

voluptas, voluptatis (f) pleasure (voluptuary) 

 

 

quisque, quaeque, quidque (indefinite) each one, each thing, each 

 

 

almus, a, um - nurturing, kindly, nourishing 

blandus, a, um - charming (blandishments) 

infelix, infelicis - unfortunate, ill-fated

pristinus, a, um - former, characteristic (pristine) 

suavis, suave - sweet, agreeable, pleasant (suave) 

vernus, a, um - of spring, vernal  (vernal equinox) 

vicinus, a, um - neighboring (vicinity) 

 

 

simul ac = as soon as 

forte (adv.) by chance

ferē (adv.) generally 

aliquō (adv.) to some place 

quō?  (adv.) where, to where 

aliō (adv.)  to another place 

(adv. ) to that place, there 

prope (adv.) nearly 

vicissim (adv.) in turn 

vix (adv.) scarcely, barely, hardly 

 

 

 

PreAP Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, 416-450

Be able to decline:   ista infelix mens  or hic līber liber

Verb Game on: loquor or pello

 

arbitror, arbitārī, arbitrātus sum - to judge (arbiter bibendi, arbitration) 

ardeō, ardēre, arsī, arsus - to burn, to be inflamed 

devinciō, devincīre, devinxī, devinctum - to tie up, bind; lay under obligation 

calcitro (1) to strike with heals, to kick (recalcitrant) 

confīdo, confīdere, confisus sum (semi-deponent, like audeo, soleo, gaudeo) to trust in, be confident in + dative case or accusative subjunctive + infinitive 

dīluo, dīluere, dīluī, dīlūtum - to wash away; remove (dilution) 

expōnō, exponere, exposuī, expositus - to place out, expose, explain 

fateor, fatērī, fassus sum - to confess, acknowledge (profiteor, confiteor) 

gradior, gradī, gressus sum - to walk, to go

iactō (1) to toss about (frequentive form of iacio, iacere

loquor, loquī, locutus sum - to speak

metuō, metuere, metui - to fear 

miror, mirārī, mirātus sum - to wonder, be amazed 

mōlior, mōlīrī, mōlītus sum - to labour at, to construct, build 

nato (1) to swim

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure, allow + acc. + inf. 

pateō, patēre, patuī - to be open, to lie open (patent) 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive

pervulgō (1) to publish, make common, prostitute one’s self

probō (1) test, try, prove, inspect, examine, approve  

putō, putāre, putāvī, putātus - to think (dispute, computer) 

reperiō, reperere, reperī, repertus - to discover 

repellō, repellere, repulī, repulsus - drive back, repulse 

sequor, sequī, secutus sum - to follow

sumō, sumere, sumpsī, sumptus - take, take up, assume  

trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditus - to hand over, to surrender 

trahō, trahere, trāxī, tractus - to drag, to pull

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

 

aedēs, aedis (f) temple

aedēs, aedium (f. pl.) palace, dwelling place

amnis, amnis (m) river 

cor, cordis (n) heart (discord, concord) 

fāma, fāmae (f) rumor, reputation, report 

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract (federal, federalism)

foris, foris (f) door (generally in plural - double doors) 

hortus, hortī (m) garden (horticulture) 

iuventus, -ūs (m) youth 

gravitas, gravitatis (f) weight, seriousness, dignity 

liber, librī (m) book (ex lībrīs) 

metus, metūs (m) fear

mens, mentis (f) mind, intention (mens rea, mens sana in corpore sana

mensis, mensis (m) month 

mōs, mōris (m) custom, habit (mos maiorum; mores) 

ratiō, rationis (f) a reckoning, accounting, reasoning  

senex, senis (m) old man (senile) 

signum, signī (n) sign, signal; battle standard

studium, studiī (n) pursuit, eagerness, training, study

vestis vestis (f) clothing, garment

voluptās, voluptātis (f) pleasure (voluptuary) 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun)  - anyone, anything, someone, something

quisquam  quaequam, quidquam, or quicquam: (indef. pron. subst.) - anyone, any, anything (in negative sentences, freq.)

 

alienus, a, um - of another, belonging to another, foreign 

clārus, a, um - bright; famous, illustrious 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh 

dubius, a, um - doubtful, dubious 

foedus, a, um - foul, vile, polluted

ferreus, a, um - made of iron (FE) 

effrēnatus, a, um - unbridled, unrestrained 

infelix, infelicis (adj. one termination) unhappy, ill-fated 

inanis, inane - empty, void (inane)

iniquus, -a, -um - unequal, unfair, unjust; hostile 

līber, lībera, līberum - free

molestus, a, um - bothersome, annoying 

mollis, molle - soft

parcus, a, um - frugal, stingy 

praeceps, praecipitis (adj.) plunging head long, impetuous, rash  

vērus, a, um - true 

quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque - whoever, whatever (indefinite adj.)

severus, a, um - stern, severe 

talis, tale - such 

tristis, triste - sad, bitter

ultimus, a, um - far, distant; final

 

autem ((postpositive)  however, moreover

demum (adv.) at last, finally 

deinde (adv.) then; from that point 

forte (adv.) by change

igitur (postpositive) therefore

praesertim (adv.) especially 

potissimum (superlative adv.) 

potius quam = more than 

plurimum (superlative adv.) 

vērō (postpositive) indeed, truly, in fact

vērum (adversative conj.) but

obviam ire = to meet

 

PreAP Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, 385-415

Be able to decline istud grave foedus  and idem celer pes

Verb game on: progredior, progredī, progressus sum or cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus

admoneo, admonere, admonui, admonitus - to warn, to advise (admonish) 

celebro (1) to frequent (a place)

complector, complecti, complexus sum - to embrace

commodo (1) to furnish, to supply 

comito (1) to accompany, go along 

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus - to compel; to bring together

detraho, detrahere, detraxi, detractus - to drag down, pull down 

dirimo, dirimere, diremi, diremptus - to separate, to divide; to rip up 

excito (1) call forth, arouse, stir up 

ferio, ferire - to strike

                  foedus ferire - to strike an agreement 

fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bear, to bring, to endure 

licet, licēre, licuit (impersonal verb + dative) it is permitted 

malo, malle, malui - to prefer (magis + volo) 

munio (4) to build; to construct; to fortify 

nubo, nubere, nupsi, nuptus - to cover, to veil; to marry

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case

pariō, parere, peperī, partus - to give birth to, to produce

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus

postulo (1) to demand

progredior, progredī, progressus sum - to go foward, to procede (progress, progression) 

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum - to seek; to inquire, to ask 

removeō, removēre, removī, remotus - to remove (remote) 

repeto, repetere, repetivi, repetitum - to seek back; recall

sumō, sumere, sumpsī, sumptus - to take up, to assume 

utor, uti, usus sum - to use, to employ + ablative case

 

adventus, adventūs (m) arrival (advent) 

amor, amoris (m) love; love affair (amorous) 

avis, avis (m/f) bird 

avus, avī (m) grandfather, ancestor (avuncular) 

caput, capitis (n) head

currus, -us (m) chariot, triumphal chariot

dolor, doloris (m) - pain, anguish, suffering 

foedus, foederis (n) agreement, treaty, contract (federal, federation) 

fons, fontis (m) spring, fountain (font) 

gloria, gloriae (f) reputation renown 

imago, imaginis (f) image, likeness; wax death mask, portrait 

limen, liminis (n) threshold, doorway (liminal) 

mos, moris (m) custum (mos maiorum - custom of ancestors

mulier, mulieris (f) woman (sp.  mujer

odium, odiī (n) hatred (odious) 

persona, -ae (f) mask; character; personality 

pes, pedis (m) foot; step

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring, descendent

temeritas, temeritatis (f) chance, accident, rashness

testis, testis (m) witness

vitium, vitiī (n) vices

vīta, vītae (f) life

venenum, venenī (n) poison 

 

aeger, aergra, aegrum - sick, weak, wounded

aemulus,a ,um - rivalling; as substantive = a rival 

amplus, a, um - large, spacious, ample 

barbatus, a, um - bearded, wearing a beard

cognatus, a, um - related, kindred 

clarus, a, um - clear, illustrious, bright; distinguished 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same 

inferus, a, um - lower, below, infernal 

inimīcus, a, um - hostile (inimical) 

horridus, a, um - rough, bristling, 

muliebris, -e - of a woman, womanly

priscus, a, um - old, ancient 

saucius, a, um - wounded

urbanus, a, um - of the city; refined, elegant, polite

 

 

opus est + ablative = there is a need of ___________. 

 

clam (adv.) secretly 

cotidie (adv.) daily, every day

cum…tum (correlative conj.) both…and; not only…but also 

ne...quidem = not even

quamdiu - as long as, however long

quidem (postpositive) indeed, infact 

magis quam - rather than 

mininē (superlative adv.) the least, not at all 

palam (adv.) openly, publically 

potius quam = rather than 

potissimum (superlative adv.) especially 

prope (adv.) nearly

simul (adv.) at the same time together

usque (adv.) as far as one can go, all the way 

 

Vocabulary for Lines 140 - 216 of Cicero’s Pro Caelio

Expect verb game sequor, sequi, secutus sum or mereō, merēre, meruī, meritus

Be able to decline istud molestum genus or hic solus sumptus

coepī, coepisse, coeptus - to begin (defective verb) 

cogito, cogitare, cogitavi, cogitatus - to think (cognitive) 

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to look after, to worship, to cultivate (horticulture) 

delabor, delabī, delapsus sum - to slip down 

intellego, intellegere, intellexi, intellectus  (inter + lego) - to understand, comprehend, perceive 

insector, insectari, insectatus sum - to pursue 

iactō, iactāre (frequentive of iacio, iacere - to throw)  - to toss, to throw about 

loquor, loqui, locutus sum - to speak (eloquent, loquacious, circumlocution) 

maculo, maculare, maculavi, maculatus - to stain (immaculate, macular)  

mereō, merēre, meruī, meritus - to earn, to gain; to deserve (merit, meretricious, demerit)

opīnor, opīnari, opīnatus sum - to image, to be of the opinion (to opine) 

opto, optare, optavi, optatus - to wish (optative, option) 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to endure; to allow (patient, passive) 

pateō patēre, patuī - to be open, to lie open

reprehendo, reprehendere, reprehendi, reprehensus, a, um- to criticize 

sequor, sequī, secutus sum - to follow (non sequitur

sumō, sumere, sumpsī, sumptus - to take up (assume, sumptuous) 

suadeo, suadere, suasi - to urge 

tueor, tuerī, tutus sum - to protect, to watch over (tutor)

utor, utī, usus sum - to use; to employ

 

adventus, adventus - arrival (advent) 

ambitus, ambitus (m) electoral bribery 

aes, aeris (n) bronze (metonymy for money)   aes alienum = debt 

āēr, āēris (m) air

familiaritās, familiaritātis (f) close friendship, intimacy

fīnis, fīnis (f or m) end, limit, boundary

genus, generis (n) kind, class (genus, sui generis)  

gens, gentis (f) race, clan

ingenium, ingeniī (n) talent, genius 

mendacium, mendacii (n) mendacity, falsehood, a lie (mendacity, mendacious) 

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner (mores, mos maiorum

municipium, munipiciī (n) town (generally in Italy with citizenship) 

nepos, nepotis (m) decedent (nepotism) 

nemus, nemoris (n) grove 

ratio, rationis (f) a accounting, reasoning, reason, judgment, reckoning 

scelus, sceleris (n) wickness, evil 

species, speciei (f) appearance (species) 

sumptus, sumptus (m) expenditure 

 

aliquot (indecl. indefinite adj.) some (number), several 

adsiduus, a, um - continuous, uninterrupted (assiduously) 

alter, altera, alterum - one or the other of two; another

alienus, a, um - belonging to another, foreign 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - weak, sick, wounded 

disertus, a, um - eloquent 

clarus, a, um - illustrious, distinguish, bright 

infestus, a, um - hostile, agressive

integer, integra, integrum - intact, untouched (pane integrale, integer) 

invitus, a, um - unwilling 

molestus, a, um - annoying, irksome 

pauci, paucae, pauca (plural) a few (paucity) 

rōbustus, a, um - made of oak, hard, hardened 

saucus, a, um - wounded

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two 

uter, utra, utrum? which of two? 

 

satis or sat (indecl. adj. or adv.) enough, sufficiently 

 

aliquis, aliquid - anyone, someone, anything, something 

quisque, quidque - everyone, everything

quīdem, quaedam, quoddam (indef. adj.) a certain, some

 

an (interrogative) whether 

dēmum  - at length, at last precisely  

eiusmodi = of such a kind 

haud (adv.) no, in no way

itaque (adv.) and so 

minime (adv.) the least, not at all 

omnino (adv.) entirely 

quidem (adv.) indeed

paulo (adv.) by a little

paulum (adv.) a litte distance 

paulātim (adv.) little by little 

utinam (introduces a volitive/optative subjunctive) - would that

 

correlative conjunctions: 

ita/sic . . . ut - just/in the same way . . . as

simul . . . ac/atque/ut  . . . as soon as

talis . . . qualis   - such (. . .) as

tam . . . quam -   as/so . . . as; (both . . . and)

tantus, -a, -um . . . quantus, -a, -um   - as much/great . . . as

tanto (+ comparative) . . . quanto (+ comp.)  - the _____er . . .the _____er

(ab. of degree of difference)

tot . . . quot   - as many . . . as

totiens . . . quotiens  - as often as . . . (so often)

alius/aliter . . . ac/atque   - different(ly)/otherwise . . . from/than

cum . . . tum  - both . . . and (especially); (not only . . . but also)

lydia as pluto .png

         ne…quidem = not even -  e.g. Ne Reona quidem id bene fecit = “not even Raina did it well”.2nd List of Vocabulary for Pro Caelio

Be able to decline: hic lenis pater (this mild father) or ista turpis species (that disgusting appears of yours) 

abhorreo, abhorrere, abhorrui - to shudder, to shrink back from (abhorrent) 

arbitror (1) to think, reckon (arbitration) 

coepi, coepisse, coeptus - to begin (defective verb, lacks present system).

deleo, delere, delevi, deletus - to destory (delete) 

exsisto, exsistere, exstiti - to apear, arise 

habeo, habere, habui, habitus - to have;  to consider 

haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum - to stick, to cling to, adhere 

memini, meminisse (defective verb) - to remember

nascor, nascī, natus sum - to be born (natal) 

nego (1) to deny; say… not (head verb) 

nitor, nitī, nisus sum - to rely on + ablative case

odī, odiise - to hate (defective verb, lacks present system). odi et amo

oportet, oportēre, oportui (impersonal verb) - it is proper, it is fitting + subjective acc. + infinitive

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to endure; to allow (passive, patient)

pateo, patēre, patui - to be open, to lie open 

paenitet, paenitēre, paenituit (impersonal verb) - it causes one (in genitive) to regret something (in accusative) or may generate indirect statement. 

studeo, studere, studui + dative=  to be eager for, support, to favour

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to protect, watch over, look at, to keep (tutor) 

utor, uti, usus sum + abl. case=  to use, to enjoy, to employ (abuse) 

vivo, vivere, vixi, victum - to live, to be; to act (vivacious) 

 

advocatus, -i (m) supporter, assistant (advocate) 

aetas, aetatis (f) age; time of life (aetas aurea) 

aestas, aestatis (f) summer (estival) 

ars, artis (f) skill, art, discipline (ars gratia artis) 

crimen, criminis (n) charge (crime, criminal) 

facultas, facultatis (f) power, skill, opportunity 

finis, finis (m) boundary, end, limit (imperium sine fine)

gravitas, gravitatis (f) seriousness, authority, dignity 

infamia, -ae (f) bad repute, infamy

iūdĭcĭum, iūdĭcĭī (n) a judgment, a judicial investigation, trial; a judicial sentence

libīdo, libidinis (f) passion, sexual desire 

luctus, luctūs (m) sorrow 

modus, -modī (m) measure, limit, manner, way (modus operandi, modus vivendi) 

radix, radicis (f) root; foundations (radical) 

species, speciei (f) appearance (species) 

studium, - i (n) eagerness, zeal; pursuit

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, excellence; virtue

vitium, -i (n) vice

vita, vitae (f) life (CV = curriculum vitae)

adsiduus, a, um - continuous, uninterrupted (assiduously) 

aliquot (indecl. adj.) some, several, some number 

 

castus, a, um - pure, chaste 

familiaris, -is, -e- intimate, familial, friendly + dative

improbus, a, um - base, immoral

iucundus, a, um - pleasant, agreeable (jocund) 

lēnis, lēne - soft, smooth, mild, gentle, easy, calm

pĕtŭlans, pĕtŭlantis - a falling upon, assailing in jest forward, pert, saucy, impudent, wanton, freakish, petulant.

talis, tale - such 

turpis, -is, -e-  base, vile, disgusting (turpitude) 

 

aliquando (adv.) at some time 

aliquanto (adv.) by somewhat

cum....tum (conj.) both...and; not only...but also

iterum (adv.) again, a second time

magis (comp. adv.) more, rather

non solum...sed etiam - not only... but also

paene (adv.) almost, nearly 

umquam (adv.) ever

nimium or nimis (adv. or adj.) too much, excessive 

numquam (adv.) never

ergo (adv.) therefore

Quinn and Reona Callisto .png

 

List for the exordium of the Pro Caelio

Be able to decline: opus acre and ops nulla as part of this quiz. 

 

adsum, adesse, adfui - to be present

cōnstituō, cōnstituere, constituī, constitūtus - to establish, put in place

dubito (1) to doubt, to be uncertain 

ignosco, ignoscere, ignovi, ignotum - to pardon + dative case

improbo (1) to disapprove, condemn 

licet, licere, licuit - it is permitted + dative + infinitive 

miror, mirari, miratus sum - to wonder or marvel at

nitor,, nitī, nisus or nixus sum - to rely on + ABLATIVE CASE

oppugno (1) to attack 

obsideo obsidere, obsedi, obsessus - to besiege, to blockade (obsession) 

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum - to investigate, inquire

verso (1) to turn over and over; to engage in 

 

aetas, aetātis (f) age, time of life; youth 

causa, -ae (f) cause; case

crimen, criminis (n) charge (not a crime) 

civitas, civitatis (f) state, nation 

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; crime

gratia, -ae (f) charm, influence (ingratiate) 

iudicium, -ii (n) court, trial, judgment

lex, legis (f) law

ludus, -i (m) game, games 

negotium, -ii (n) business, legal work 

odium, -ii (n) hatred, hate 

otium, -ii (n) leisure 

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion to father/family, gods and fatherland 

spes, speī (f) hope, expectation, ambition 

vis, vis (f) force, violence; strength (in the plural) 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, anything

quisquam, quaequam, quicquam/quidquam (indef. pron.) - someone, anyone 

uter, utra, utrum (interrogative pron.) which of two? 

 

ācer, ācris, ācre - sharp, fierce, bitter, harsh

acerbus, a, um - bitter, hostile 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same

inlustris, inlustre - bright, clear, eminent 

festus, a, um - of a holiday 

forensis, forense - of the forum, legal 

nullus, a, um - no (what paradigm) 

tantus, a, um - so great

 

cotidie - daily, on any day

forte (adv.) by chance 

non modo…sed etiam - not only …but also 

nec (coordinating conj.) nor,  and…not

neque (coordinating conj.) nor, and…not

ne…quidem  - not even 

nimis (adv.) too much, excessive 

quīn (conj.) that- generally following negative verbs or words of doubt

vel… vel (conjunction) either..o

Livy on Tiberius Gracchus

Bonus is to decline:    eadem acris res

abrogo (1) - repeal, take away, remove (abrogate) 

accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptus - to receive 

contionor, contionari - to attend an assembly or to speak in public assembly

creo (1) to create, appoint 

exardesco, exardescere, exarsi, exarsum - to be inflamed (ardent, arson) 

fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bring, to bear (forms may compound verbs)

icio, icere, ici, ictus - to hit, strike (ictus) 

iudico (1) - to judge, to decide, to declare (judicial, judicature) 

incito (1) - to urge, put in montion, incite

occīdo, occīdere, occīdi, occisus - to kill (ob + caedo)

patefacio, patefacere, patefeci, patefactum - to throw open; to open up; reveal 

possideo, possidere - to possess, have, hold

promulgo (1) -to publish, to make know, to promote (promulgate)

peroro (1) to explain thoroughly; to harangue at length 

rapio, rapere, rapui, raptus - to seize (rapture, rapacious)

relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum - abandon, to leave behind, to leave (relinquish)

spero (1) to hope 

volo, velle, volui - to wish, to want 

 

causa, -ae (f) case; cause

collega, -ae (m) colleague 

cupiditas, cupiditatis (f) desire

furor, furoris (m) rage, madness 

iugerum, -i (n) measure of land

modus, modi (m) measure; way; means

offensa, -ae (f) a striking; injury, offense

optimates, optimatium (m. pl.) - conservation senatorial aristocracy 

pars, partis (f) part, direction, side, party, faction 

plebs, plebis (m) plebs, plebeian class (not patrician) 

socer, soceri (m) father-in-law

seditio, seditionis (f) insurrection, uprising (sedition, seditious) 

subsellium, -i (n) seat in the senate, wooden bench

 

agrarius, a, um - agrarian

diversus, a, um - opposite, different, opposed

equestris, -e    of the equestrian order

īdem, eadem, idem - the same 

gravis, grave - heavy, serious 

latus, a, um - wide, broad, extensive

omnis, omne - all, every, entire 

primus, a, um - first, the first part of 

privatus, a, um - private (opposite of “publicus”)

 

autum (postpostive particle) however, moreover

adversus (prep + acc.) against 

deinde (adv.) next, then 

iterum (adv.) again, a second time

minus (comparative adv. or substantive) less 

plus (comparative adv. or substantive) more

quā (adv.) to what extent 

quoniam (subordinating conj.) - since, because

Gracchi and Mother Cornelia Jules_Cavelier_-_Cornélie.jpg

*armo (1) to arm (armatus, a, um = armed) 

*caveo, cavere, cavi, cautus, a, um - to guard against; beware of 

*cieo, ciere, civi, citus, a, um - to move, stir, agitate 

constituo, constituere, constitui, constitutus, a, um - set up 

*excido, excidere - to destroy 

*ingredior, ingredī, ingressus sum - to ente

iugulo (1) to cut the throat, to kill, to strangle 

occupo (1) to seize 

*peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek 

praebeo, praebere, praebui - to offer, to hold out

praemunio (4) to fortify in front; to secure

*prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus, a, um - to bring forth 

rependo, rependere, rependi, repensus - to weigh again; ransom, repay

succurro, succurrere, succurri succursus, a, um + dative - to aid 

sustento (1) to hold off, hinder 

veto, vetare - to forbid 

vindico (1) to avenge

 

*animus, -i (m) mind 

*crudelitas, crudelitatis (f) cruelty 

*cervix, cervicis (f) neck, nape of the neck  

dominus, -i (m) master 

eloquentia, -ae (f)

*eques, equitis (m) equites, knights (Rome’s non-patrician aristocracy)

*error, erroris (m) wandering, mistake; wandering from the correct path 

*exemplum, -i (n) example, a sample, model 

*frumentum, -i (n) grain, grain supply

*furor, furoris (m) rage, madness (an important Roman political word)

*iudicium, -ii (n) court, judgment 

*mors, mortis (f) death 

*mos, moris (m) manner, custom (mores) 

*quies, quietis (f) rest, peace, quiet 

*plebs, plebis (f) Roman Plebs, common people

*potentia, -ae (f) power

*princeps, principis (m) leader

*status, -ūs (m) state, position, condition 

tribunatus, -ūs (m) tribuneship 

*virtus, virtutis (f) courage; virtue 

 

*acer, acris, arce - bitter, fierce; controversial 

fraternus, a, um - of a brother, brother’s 

*mirus, a, um - miraculous, incredible 

praestantior, praestantius (comp. adj.) outstanding 

*pravus, a, um - deformed, perverse, depraved 

segnis, segne - slow, tardy, lingering 

*summus, a, um - highest 

 

*quisquam, quidquam (indefinite adj.) - any 

 

*gratiā or causā + preceding genitive case = for the sake off

 

*quin (conj.)- but indeed, rather , that

 

aeque (adv.) equally, justly 

*aliquando (adv.) at any time, once 

nefariē (adv.) impiously, abominably, unspeakable 

denique (adv.) at last, finally 

*paene (adv.) almost, nearly 

*plus (comp. adv.) more

 

Imperium Roman in the 3rd Century BC - List for quiz. 

adsumo, adsumere, adsumpsi, adsumptus - taken up, adopt, to claim 

adfero, adferre, adtuli, adlatus - to bring to, to report 

apello (1) to name, to call (copulative in passive)  See Favale, the expert on copulative verbs.

coepi, coepisse, coeptus (defect verb - no present system) to begin + complementary infinitive 

credo, credere, credidi, creditus - to believe, to trust + dative or acc. + inf. 

creo, creare, creavi, creatus - to elect, to appoint, to create (copulative in passive)

decedo, decedere, decessi, decessus - to depart, to leave; to perish 

deleo, delere, delevi, deletus - to destroy

frango, frangere, fregi, fractus - to break, to destory, to subdue 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour; to slay; to slaughter 

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to wage; to manage  

gigno, gignere, genui, genitus - give birth to, to produce;  be born  

incipio, incipere - to begin  

infero, inferre, intuli, inlatus - to bring in or against (inferre bellum + dative = to wage war on ) 

invideo, invidere, invidi, invisus - to hate, to be jealous of 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek 

pingo, pingere, pinxi, pictus - to paint (depict) 

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi, praecessus - to go before, precede

praedico, praedicere, praedixi, praedictus - to say beforehand

praefero, praeferre, praetuli, praelatus - to carry in front; to display 

sentio, sentire, sensi, sensus - to think, perceive, to feel 

statuo (1) to decide 

simulo (1) to fain, to pretend 

sto, stare, steti, status - to stand, to remain 

supero (1) to conquer, to surpass 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - to remove, lift, take away; destroy 

vinco, vincere, vici, victus - to conquer 

volo, velle, volui - to wish 

 

acies, aciei (f) line, edge; battle line; battle

aemula, -ae (f) rival 

arma, -orum (n. pl.) arms, weapons

avus, -i (m) grandfather 

auctor, auctoris (m) author, instigator 

civitas, civitatis (f) state, city, citizen body

clementia, -ae (f) mercy, clemency 

consul, consulis (m) consul 

contumelia, -ae (f) insults, indignity, abuse 

currus, -us (m) chariot 

custodia, -ae (f) custody 

finis, finis (m or f) end, limit (infinitive) 

insignis, insignis (f) trappings, markings 

invidia, -ae (f) hatred, envy, jealousy  

ingenium, -ii (n) innate ability, genius, intellect 

mendacium, -ii (n) falsehood, pretense (mendacity) 

monimentum, -i (n) reminder, monument 

noxia, -ae (f) crime 

origo, originis (f) origin, source 

pars, partis (f) part, side, direction 

poena, -ae (f) punish (dare poenas = to pay the penalty or to be punished) (subpoena)

regnum, -i (n) kingship, 

saeculum, -i (n) age; period of time 

signum, signī (n) sign, signal, battle standard; statue; image 

stirps, stirpis (f) lineage, stock 

studium, -ii (n) zeal, pursuit; learning 

senatus, -us (m) senate 

tabula, -ae (f) document; placard

temeritās, temeritātis (f) rashness

triumphus, -i (m) triumphal procession, victory parade 

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour 

vis, vis (f) force, power, vigor; in plural = strength 

(vis, vis, vi, vim vi, vires, virium viribus, vires, viribus)

 

brevis, -breve  - short, brief 

gravis, grave - serious, heavy 

immanis, -e  - huge, vast, immense 

invisus, a, um - hateful to + dative case 

līber, lībera, līberum - free 

maior, maius (greater, larger, older)

paternus, a, um - paternal, fatherly 

praeclarus, a, um - illustrious 

prior, prius - earlier, former, previous 

securus, a, um - secure, safe, free from care

universus, a, um - all, entire, the whole 

ultimus, a, um - last, furtherest, most remote; worst 

 

quisquid, quidquid (indefinite pronoun) whoever, whatever 

 

ac (coordinating conj.= atque) and (like et)

abhinc - from this time, from his place 

aut…aut - either… or 

deinde (adv.) then, next 

quia (subordinating conj.) because

quippe (adv.) of course, obviously 

magis (comparative adv.) more, rather

maxime (adv.) especially, the most, chiefly  

neque - nor; and not, neither 

usquam (adv.) - in any place, anywhere 

Coin Perseus Macedonicus macedonia .jpg

 

Vocabulary    Vergil's Aeneid 1.254-296  - Jupiter's Speech to Venus  

accipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptus, receive, welcome, take in

aestas, aestatis, f summer

aetas, aetatis, f age, time

Alba Longa = Alba Longa = city south of Rome, founded by Ascanius

annus, -i, m year

arcanus, -a, -um = arcane, deep, secret, hidden, 

Argi, -orum = Argives = Greeks

arma, -orum n weapons

artus, -a, -um = close fitting, tight, narrow

Ascanius, -i m Ascanius = son of Aeneas

asperus, -a, um = rough, harsh, vicious, mean

Assaracus, -i, m Assaracus = pre-Trojan war hero

aster, astri m star

at, ac (atque) = but, and

caelum, -i, n sky, heaven

canus, -a, -um = white, white-haired

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus, see, discern, recognize, 

clarus, -a, -um = famous, illustrious

claudo, -ere, clausi, clausus, = close

consilium, -i n plan, council, wisdom, intention

condo, -ere, condidi, conditus, found, establish, build, 

contundo, -tundere, -tusi, -tunsus, strike, smash, defeat, destroy

cruentus, -a, -um = bloody

cura, -ae, f concern, anxiety, fear 

dehinc = from that point in time, then

demitto, -mittere, -misi, -missus, = let down

dirus, -a, -um = dire, dreadful

do, dare, dedi, datus, = give

dominor, -ari, = conquer, master, defeat

dominus, -i, m master

domus, -i f house

donec = until

excipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptus = receive, lay hold of, greet, take over

expleo, -plere = fill up, complete, fulfill

fama, -ae, f fame, reptutation

fatigo, -are = disturb, weary, tire out, exhaust, torment, harass

ferox, ferocis, fierce, savage,

ferrum, -i, n iron 

fides, -ei, f faith, loyalty, 

finis, finis, f end, limit

for, fari, fatus = to speak

foveo, fovere, = favor

fremo, fremere, fremui, fremitus, roar, screech, resound

fulvus, -a, -um = tawny

furor, furoris, m fury, maddness, furor

geminus, -a, um = twin

hiberna, -orum, n winter

 

Ilia, -ae, f Ilia (daugther of King Numitor)

Ilius, -a, -um = of the city of Ilium (Troy)

Iulus, -i m Julus

Iuno, Iunonis, f Juno

immotus, -a, -um = unmoved

imperium, -i n government, power, domininion

impius, -a, -um = impious

inde = from that point, next

ingens, ingentis, huge, difficult, massive

intus = inside

ius, iuris, n law, right

labor, labi, lapsus sum = slip, pass, slide

Latium, -i, n Latium (= district in Italy)

libo, -are, draw, taste, touch, pour, pour a libation, offer, present, with osculum = to kiss

lustrum, -i, n period of time, time, year

magnaminus, -a, -um = magnaminous, courageous, spirited, mighty, 

mensis, mensis, f month

meta, -ae, f turning post, end, limit

metus, metūs, m fear

mos, moris, f manner, character, morals, custom

 

munio, -ire, munivi, munitus, = provide with walls, fortify

Mycenae, -arum f Mycenae = famous Greek city during the Trojan War

nascor, nasci, natus, to be born

natus, -a, -um = past participle of nascor = to be born, i.e, natus, -a, -um = that which has                         been born = child, son, daughter

nodus, -i, m knot, coil, 

nutrix, nutricis, = nourishing

oceanus, -i m ocean

olim = some indefinite point in time, at some time

onustus, -a, -um = burdened, loaded, 

orbis, orbis, m circle, circuit, revolution (of a heavenly body), cycle

Oriens, Orientis = the Orient

origo, originis f origin, birth, 

osculum, -i, n little mouth, kiss

parco, parcere, peperci, spare (takes the dative)

partus, partūs, m birth, delivery

proles, prolis, f offspring, child, progeny, 

quando when, since

quin = but indeed

Quirinus, -i m Quirinus = Roman god

reginus, -a, -um = royal

regno, -are = to rule, to be king

remordeo, remordere, bite, bite back, gnaw

Remus, -i, m Remus

Romulus, -i, Romulus

Rutili, -orum = Rutilians

sacerdos, sacerdis, m & f priest(tess)

saeculum, -i, n age

sator, satoris, m. sower, sire, father

securus, -a, -um = secure, without conern, without anxiety, unconcerned

sedes, sedis, f seat, location

sereno, -are, to make serene, to make calm, to calm

servitium, -i n servitude

sic = thus

sidus, sideris, n star

spolium, -i, n spoil(s), booty, reward(s)

subago, -agere, -egi, -actus = lead under, defeat, subject, conquer

sublimis/e = high, lofty, sublime, reaching heaven

subrideo = to laugh at, to smile reassuringly, to smile pleasingly

talis/e = such

tegmen, tegminis, n covering, protection, pelt, hide

ter = three times

tergum, -i, n back

termino, -are, limit, set bounds to, terminate, 

terra, -ae, f land

tertius, -a, -um = third

togatus, -a, -um = wearing the toga

transeo, -ire, -ivi, -itus = go through, transpire, pass

transfere, -ferre, -tuli, -latus, = transfer, move

triginta = 30

Troianus, -a, -um = Trojan

verto, vertere, verti, versus = turn, change direction

vincio, vincire, vinxi, vinctus = bind, tie up, fasten, fetter

vis, viris, f power, force, might, violence, strength

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus, roll, unroll, reveal

votum, -i n prayer, vow

vultus, vultūs, m look, expression, countenance

 

Vocabulary list for Horace, Ode 1.37 & Vergil’s Aeneid I

Be able to decline:      vultus mollis or grex ater

Albanus, a, um - of Alba Longa (city founded by Ascanius south of Rome)

Anchises, -ae (m) acc. =Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek 

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates 

Saturnia, -ae (f) daughter of Saturn = 

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan 

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

 

bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitus - to drink

conflo (1) to blow up or into flame

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere - to cherish 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour forth 

invideo, invidere, invidi, invisum - to envy, to hate

lateo, latere, latui - to hide

pereo, perire, perii, periturus - to perish

pulso (1) to strike, to beat

quaero, quaerere - to seek, to inquire

queror, queri, questus sum - to complain about, lament

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - to break, to burst 

spero (1) to hope

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea 

anima, -ae (f) air, breath, life, soul, shade 

animus, -i (m) soul, spirit, courage, thought

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field, plowed land

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

auris, -is (f) ears

classis, classis (f) fleet

comes, comitis (m) companion 

currus, -us (m) chariot

ensis, ensis (m) sword

facies, faciei (f) shape, figure; face, appearance 

fas (indecl.) just (according to the gods)

habena, -ae (f) reins (generally in the plural) 

monstrum, -i (n) portent; monster

nefas (indecl.) unjust (according to the gods) 

ora, -ae (f) shore

pontus, -i (m) sea

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

pelagus, -i (n) sea

regina, -ae (f) queen

regia, -ae (f) palace

ramus, - (m) branch 

remus, -i (m) oar

scelus, sceleris (n) crime, evil deed

spatium, -ii (n) space

 

asper, aspera, asperum - harsh, rough, sharp

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black 

citus, a, um - swift

dulcis, -e  = sweet 

ebrius, a, um - drunk

fatalis, -e  - fated, death bringing 

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous 

invisus, a, um - hated 

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed 

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

mollis, -e soft

regius, a, um - royal 

turpis, -e - vile, base, ugly,

vultus, vultus (m) face

 

nunc (adv.) now

quippe = of course, indeed

velut = just as 

vix (adv.) barely,  hardly

Vocabulary List for Book One of Vergil’s Georgics 

audeo, audere, ausus sum - to dare 

careo, carere, carui - to lack + ablative case

denuntio (1) to announce (denounce) 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to establish, to found, to place 

incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptus - to begin (inception) 

miseror, miserari, miseratus sum - to pity 

operio, operire, operui, opertus - to cover, to conceal; to atone for  

prosum, prodesse, profui - to be useful, to benefit + dative case 

queror, queri, questus sum - to complaint, to lament 

rumpo, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus - - to burst, break 

salio, salīre, salui - to leap, jump, hop (salient) 

succurro, succurrere - to aid, to help (sub + curro) + dative case (succor) 

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise (insurrection) 

tego, tegere, texi, tectus - to cover (protect)

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry; in passive - to travel 

 

amnis, amnis (m) river 

ignis, -is (m) fire 

ensis, ensis (m) sword 

facies, faciei (f) face, appearance 

fraus, fraudis (f) deceit, deception; a crime 

fulgur, fulguris (n) lightening, flashing 

macula, -ae (f) stain, spot (immaculate, The Immaculate Conception) 

motus, -us (m) motion (terramota) 

orbis, orbis (m) ring, disk, hoop, orbit (orbis terrarum) 

ortus, -us (m) rising, a rising 

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face

os, ossis (n) bone

regia, -ae (f) palace 

saeclum, -i (n) age; period of time 

signum, signī (n) sign; signal; battle standard 

tectum, -i (n) roof, building (from tego, tegere, texi, tectus) 

tellus, telluris (f) earth; mother earth; Tellus 

tumultus, -us (m) an uproar, violent commotion; tumult; civil war

unda, -ae (f) a wave; water (und

 

caecus, a, um - blind 

dirus, a, um - dreadful, ugly, ill-omened, fearful 

grandis, grande - large, great

igneus, a, um - of fire 

nitidus, a, um - bright, shining, radiant 

umidus, a, um - wet, full of moisture

 

magis (adv.) more greatly, more, rather 

magnopere (adv.) greatly

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, anything

quis, quid? (interrogative pronoun) 

qui, quae, quod? (interrogative adjective) 

quamquam (conj.) - although

totiens (adv.) so often 

quotiens (adv.) how often? how often!

Vocabulary List Priapus and Lotis from Ovid's Fasti

 

aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus - to open, to reveal (aperture) 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to slaughter 

caveo, cavere - to take care, beware (cave canem; caveat emptor)

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - inhabit, cultivate; worship 

coepi, coepisse, coeptus - to begin (defective verb) 

concito (1) to stir, disturb 

effundo, effundere, effudī, effusus - to pour out, to spread out (effusive) 

iaceō, iacēre, iacuī - to lie (adjacent)

iacio, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (objection, eject) 

misceō, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix

nascor, nascī, natus sum - to be born (neonatal, cognate) 

nanciscor, nanciscī, nactus sum - to receive, to obtain  

necto, nectere, nexi, nexum - to bind, tie, to join 

praebeo, praebere, praebui - to offer

pudeo, pudēre, puduī - to cause shame 

rideo, ridere, risi, risus - to laugh (risible) 

rubeo, rubere - to be red (rubescent) 

sollicito (1) to stir, agitate; arouse 

sono, sonare, sonui, sonitus - to make a noise

sino, sinere - to allow 

tango, tangere, tetigi, tactus - to touch (tangent) 

terreo, terrēre, terrui - to frighten 

uro, urere - to inflame 

 

amnis, amnis (m) river 

anima, -ae (f) breath; spirit; soul 

auctor, auctoris (m) author, agent; doer 

aura, -ae (f) breath; breeze 

causa, -ae (f) reason, cause

convivium, -i (n) feast, banquet 

custos, custodis (m) guardian 

decus, decoris (n) adornment, honor 

fastus, fastūs (m) contempt for other; pride, arrogance 

festum, -i (n) holiday, festival banquet 

flatus, -ūs (m) breath, blowing, snorting 

gradus, -ūs (m) step

iocus, -i (m) play, game, joke 

iuventus, iuventūtis (f) youth 

lusus, -ūs (m) play, frolic 

lumen, luminis (n) light 

nemus, nemoris (n) grove 

nequitia, -ae (f) lewdness, wantonness

rivus, -i (m) stream (derivative) 

rus, ruris (n) countryside 

sopor, soporis (m) deep sleep 

torus, -i (m) couch 

tutela, -ae (f) guard, safeguard; protector (tutelary) 

victima, -ae (f) sacrificial offering, victim 

votum, -i (n) vow; wish, desire, longing 

 

alienus, a, um - foreign, a stranger to a thing (+ dative case) 

aptus, a, um - suited to + dative case

felix, felicis (adj.) happy, lucky

fessus, a, um - weary 

gratus, a, um - pleasing to + dative case

niveus, a, um - snow white

parcus, a, um - sparingly 

pavidus, a, um - timid, alarmed 

pronus, a, um - inclined (toward) 

ruber, rubra, rubrum - red, ruddy 

rigidus, a, um - stiff

solitus, a, um - accustomed 

 

quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque (indefinite pronoun)  whoever, what ever  

quisque, quaeque, quidque (indefinite pronoun) - each one, each thing 

 

quidem (adv.) indeed, certainly 

 

nimium (adv.) too much, excessively 

 

Vocabulary for Eclogue One and other things

(re) cubo, cubāre, cubuī, cubitus,- to recline, to relax, go to bed, recline at dinner 

mīrōr, mīrārī, mīrātus sum - to wonder at, marvel 

cano, canere, cecinī, cantum - to sing 

cernō, cernere, crēvī, crētus - to separate; distinguish by senses; perceive; discern 

fateor, fatērī, fassus sum - to admit, to confess 

invideō, invidēre - to envy

labor, labī, lapsus sum - to slip, to slide 

memini, meminisse (defective verb- look up its paradigm) - to remember 

nascor, nascī, natus sum - to be born (neonatal) 

nancīscor, nancīscī, nactus sum - to obtain 

oblīvīscor, oblīvīscī, oblitus sum - to forget + genitive case (oblivious) 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to strike, drive 

pendeō, pendēre, pependī, pensus - to hang (pendent) 

prōdō, prōdere, prōdidī, prōditus - to hand over, betray 

potior, potīrī, potitus sum - to get possession of + genitive or ablative case

resonō, resonāre - to echo (resonate)  

respicio, respicere, respexi, respectus - to look back at 

relinquō, relinquere, reliquī, relictus, a, um -to leave behind (relinquish) 

soleō, solēre, solitus sum -to be accustomed + infinitive (como di solito

suadeo, suadere - to urge 

 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

agnus, agnī (m) lamb (agnus dei) 

arvum, arvī (n) plowed fields 

lac, lactis (n) milk (Madonna Lactans

fons, fontis (m) spring, fountain 

frigus, frigoris (n) cold 

grex, gregis (m) a flock (egregious, gregarious)  

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) youth 

otium, otiī (n) leisure, free time, holiday 

rupes, rupis (f) cliff, outcrop; bank 

spēs, speī (m) hope

umbra, -ae (f) shade, shadow; ghost, shade in underworld 

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak, ill, suffering  

agrestis, agreste - rustic

iners, inertis (ad.) inactive, lazy, immobile; without skill 

mollis, molle - soft (mollify) 

lentus, a, um - slow, calm 

maestus, a, um - sad 

serus, a, um - late (buona sera

stultus, a, um - foolish, stupid 

tenuis, tenue - slender, thin; refined (tenuous) VERY IMPORTANT WORD

 

modo (adv.) recently, just now

quot? (interrogative adj.) how many? 

postquam (subordinating conjunction) after

posteā (adv.) afterward

post (prep. + acc.) after 

tantus, a, um…quantus, a, um (correlatives rabbits) as great as; as much as 

undique (adv) from or on all sides

usque (adv.) continuously, without interruption

 

List for Livy, Periochae CXIX & CXX

Asinius Pollio

Munatius Plancus 

Decimus Brutus - one of the murderers of Caesar who held Cisalpine Gaul which had been awarded to him by Caesar

Gaius Trebonius - legatus of Caesar who turned against him. He was made proconsular governor of Asia under Caesar and then was murdered by Dolabella. 

Dolabella, -ae (m) supporter of Caesar who seized the consulship following C.’s assassination and then became proconsul of Syria and then murdered Gaius Trebonius

Aulus Hirtius - consul for 43 BC

Gaius Pansa - consul for 43 BC

 

aequō (1) to balance, bring into balance 

ampliō, ampliāre, ampliāvī, ampliātus - to increase, to enlarge, amplify 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall

cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituuī, cōnstitūtus - to put in place, restore 

dēcerno, dēcernere,  decrēvi, decrētus - to degree, to pronounce 

damnō (1) to condem (damnatio memoriae

defungor, defungī, defunctus sum - to have done with, acquit oneself of, discharge, perform, finish; to perish 

iudicō (1) to judge, to decree

iungō, iungere, iunxī, iunctus - to join 

līberō (1) to free

mandō (1) to entrust, to order (mandate) 

occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to kill

postulo (1) to demand, ask; impeach 

praeclūdo, praeclūdere, praeclūsī, praeclusus - to shut out/off, to prevent access 

prōscrībō prōscrībere, proscrīpsī, proscrīptus - to proscribe, to publish names of people to be murdered 

sĕpĕlĭo, sĕpĕlīre sepelīvi or ii, sepultum - to bury, to entomb 

supersum, superesse - to survive; be left over 

 

avunculus, -ī, (m) an uncle on the mother’s side; uncle 

copiae, -ārum (f) troops

fraus, fraudis (f) treachery 

facinus, facinoris (n) crime

gratia, -ae (f) favour 

mentio, mentionis (f) reference, mention 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) seize 

opera, operae (f) effort, attention 

postestās, potestātis (f) power

praesidium, praesidiī (n) protection, guard 

quaestĭo, quaestĭōnis (f) inquiry, investigation 

rostrum, -i (n) beak 

rostra, -ōrum (n. pl.) speaker’s platform in the forum Romanum

trumphus, -ī (m) triumphal procession 

vīs, vis (f) power; in plural = strength (for Virginia, men) 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound 

 

quisque, quidque - each one 

 

adversus, a, um - adverse, facing, opposing 

gratus, a, um - pleased, grateful, pleasing + dative 

iniquus, a, um (in + aequus) unjust, unequal, hostile 

Mutinēnsis, e (adj.) of Mutina (mod. Modena) town in Gallia Cisaplina on the Via Aemilia

 

adversus (prep. + acc. ) against 

intrā (prep. + acc. case)   within (intramural, intravenous)

parum: (adv.) only a little, too little; little; not

List for Suetonius' Murder of Caesar

adripio, adripere, adripui, arreptus - to seize, grasp

adsideo, adsidere - to sit near

animadverto, animadvertere, animadverti, animadversus - to notice

accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum (+ dative case) - to approach (ad+ cedere) 

cedo, cedere, cessī, cessus - to go, to yield 

caedo, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to slaughter 

cado, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall

clamo (1) to shout

conor, conari, conatus sum - to try

confŏdĭo, confŏdere confōdi, fossum - to stab, to dig

conspiro (1) to conspire

destuo, desiturere, destitui - to desert 

dependo, dependere - to hang down 

differo, differre, distuli, dilatum - to scatter about, to put off

edo, edere, edidi, editus - to give forth, utter

īciō, īcere, īcī, ictus - to strike 

irruo, irruere - to rush in 

obvolvo, obvolvere - to wrap up, to cover

occīdo, occīdere, occīdī, occīsum - to kill, to cut down

publico (1) to make public, confiscate 

prosilio, prosilire -- to leap forth

rogo, rogare (1) to ask

reperio, reperire, repperi, repertus - to ascertain, to discover

stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictus - to draw

suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, susceptum - to undertake, to begin 

tardo (1) to slow

trado, tradere, tradidi, traditus - hand down

traho, trahere, traxi, tractus - to pull, to drag

traicio, traicere - to pierce 

velo (1) to cover

vulnero (1) to wound

 

animus, -i (m) mind, intention

bracchium, -i (n) arm

crus, cruris (n) shin, leg

eques, equitis (m) cavalry, horseman 

graphium, -i (n) stilus, sharply pointed instrument for writing

gemitus, -us (m) groan 

gestus, -us (m) gesture, posture 

iugulum, -i (n) throat (jugular) 

medicus, -i (m) doctor

metus, -us (m) fear

officium, -ii (n) duty, business, obligation 

plaga, -ae (f) blow, wound

pugio, pugionis (m) daggers

pars, partis (f) part; party, side, direction

servolus, -i (m) diminutive of servus, -i (m) 

sinus, us (m) fold (in a toga) 

species, speciei (f) appearance, pretext

umerus, -i (m) shoulder

vir, virī (m) man, hero, husband 

vīs, vis (f) violence, force, in plural = strength (men for Virginia)

vox, vocis (f) voice (vox populī

 

aversus, a, um - turned away (here: from the back) 

cunctus, a, um - all

exanimis, -e  -  lifeless

honestus, a, um - respectable, honorable

imus, a, um - lowest

letalis, letale - deadly, letal 

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm) - each (of two) 

 

viginti = twenty 

 

aliquamdiu = for some time

donec = until 

etsi (conj.) even if, although 

ilico (adv.) immediately, on the spot

infra + acc. = below

propius (comp. adv.) nearer, closer

quasi = as if

undique (adv.) on all sides, from all sides

 

Vocabulary List for Ecce Romani Chapter 59-61

Be able to decline: acies inermis or impetus infestus

abūtor, abūtī, abūsus sum - to abuse, misuse + ablative case 

adorior, adorīrī, adortus sum - to rise up against, to attack 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus (intransitive) - to fall  

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, slaughter, to kill 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to give away; yield 

cohortor, cohortārī, cohortātus sum - to exhort, to encourage

cōnfīdō, cōnfīdere, cōnfīsus - to trust in, rely on + dative case  

dēsiliō, dēsilīre, dēsiluī - to jump down, to leap down 

dēsum, dēesse, dēfuī - to be lack + dative case 

diffīdō, diffīdere, diffīsus - to have no confidence in + dative case

excēdō, excēdere, excessī, excessus - to depart, withdraw

impero, imperāre, imperavi, imperatus - to command + dative case 

intercludo, intercludere, interclusi, interclusus - to cut off

instō, instāre, institī - press on, attack  

mereor, mereri, meritus um - to earn, to deserve

prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī - to help, to profit + dative case  

succurrō, succurrere, succurrī, succursūrus - to help, assit + dative case 

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to 

supersum, superesse, superfuī - to be left, be remaining

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be affraid

 

aciēs, aciēī (f) battle line 

anima, anima (f) soul, darling 

caedēs, caedis (f) murder, slaughter 

calceus, -ī (m) shoe 

cornū, cornūs (n) horn; wing of an army 

dignitas, dignitatis (f) prestige, reputation 

facinus, facinoris (n) crime 

furor, furōris (m) rage, madness 

impetus, impetūs (m) attack 

impedīmenta, impedīmentōrum (neut. pl.) baggage 

insidiae, insidiārum (fem. pl.) ambush 

initium, initiī (n) beginning 

latus, lateris (n) side, flank 

officium officiī (n) duty; service  

ops, opis (f) aid, help; resources

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour  

ōrdō, ōrdinis (m) class; order, rank 

pīlum, pīlī (n) spear, javelin 

praesidium, -iī (n) guard; protection 

spatium, -iī  - space, interval of time

tēlum, tēlī (n) weapon; spear 

 

apertus, a, um - open 

impedītus, a, um - loaded down, burdened 

inermis, -is, -e unarmed 

infestus, a, um - hostile 

perītus, a, um - skilled at + genitive case 

praesēns, praesentis (adj.) present, at hand 

sollemnis, -is, -e  - customary, traditional 

 

equidem (adv.) certainly 

istīc (adv.) over there 

magnopere (adv.) greatly, seriously 

paulātim (adv.) little by little 

prīdiē (adv.) on the day before

prōtinus (adv) immediately

quoad (adv.) until

Vocabulary List for Pro Caelio, lines and Ecce Romani III, Chapter 58

arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum - to judge, to think 

augeo, augere, auxi, auctus - to increase (augmentation, augment) 

alloquor, alloqui, allocutus sum - to address (allocution) 

confluo, confluere, confluxi - to flow together (confluence) 

intelligo, intelligere, intellexi, intellectus - to realize 

iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus - to join (conjunction, conjugal) 

lateo, latere, latui (intransitive verb) - to hide (latent) 

licet, licere, licuit - it is permitted + dative + infinitive 

mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum - to wonder, to be amazed (miracle) 

occido, occidere, occidi, occisus - to kill (ob + caedo) 

occurro, occurrere, occurri, occursus - to meet + dative case (ob + curro) 

orior, oriri, ortus sum - to arise (orient, oriental) 

ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostentus - to show (ostensible, ostentation) 

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out, to depart 

regredior, regredi, regressus sum - to go back, to step back (regression) 

sequor, sequi, secutus sum - to follow (segue, consecutive) 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - to lift, to raise 

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry (convey, convention) 

 

agmen, agminis (n) marching line, column 

comes, comitis (m) companion 

flamen, flaminis (m) priest 

ignis, ignis (m) fire (i-stem) 

invidia, -ae (f) hatred, ill-will 

luctus, -us (m) mourning, sorrow 

mōs, mōris (m) custom (mos maiorum, mores) 

municipium, -ii (n) town 

poena, -ae (f) punishment (subpoena) 

rostra, -ōrum (n. pl.) speaker’s platform 

rus, ruris (n) countryside (rural, rustic) 

tumultus, -us (m) uproar, commotion 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound (vulnerable) 

vulgus, -i (n) mob (vulgar) 

umerus, -i (m) shoulder 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, someone, anyone, anything 

 

crudelis, crudele (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) cruel, bloody

felix, felicis (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) happy, fortunate

ferox, ferocis (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) savage, wild 

imperitus, a, um - unskilled, ignorant 

lēnis, lēne (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) smooth, relaxed, calm, gentle 

līber, lībera, līberum - free 

pristinus, a, um - former, previous, old-fashioned (pristine) 

posterus, a, um - next, following (posterity) 

saucius, a, um - wounded 

similis, simile (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) like, similar + genitive or dative

talis, tale (2 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) - such 

tristis, triste - sad, grim 

vetus, veteris (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.)  old (veteran) 

vivus, a, um - alive 

 

circā (prep. + acc.) around 

ferē (adv.) generally, for the most part, usually 

forte (adv.) by chance 

item (adv.) in the same way, likewise 

paulisper (adv.) for a little while 

paulo - by a little 

rursus (adv.) again 

ultra (prep. + acc.) beyond 

vix (adv.) barely, hardly

 

Latin IV/PreAP Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, 416-450

Be able to decline: 

arbitor, arbitari, arbitratus sum - to judge (arbiter bibendi, arbritration) 

ardeo, ardēre, arsi, arsus - to burn, to be inflamed 

devincio, devincīre, devinxī, devinctum - to tie up, bind; lay under obligation 

calcitro (1) to strike with heals, to kick (recalcitrant) 

confīdo, confīdere, confisus sum (semi-deponent, like audeo, soleo, gaudeo) to trust in, be confident in + dative case or accusative subjunctive + infinitive 

dīluo, dīluere, dīluī, dīlūtum - to wash away; remove (dilution) 

expono, exponere, exposuī, expositus - to place out, expose, explain 

fateor, fatērī, fassus sum - to confess, acknowledge (profiteor, confiteor) 

gradior, gradī, gressus sum - to walk, to go

loquor, loquī, locutus sum - to speak

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear 

mōlior, mōlīrī, mōlītus sum - to labour at, to construct, build 

nato (1) to swim

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure, allow + acc. + inf. 

pello, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive, strick 

pervulgo (1) to publish, make common, prostitute one’s self

probo (1) test, try, prove, inspect, examine, approve  

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - take, take up, assume  

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

 

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract 

foris, foris (f) door (generally in plural - double doors) 

hortus, hortī (m) garden (horticulture) 

iuventus, -ūs (m) youth 

gravitas, gravitatis (f) weight, seriousness, dignity 

metus, metūs (m) fear

mens, mentis (f) mind, intention 

ratio, rationis (f) accounting, reasoning  

foedus, a, um - foul, vile, polluted

ferreus, a, um - made of iron (FE) 

effrēnatus, a, um - unbridled, unrestrained 

infelix, infelicis (adj. one termination) unhappy, ill-fated 

inanis, inane - empty, void (inane) (Serina) 

iniquus, -a, -um - unequal, unfair, unjust; hostile 

molestus, a, um - bothersome, annoying 

parcus, a, um - frugal, stingy 

praeceps, praecipitis (adj.) plunging head long, impetuous, rash  vērus, a, um - true 

quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque - whoever, whatever (indefinite adj.)

ultimus, a, um - far, distant; final

 

autem ((postpositive)  however, moreover

demum (adv.) at last, finally 

igitur (postpositive) therefore

potissimum (superlative adv.)

plurimum (superlative adv.) 

vērō (postpositive) indeed, truly, in fac 

PreAP Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, 385-415

Be able to decline foedus grave and idem limen

admoneo, admonere, admonui, admonitus - to warn, to advise 

celebro (1) to frequent (a place)

complector, complecti, complexus sum - to embrace

comito (1) to accompany, go along 

detraho, detrahere, detraxi, detractus - to drag down, pull down 

dirimo, dirimere, diremi, diremptus - to separate, to divide; to rip up 

excito (1) call forth, arouse, stir up 

ferio, ferire - to strike

                  foedus ferire - to strike an agreement 

malo, malle, malui - to prefer

munio (4) to build; to construct; to fortify 

nubo, nubere, nupsi, nuptus - to cover, to veil; to marry

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum - to seek; to inquire, to ask 

repeto, repetere, repetivi, repetitum - to seek back; recall

utor, uti, usus sum - to use, to employ + ablative case

 

amor, amoris (m) love; love affair

avus, -i (m) grandfather

currus, -us (m) chariot, triumphal chariot

foedus, foederis (n) agreement, treaty, contract 

imago, imaginis (f) image, likeness; wax death mask, portrait 

limen, liminis (n) threshold, doorway

mos, moris (m) custum (mos maiorum - custom of ancestors

persona, -ae (f) mask; character; personality 

pes, pedis (m) foot; step

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring, descendent

temeritas, temeritatis (f) chance, accident, rashness

vitium, -i (n) vices

 

aemulus,a ,um - rivalling; as substantive = a rival 

amplus, a, um - large, spacious, ample 

barbatus, a, um - bearded, wearing a beard

cognatus, a, um - related, kindred 

clarus, a, um - clear, illustrious, bright

inferus, a, um - lower, below, infernal 

horridus, a, um - rough, bristling, 

muliebris, -e - of a woman, womanly

priscus, a, um - old, ancient 

urbanus, a, um - of the city; refined, elegant, polite

 

cotidie (adv.) daily, every day

cum…tum (correlative conj.) both…and; not only…but also 

ne...quidem = not even

quidem (postpositive) indeed, infact 

magis quam - rather than 

mininum (superlative adv.) the least, not at all 

potius quam = rather than 

potissimum (superlative adv.) especially 

prope (adv.) nearly

simul (adv.) at the same time together

usque (adv.) as far as one can go, all the way 

 

Vocabulary for Lines 170 - 216 of Cicero’s Pro Caelio

 

cogito, cogitare, cogitavi, cogitatus - to think (cognitive) 

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to look after, to worship, to cultivate (horticulture) 

delabor, delabī, delapsus sum - to slip down 

intellego, intellegere, intellexi, intellectus  (inter + lego) - to understand, comprehend, precieve

insector, insectari, insectatus sum - to pursue 

loquor, loqui, locutus sum - to speak (eloquent, loquacious, circumlocution) 

maculo, maculare, maculavi, maculatus - to stain (immaculate, macular)  

opīnor, opīnari, opīnatus sum - to image, to be of the opinion (to opine) 

opto, optare, optavi, optatus - to wish (optative, option) 

reprehendo, reprehendere, reprehendi, reprehensus, a, um- to criticize 

suadeo, suadere, suasi - to urge 

tueor, tuerī, tutus sum - to protect, to watch over (tutor)

 

adventus, adventus - arrival (advent) 

ambitus, ambitus (m) electoral bribery 

aes, aeris (n) bronze (metonymy for money)   aes alienum = debt 

genus, generis (n) kind, class (genus, sui generis)  

mendacium, mendacii (n) mendacity, falsehood, a lie (mendacity, mendacious) 

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner (mores, mos maiorum

nepos, nepotis (m) decedent (nepotism) 

nemus, nemoris (n) grove 

scelus, sceleris (n) wickness, evil 

species, speciei (f) appearance (species) 

sumptus, sumptus (m) expenditure 

 

alienus, a, um - belonging to another, foreign 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - weak, sick, wounded 

disertus, a, um - eloquent 

clarus, a, um - illustrious, distinguish, bright 

invitus, a, um - unwilling 

molestus, a, um - annoying, irksome 

pauci, paucae, pauca (plural) a few (paucity) 

saucus, a, um - wounded

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two 

uter, utra, utrum? which of two? 

 

aliquis, aliquid - anyone, someone, anything, something 

quisque, quae, quidque - everyone, everything

quīdem, quaedam, quoddam (indef. adj.) a certain, some

 

an (interrogative) whether 

dēmum  - at length, at last precisely  

eiusmodi = of such a king 

haud (adv.) no, in no way

itaque (adv.) and so 

minime (adv.) the least, not at all 

omnino (adv.) entirely 

quidem (adv.) indeed

paulo (adv.) by a little

paulum (adv.) a litte distance 

paulātim (adv.) little by little 

utinam (introduces a volitive/optative subjunctive) - would that

List of Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, lines 102-165.

abhorreo, abhorrere, abhorrui - to shudder, to shrink back from (abhorrent) 

arbitror (1) to think, reckon (arbitration) 

coepi, coepisse, coeptus - to begin (defective verb, lacks present system).

deleo, delere, delevi, deletus - to destory (delete) 

exsisto, exsistere, exstiti - to apear, arise 

haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum - to stick, to cling to, adhere 

memini, meminisse (defective verb) - to remember

nego (1) to deny; say… not (head verb) 

nitor, nitī, nisus sum - to rely on + ablative case

odī, odiise - to hate (defective verb, lacks present system). odi et amo

oportet, oportēre, oportui (impersonal verb) - it is proper, it is fitting + subjective acc. + infinitive

paenitet, paenitēre, paenituit (impersonal verb) - it causes one (in genitive) to regret something (in accusative) or may generate indirect statement. 

studeo, studere, studui + dative=  to be eager for, support, to favour

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to protect, watch over, look at, to keep

utor, uti, usus sum + abl. case=  to use, to enjoy, to employ

vivo, vivere, vixi, victum - to live, to be; to act 

 

advocatus, -i (m) supporter, assistant (advocate) 

aetas, aetatis (f) age; time of life

crimen, criminis (n) charge (crime, criminal) 

facultas, facultatis (f) power, skill, opportunity 

finis, finis (m) boundary, end, limit

gravitas, gravitatis (f) seriousness, authority, dignity 

infamia, -ae (f) bad repute, infamy

libīdo, libidinis (f) passion, sexual desire 

modus, -i (m) measure, limit, manner, way (modus operandi, modus vivendi) 

radix, radicis (f) root; foundations (radical) 

studium, - i (n) eagerness, zeal; pursuit

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, excellence; virtue

vitium, -i (n) vice

vita, vitae (f) life

adsiduus, a, um - continuous, uninterrupted (assiduously) 

aliquot (indecl. adj.) some, several, some number 

familiaris, -is, -e- intimate, familial, friendly + dative

improbus, a, um - base, immoral

iucundus, a, um - pleasant, agreeable (jocund) 

turpis, -is, -e-  base, vile, disgusting (turpitude) 

 

aliquanto (adv.) at some time 

aliquanto (adv.) by somewhat

cum....tum (conj.) both...and; not only...but also

iterum (adv.) again, a second time

magis (comp. adv.) more, rather

paene (adv.) almost, nearly 

umquam (adv.) ever

nimium or nimis (adv. or adj.) too much, excessive 

numquam (adv.) never

ergo (adv.) therefore

 

Phrases and idioms: 

opus est = there is a need + ablative case (opus est celeritate = there is a need for speed)

quā rē - for which reason 

quōque modō - however much

paestum group picture.jpg

 

List for the exordium of the Pro Caelio

Be able to decline: opus acre and ops nulla as part of this quiz. 

 

adsum, adesse, adfui - to be present

cōnstituō, cōnstituere, constituī, constitūtus - to establish, put in place

dubito (1) to doubt, to be uncertain 

ignosco, ignoscere, ignovi, ignotum - to pardon + dative case

improbo (1) to disapprove, condemn 

licet, licere, licuit - it is permitted + dative + infinitive 

miror, mirari, miratus sum - to wonder or marvel at

nitor,, nitī, nisus or nixus sum - to rely on + ABLATIVE CASE

oppugno (1) to attack 

obsideo obsidere, obsedi, obsessus - to besiege, to blockade (obsession) 

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum - to investigate, inquire

verso (1) to turn over and over; to engage in 

 

aetas, aetātis (f) age, time of life; youth 

causa, -ae (f) cause; case

crimen, criminis (n) charge (not a crime) 

civitas, civitatis (f) state, nation 

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; crime

gratia, -ae (f) charm, influence (ingratiate) 

iudicium, -ii (n) court, trial, judgment

lex, legis (f) law

ludus, -i (m) game, games 

negotium, -ii (n) business, legal work 

odium, -ii (n) hatred, hate 

otium, -ii (n) leisure 

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion to father/family, gods and fatherland 

spes, speī (f) hope, expectation, ambition 

vis, vis (f) force, violence; strength (in the plural) 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, anything

quisquam, quaequam, quicquam/quidquam (indef. pron.) - someone, anyone 

uter, utra, utrum (interrogative pron.) which of two? 

 

ācer, ācris, ācre - sharp, fierce, bitter, harsh

acerbus, a, um - bitter, hostile 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same

inlustris, inlustre - bright, clear, eminent 

festus, a, um - of a holiday 

forensis, forense - of the forum, legal 

nullus, a, um - no (what paradigm) 

tantus, a, um - so great

 

cotidie - daily, on any day

forte (adv.) by chance 

non modo…sed etiam - not only …but also 

nec (coordinating conj.) nor,  and…not

neque (coordinating conj.) nor, and…not

ne…quidem  - not even 

nimis (adv.) too much, excessive 

quīn (conj.) that- generally following negative verbs or words of doubt

vel… vel (conjunction) either..or

 

List for Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus

abrogo (1) - repeal, take away, remove (abrogate) 

accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptus - to receive, to take  

armo (1) to arm (armatus, a, um = armed) 

caveo, cavere, cavi, cautus, a, um - to guard against; beware of (Cave Virginiam, Caveat Emptor, caution)

cieo, ciere, civi, citus, a, um - to move, stir, agitate 

constituo, constituere, constitui, constitutus, a, um - set up 

excido, excidere - to destroy 

fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bring, to bear (forms may compound verbs)

icio, icere, ici, ictus - to hit, strike (ictus) 

iudico (1) - to judge, to decide, to declare

incito (1) - to urge, put in montion, incite

ingredior, ingredī, ingressus sum - to enter

interimo, interimere, interemi - to destroy, to kill, to take away

iugulo (1) to cut the throat, to kill, to strangle (jugular) 

occīdo, occīdere, occīdi, occīsus - to kill

occupo (1) to seize 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek (petition) 

rependo, rependere, rependi, repensus - to weigh again; ransom, repay 

succurro, succurrere, succurri succursus, a, um + dative - to aid 

sustento (1) to hold off, hinder 

veto, vetare, vetui - to forbid 

vindico (1) to avenge

 

animus, -i (m) mind 

causa, -ae (f) case; cause

collega, -ae (m) colleague 

cupiditas, cupiditatis (f) desire

crudelitas, crudelitatis (f) cruelty 

cervix, cervicis (f) neck, nape of the neck  

dominus, -i (m) master 

eloquentia, -ae (f)

eques, equitis (m) equites, knights (Rome’s non-patrician aristocracy)

error, erroris (m) wandering, mistake; wandering from the correct path 

exemplum, -i (n) example, a sample, model 

frumentum, -i (n) grain, grain supply

furor, furoris (m) rage, madness (an important Roman political word)

iudicium, -ii (n) court, judgment 

mora, more (f) delay

mors, mortis (f) death 

mos, moris (m) manner, custom (mores

          mos maiorum - custom of ancestors

quies, quietis (f) rest, peace, quiet 

plebs, plebis (f) Roman Plebs, common people 

potentia, -ae (f) power

princeps, principis (m) leader, chief

status, -ūs (m) state, position, condition 

virtus, virtutis (f) courage; virtue 

 

acer, acris, arce - bitter, fierce; controversial

allius, alia, aliud - other

amplus, a, um -large, ample, full 

consularis, -e   of consular rank

deinde (adv.) next, then

fraternus, a, um - of a brother, brother’s 

mirus, a, um - miraculous, incredible 

praestantior, praestantius (comp. adj.) outstanding 

pravus, a, um - deformed, perverse, depraved 

privatus, a, um - private (opposite of “publicus”)

summus, a, um - highest 

 

quisquam, quidquam (indefinite adj.) - any

gratiā or causā + preceding genitive case = for the sake off

 

quin (conj.)- but indeed, rather; that

aeque (adv.) equally, justly 

aliquando (adv.) at any time, once

adversus (prep + acc.) against

nefariē (adv.) impiously, abominably, unspeakable 

denique (adv.) at last, finally 

paene (adv.) almost, nearly 

plus (comp. adv.) more

 

Vocabulary Quiz for First Reading Passage 

adsumo, adsumere, adsumpsi, adsumptus - taken up, adopt, to claim 

adfero, adferre, adtuli, adlatus - to bring to, to report 

apello (1) to name, to call 

coepi, coepisse, coeptus (defect verb - no present system) to begin + complementary infinitive 

credo, credere, credidi, creditus - to believe 

creo, creare, creavi, creatus - to elect, to appoint, to create 

decedo, decedere, decessi, decessus - to depart, to leave; to perish 

deleo, delere, delevi, deletus - to destroy

frango, frangere, fregi, fractus - to break, to destory, to subdue 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour; to slay; to slaughter 

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to wage 

gigno, gignere, genui, genitus - give birth to, to produce;  be born  

incipio, incipere - to begin

infero, inferre, intuli, inlatus - to bring in or against (inferre bellum + dative = to wage war on ) 

instigo (1) - incite, rouse 

invideo, invidere, invidi, invisus - to hate, to be jealous of 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek 

pingo, pingere, pinxi, pictus - to paint (depict) 

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi, praecessus - to go before, preceed

praedico, praedicere, praedixi, praedictus - to say beforehand

praefero, praeferre, praetuli, praelatus - to carry in front; to display 

sentio, sentire, sensi, sensus - to think, perceive, to feel 

sto, stare, steti, status - to stand, to remain 

supero (1) to conquer, to surpass 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - to remove, lift, take away; destroy 

vinco, vincere, vici, victus - to conquer 

volo, velle, volui - to wish 

 

acies, aciei (f) line, edge; battle line battle

aemula, -ae (f) rival 

arma, -orum (n. pl.) arms, weapons

avus, -i (m) grandfather 

auctor, auctoris (m) author, instigator 

civitas, civitatis (f) state, city, citizen body

clementia, -ae (f) mercy, clemency 

currus, -us (m) chariot 

finis, finis (m or f) end, limit (infinitive) 

invidia, -ae (f) hatred, envy, jealousy  

ingenium, -ii (n) innate ability, genius, intellect 

mendacium, -ii (n) falsehood, pretense (mendacity) 

noxia, -ae (f) crime 

origo, originis (f) origin, source 

pars, partis (f) part, side, direction 

poena, -ae (f) punish (dare poenas = to pay the penalty or to be punished) (subpoena)

regnum, -i (n) kingship, kingdom

saeculum, -i (n) age; period of time 

signum, signī (n) sign, signal, battle standard; statue; image

studium, -ii (n) zeal, pursuit; learning

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour 

vis, vis (f) force, power, vigor; in plural = strength 

(vis, vis, vi, vim vi, vires, virium viribus, vires, viribus)

 

 

alius, alia, aliud (-ius paradigm) other; one…another 

avitus, a, um - ancestral, grandfatherly 

brevis, -e  - short, brief 

gravis, gravis, grave - serious, heavy 

immanis, -e  - huge, vast, immense 

invisus, a, um - hateful to + dative case 

līber, lībera, līberum - free 

maior, maius (greater, larger, older)

paternus, a, um - paternal 

praeclarus, a, um - illustrious 

prior, prius - earlier, former, previous 

securus, a, um - secure, safe, free from care

universus, a, um - all, entire, the whole 

ultimus, a, um - last, furtherest, most remote; worst 

 

ac = atque (coordinating conj.) and (like et)

abhinc - from this time, from his place 

aut…aut - either… or 

deinde (adv.) then, next 

funditu (adv.) from the foundation 

quia (subordinating conj.) because

quisquid, quidquid (indefinite pronoun) whoever, whatever 

quippe (adv.) of course, obviously 

magis (comparative adv.) more, rather

maxime (adv.) especially, the most, chiefly  

neque - nor; and not, neither 

usquam (adv.) - in any place, anywhere

 

Vocabulary List for Acis, Galatea, Polyphemus

 

acendo, acendere, ascendi, ascensus - to climb 

conpono, conponere, conposui, conpositus - to arrange, to compose 

demo, demere, dempsi, demptus - to remove, to take away

dehisco, dehiscere - to split open, yawn

horreo, horrere, horrui - to sudder at, to dread 

fallo, fallere, fefelli, falsus - to deceive 

fungor, fungi, functus sum - to preform + ablative case 

gradior, gradi, gressus sum - to step, to walk 

libet, libēre, libuit - it is pleasing + dative + infinitive 

ludo, ludere, ludi, lusus - to play 

moneo, monere, monui, monitus - to warn, advise 

noto (1) to mark, to take note of 

obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum - to forget + GENITIVE CASE

pendeo, pendere, pependi, - to hang

praefero, praeferre, praetuli, praelatus - to prefer 

revello, revellere, revelli, revulsus - to tear off

rideo, ridere, risi - to laugh 

signo (1) to mark 

uro, urere, ussi, ustus - to burn 

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea; level surface of the sea 

acūmen, acūminis (n) peak, promontory 

agnus, -i (m) lamb 

auris, auris (f) ear

aurum, -i (n) gold 

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill 

cornu, -ūs (n) horn

clipeus, clipei (m) round shield 

cruor, cruoris (m) blood, slaughter 

fetus, -us (m) offspring 

flumen, fluminis (n) river 

fulmen, fulminis (n) lightening bolt

imber, imbris (m) rain 

latus, lateris (n) side (lateral) 

lucus, luci (m) grove, woods

lumen, luminis (n) light; eye 

moles, molis (f) mass, burden, bolder 

munus, muneris (n) gift, ritual 

orbis, orbis (m) disk, sphere 

odium, -ii (n) hatred 

pontus, -i (m) sea

pecus, pecudis (f) flock 

rupis, rupis (f) rock cliff 

voluptas, voluptatis (f) pleasure, source of pleasure 

vates, vatis (m) poet, bard; prophet

 

almus, a, um - nurturing, kindly  

aptus, a, um - suited to + DATIVE CASE

cunctus, a, um - whole, entire 

fessus, a, um - weary, exhausted 

mollis, molle - soft

nitidus, a, um - bright, shining 

nullus, a, um (-ius paradigm) 

par, paris (adj.) equal + dative case

saevus, a, um - savage, cruel 

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm) each (of two)

 

nuper (adv.) recently 

nempe (adv.) of course, certainly

quamvis (sub. conj.) although 

tenus (+ ablative) right up to, as far as

Vocabulary for Vergil, Aeneid, Book VI, lines 1-50

Places and People

Cecropides, -ae (m) decedents of Cecrops

Chalcis

Cumae, -ārum

Daedalus, -i (m) 

Delius, -ii (m) 

Euboea

Hesperia 

Icarus, -i (m) 

Gnossian - of Knossos, capital of Minoan Crete 

Minos

Minoius, a, um 

Pasiphaē, -ēs (f) 

Sybilla, -ae (f) 

Trivia, -ae (f) - Hecate

 

aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus - to open 

cesso (1) to cease

excīdo, excīdere, excīdī, excīsus - to cut out, to hew out (ex + caedo)

excido, excidere, excidi (ex + cado) to fall out

effingo, effingere, effinxi, effinctus - to fashion

emico, emicare, emicui, emicatus - to flash forth, to flash out

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak 

posco, poscere, poposci - to demain, ask 

lego, legere, lēgi, lectus - to choose, to select, to pick; to read 

macto (1) to slaughter 

misceo, miscere, miscui, mixtus - to mix, intermingle 

miseror, miserari, miseratus sum - to pity 

obeo, obire, obii, obitus - to meet face to face; to die (obituary) 

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - to guide, rule, control 

sino, sinere - to allow 

 

aditus, -ūs (m) approach, entrance 

ala, alae (f) wing 

antrum, -i (n) cave

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune, chance 

coma, -ae (f) hair 

cor, cordis (n) hear

dens, dentis (m) tooth 

dolus, -i (m) trick, treachery 

error, erroris (m) wandering; error, mistake 

foris, foris (f) door; double doors 

grex, gregis (m) flock (egregious, gregarious, congregation) 

latus, lateris (n) side

lucus, -i (m) grove 

limen, liminis (n) threshold 

mos, moris (m) custom, tradition (mores; mos maiorum

ostium, -ii (n) mouth, entrance 

os, ossis (n) bone 

pars, partis (f) part, side, direction 

penna, -ae (f) feather (penne pasta)

semen, seminis (n) seed

sacerdos, sacerdotis (m) priestess 

sors, sortis (f) lot, oracle 

vena, -ae (f) vein 

vestigium, -ii (n) traces, footprints (vestiges) 

vultus, -ūs (m) face, expression

 

ferus, a, um - wild (feral) 

imus, a, um (superlative adj.) - lowest, deepest

inextricabilis, -e- impossible to disentangle; inextricable 

gelidus, a, um - cold, icy

levis, leve - light, floating 

nefandus, a, um - unspeakable 

 

bis (adv.) twice 

contrā (adv.) opposite, facing

enim - for, indeed, truly 

protinus (adv.) continuously, at once

totidem (adv.) as many as 

ūnā (adv.) together

Lake Avernus by Turner

Lake Avernus by Turner

 

Vocabulary    Vergil's Aeneid 1.254-296    

accipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptus, receive, welcome, take in

aestas, aestatis, f summer

aetas, aetatis, f age, time

Alba Longa = Alba Longa = a city near Rome

annus, -i, m year

arcanus, -a, -um = arcane, deep, secret, hidden, 

Argi, -orum = Argives = Greeks

arma, -orum n weapons

artus, -a, -um = close fitting, tight, narrow

Ascanius, -i m Ascanius = son of Aeneas

asperus, -a, um = rough, harsh, vicious, mean

Assaracus, -i, m Assaracus = pre-Trojan war hero

aster, astri m star

at, ac (atque) = but, and

caelum, -i, n sky, heaven

canus, -a, -um = white, white-haired

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus, see, discern, recognize, 

clarus, -a, -um = famous, illustrious

claudo, -ere, clausi, clausus, = close

consilium, -i n plan, council, wisdom, intention

condo, -ere, condidi, conditus, found, establish, build, 

contundo, -tundere, -tusi, -tunsus, strike, smash, defeat, destroy

cruentus, -a, -um = bloody

cura, -ae, f concern, anxiety, fear 

dehinc = from that point in time, then

demitto, -mittere, -misi, -missus, = let down

dirus, -a, -um = dire, dreadful

do, dare, dedi, datus, = give

dominor, -ari, = conquer, master, defeat

dominus, -i, m master

domus, -i f house

donec = until

excipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptus = receive, lay hold of, greet, take over

expleo, -plere = fill up, complete, fulfill

fama, -ae, f fame, reptutation

fatigo, -are = disturb, weary, tire out, exhaust, torment, harass

ferox, ferocis, fierce, savage,

ferrum, -i, n iron 

fides, -ei, f faith, loyalty, 

finis, finis, f end, limit

for, fari, fatus = to speak

foveo, fovere, = favor

fremo, fremere, fremui, fremitus, roar, screech, resound

fulvus, -a, -um = tawny

furor, furoris, m fury, maddness, furor

geminus, -a, um = twin

hiberna, -orum, n winter

 

Ilia, -ae, f Ilia (daugther of King Numitor)

Ilius, -a, -um = of the city of Ilium (Troy)

Iulus, -i m Julus

Iuno, Iunonis, f Juno

immotus, -a, -um = unmoved

imperium, -i n government, power, domininion

impius, -a, -um = impious

inde = from that point, next

ingens, ingentis, huge, difficult, massive

intus = inside

ius, iuris, n law, right

labor, labi, lapsus sum = slip, pass, slide

Latium, -i, n Latium (= district in Italy)

libo, -are, draw, taste, touch, pour, pour a libation, offer, present, with osculum = to kiss

lustrum, -i, n period of time, time, year

magnaminus, -a, -um = magnaminous, courageous, spirited, mighty, 

mensis, mensis, f month

meta, -ae, f turning post, end, limit

metus, metūs, m fear

mos, moris, f manner, character, morals, custom

 

munio, -ire, munivi, munitus, = provide with walls, fortify

Mycenae, -arum f Mycenae = famous Greek city during the Trojan War

nascor, nasci, natus, to be born

natus, -a, -um = past participle of nascor = to be born, i.e, natus, -a, -um = that which has                         been born = child, son, daughter

nodus, -i, m knot, coil, 

nutrix, nutricis, = nourishing

oceanus, -i m ocean

olim = some indefinite point in time, at some time

onustus, -a, -um = burdened, loaded, 

orbis, orbis, m circle, circuit, revolution (of a heavenly body), cycle

Oriens, Orientis = the Orient

origo, originis f origin, birth, 

osculum, -i, n little mouth, kiss

parco, parcere, peperci, spare (takes the dative)

partus, partūs, m birth, delivery

proles, prolis, f offspring, child, progeny, 

quando when, since

quin = but indeed

Quirinus, -i m Quirinus = Roman god

reginus, -a, -um = royal

regno, -are = to rule, to be king

remordeo, remordere, bite, bite back, gnaw

Remus, -i, m Remus

Romulus, -i, Romulus

Rutili, -orum = Rutilians

sacerdos, sacerdis, m & f priest(tess)

saeculum, -i, n age

sator, satoris, m. sower, sire, father

securus, -a, -um = secure, without conern, without anxiety, unconcerned

sedes, sedis, f seat, location

sereno, -are, to make serene, to make calm, to calm

servitium, -i n servitude

sic = thus

sidus, sideris, n star

spolium, -i, n spoil(s), booty, reward(s)

subago, -agere, -egi, -actus = lead under, defeat, subject, conquer

sublimis/e = high, lofty, sublime, reaching heaven

subrideo = to laugh at, to smile reassuringly, to smile pleasingly

talis/e = such

tegmen, tegminis, n covering, protection, pelt, hide

ter = three times

tergum, -i, n back

termino, -are, limit, set bounds to, terminate, 

terra, -ae, f land

tertius, -a, -um = third

togatus, -a, -um = wearing the toga

transeo, -ire, -ivi, -itus = go through, transpire, pass

transfere, -ferre, -tuli, -latus, = transfer, move

triginta = 30

Troianus, -a, -um = Trojan

verto, vertere, verti, versus = turn, change direction

vincio, vincire, vinxi, vinctus = bind, tie up, fasten, fetter

vis, viris, f power, force, might, violence, strength

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus, roll, unroll, reveal

votum, -i n prayer, vow

vultus, vultūs, m look, expression, countenance

 

Vocabulary list for Horace, Ode 1.37 & Vergil’s Aeneid I

Be able to decline:      vultus mollis or grex ater

Albanus, a, um - of Alba Longa (city founded by Ascanius south of Rome)

Anchises, -ae (m) acc. =Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek 

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates 

Saturnia, -ae (f) daughter of Saturn = 

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan 

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

 

bibo, bibere, bibi, bibitus - to drink

conflo (1) to blow up or into flame

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere - to cherish 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour forth 

invideo, invidere, invidi, invisum - to envy, to hate

lateo, latere, latui - to hide

pereo, perire, perii, periturus - to perish

pulso (1) to strike, to beat

queror, queri, questus sum - to complain about, lament

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - to break, to burst 

spero (1) to hope

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea 

anima, -ae (f) air, breath, life, soul, shade 

animus, -i (m) soul, spirit, courage, thought

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field, plowed land

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

auris, -is (f) ears

classis, classis (f) fleet

comes, comitis (m) companion 

currus, -us (m) chariot

ensis, ensis (m) sword

facies, faciei (f) shape, figure; face, appearance 

fas (indecl.) just (according to the gods)

habena, -ae (f) reins (generally in the plural) 

monstrum, -i (n) portent; monster

nefas (indecl.) unjust (according to the gods) 

ora, -ae (f) shore

pontus, -i (m) sea

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

pelagus, -i (n) sea

regina, -ae (f) queen

regia, -ae (f) palace

remus, -i (m) oar

scelus, sceleris (n) crime, evil deed

spatium, -ii (n) space

 

asper, aspera, asperum - harsh, rough, sharp

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black 

citus, a, um - swift

ebrius, a, um - drunk

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous 

invisus, a, um - hated 

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed 

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

mollis, -e soft

regius, a, um - royal 

turpis, -e - vile, base, ugly,

vultus, vultus (m) face

 

nunc (adv.) now

quippe = of course, indeed

velut = just as 

vix (adv.) barely,  hardly


 

Vocabulary for Priapus and Lotis from Ovid's Fasti

aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus - to open, to reveal (aperture) 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to slaughter 

caveo, cavere - to take care, beware (cave canem; caveat emptor)

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - inhabit, cultivate; worship (cultus deorum)

coepi, coepisse, coeptus - to begin (defective verb) 

concito (1) to stir, disturb 

effundo, effundere, effudī, effusus - to pour out, to spread out (effusive)

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie (adjacent) 

misceō, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix

nanciscor, nanciscī, nactus sum - to receive, to obtain  

necto, nectere, nexi, nexum - to bind, tie, to join 

praebeo, praebere, praebui - to offer

pudeo, pudēre, puduī - to cause shame 

rideo, ridere, risi, risus - to laugh (risible) 

rubeo, rubere - to be red (rubescent) 

sollicito (1) to stir, agitate; arouse 

sono, sonare, sonui, sonitus - to make a noise (sonorous) 

sino, sinere - to allow 

tango, tangere, tetigi, tactus - to touch (tangent, tactile) 

terreo, terrēre, terrui - to frighten 

uro, urere - to inflame 

 

amnis, amnis (m) river 

anima, -ae (f) breath; spirit; soul 

auctor, auctoris (m) author, agent; doer 

aura, -ae (f) breath; breeze 

causa, -ae (f) reason, cause

convivium, -i (n) feast, banquet 

custos, custodis (m) guardian 

decus, decoris (n) adornment, honor 

fastus, fastūs (m) contempt for other; pride, arrogance 

felix, felicis (adj.) happy, luckly

festum, -i (n) holiday, festival banquet 

flatus, -ūs (m) breath, blowing, snorting 

gradus, -ūs (m) step 

gratus, a, um - pleasing to + dative case 

iocus, -i (m) play, game, joke 

iuventus, iuventūtis (f) youth 

lusus, -ūs (m) play, frolic 

lumen, luminis (n) light; eyes

nemus, nemoris (n) grove 

rivus, -i (m) stream (derivative) 

rus, ruris (n) countryside (rus = to the countryside; ruri=in the countryside; rure=from the countryside)

sopor, soporis (m) deep sleep 

torus, -i (m) couch 

tutela, -ae (f) guard, safeguard; protector (tutelary) 

victima, -ae (f) sacrificial offering, victim 

votum, -i (n) vow; wish, desire, longing 

 

alienus, a, um - foreign, a stranger to a thing (+ dative case) 

aptus, a, um - suited to + dative case

fessus, a, um - weary 

niveus, a, um - snow white

parcus, a, um - sparingly 

pavidus, a, um - timid, alarmed 

pronus, a, um - inclined (toward) 

ruber, rubra, rubrum - red, ruddy 

rigidus, a, um - stiff

solitus, a, um - accustomed

 

quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque (indefinite pronoun)  whoever, what ever  

quisque, quaeque, quidque (indefinite pronoun) - each one, each thing

quidem (adv.) indeed, certainly

nimium (adv.) too much, excessively 

Vocabulary List for Book One of Vergil’s Georgics 

audeo, audere, ausus sum - to dare 

careo, carere, carui - to lack + ablative case 

denuntio (1) to announce (denounce) 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to establish, to found, to place 

incipio, incipere, incepi, inceptus - to begin (inception) 

miseror, miserari, miseratus sum - to pity 

operio, operire, operui, opertus - to cover, to conceal; to atone for  

prosum, prodesse, profui - to be useful, to benefit + dative case 

queror, queri, questus sum - to complaint, to lament 

rumpo, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus - - to burst, break 

salio, salīre, salui - to leap, jump, hop (salient) 

succurro, succurrere - to aid, to help (sub + curro) + dative case

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise (insurrection) 

tego, tegere, texi, tectus - to cover (protect)

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry; in passive - to travel 

 

amnis, amnis (m) river 

ignis, -is (m) fire 

ensis, ensis (m) sword 

facies, faciei (f) face, appearance 

fraus, fraudis (f) deceit, deception; a crime 

fulgur, fulguris (n) lightening, flashing 

macula, -ae (f) stain, spot (immaculate, The Immaculate Conception) 

motus, -us (m) motion (terramota) 

orbis, orbis (m) ring, disk, hoop, orbit (orbis terrarum) 

ortus, -us (m) rising, a rising 

os, ossis (n) bone

regia, -ae (f) place 

saeclum, -i (n) age; period of time 

signum, signī (n) sign; signal; battle standard 

tectum, -i (n) roof, building (from tego, tegere, texi, tectus) 

tellus, telluris (f) earth; mother earth; Tellus 

tumultus, -us (m) an uproar, violent commotion; tumult; civil war

unda, -ae (f) a wave; water (und

 

caecus, a, um - blind 

dirus, a, um - dreadful, ugly, ill-omened, fearful 

grandis, grande - large, great

igneus, a, um - of fire 

nitidus, a, um - bright, shining, radiant 

umidus, a, um - wet, full of moisture

 

magis (adv.) more greatly, more, rather 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, anything

quis, quid? (interrogative pronoun) 

qui, quae, quod? (interrogative adjective) 

quamquam (conj.) - although

totiens (adv.) so often 

quotiens (adv.) how often? how often!

Vocabulary List for Eclogue Four

Be able to decline either mare nostrum and do the verb game for fero, ferre, tuli, latus

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn, old Roman/Italic god worshipped in a time in the Forum Romanum

 

aggredior, aggredi, aggressus sum - to advance, attack

cano, canere, cecini, cantus - to sing

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround, gride; put on (in passive/middle voice)

faveo, favere, favi + DATIVE CASE - to favour 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusum - to pour 

iuvo (1) to please; to help, aid

mūto (1) to change (mutation) 

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure, allow (patient, passive) 

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward (procession) 

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - to rule, guide, direct 

redeo, redire - to return, come back 

regno (1) to reign, to have royal power

rideo, ridere, risi, risum - to laugh (risible) 

solvo, -solvere, solui, solutus-  free, resolve, undo, release

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry, convey 

 

aetas, aetatis (f) age 

carmen, carminis (n) song; poem 

herba, -ae (f) grass

humus, -i (f) ground (humi = on the ground - locative case)

mundus, -i (m) world

mensis, -is (m) mouth 

mensa, -ae (f) table

mūrus, -i (m) wall 

numen, numinis (n) divinity, divine power

pondus, ponderis (n) weight

saeclum, -i (n) age; period of time 

scelus, sceleris (n) crime, evil 

tellus, telluris (f) earth

venenum, -i (n) poison 

vestigium, -i (n) 

uva, -ae (f) grape

 

ferreus, a, um - made of iron

dūrus, a, um - hard, unyielding 

humilis, -e-low, on the ground; humble. lowly 

parvus, a, um - small

 

modo (adv.) now, just now, recently 

passim (adv.) here and there; scattered about 

paulatim (adv.) little by little 

paulo (abl. of degree of difference) by a little, a little

paulum (adv.) a little distance 

Vocabulary for Eclogue One and other things

(re) cubo, cubāre, cubuī, cubitus,- to recline, to relax, go to bed, recline at dinner 

mīrōr, mīrārī, mīrātus sum - to wonder at, marvel 

cano, canere, cecinī, cantum - to sing 

cernō, cernere, crēvī, crētus - to separate; distinguish by senses; perceive; discern 

fateor, fatērī, fassus sum - to admit, to confess 

invideō, invidēre - to envy

labor, labī, lapsus sum - to slip, to slide 

memini, meminisse (defective verb- look up its paradigm) - to remember 

nascor, nascī, natus sum - to be born (neonatal) 

nancīscor, nancīscī, nactus sum - to obtain 

oblīvīscor, oblīvīscī, oblitus sum - to forget + genitive case (oblivious) 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to strike, drive 

pendeō, pendēre, pependī, pensus - to hang (pendent) 

prōdō, prōdere, prōdidī, prōditus - to hand over, betray 

potior, potīrī, potitus sum - to get possession of + genitive or ablative case

resonō, resonāre - to echo (resonate)  

respicio, respicere, respexi, respectus - to look back at 

relinquō, relinquere, reliquī, relictus, a, um -to leave behind (relinquish) 

soleō, solēre, solitus sum -to be accustomed + infinitive (como di solito

suadeo, suadere - to urge 

 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

agnus, agnī (m) lamb (agnus dei) 

arvum, arvī (n) plowed fields 

lac, lactis (n) milk (Madonna Lactans

fons, fontis (m) spring, fountain 

frigus, frigoris (n) cold 

grex, gregis (m) a flock (egregious, gregarious)  

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) youth 

otium, otiī (n) leisure, free time, holiday 

rupes, rupis (f) cliff, outcrop; bank 

spēs, speī (m) hope

umbra, -ae (f) shade, shadow; ghost, shade in underworld 

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak, ill, suffering  

agrestis, agreste - rustic

iners, inertis (ad.) inactive, lazy, immobile; without skill 

mollis, molle - soft (mollify) 

lentus, a, um - slow, calm 

maestus, a, um - sad 

serus, a, um - late (buona sera

stultus, a, um - foolish, stupid 

tenuis, tenue - slender, thin; refined (tenuous) VERY IMPORTANT WORD

 

modo (adv.) recently, just now

quot? (interrogative adj.) how many? 

postquam (subordinating conjunction) after

posteā (adv.) afterward

post (prep. + acc.) after 

tantus, a, um…quantus, a, um (correlatives rabbits) as great as; as much as 

undique (adv) from or on all sides

usque (adv.) continuously, without interruption


Vocabulary List for Suetonius’ Account of Caesar’s Death from De Vita Caesarum

adripio, adripere, adripui, arreptus - to seize, grasp

adsideo, adsidere - to sit near

animadverto, animadvertere, animadverti, animadversus - to notice

accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum (+ dative case) - to approach 

cado, cadere, cecidī, casurus - to fall

clamo (1) to shout

conor, conārī, conātus sum - to try

conspiro (1) to conspire

dependeo, dependēre - to hang down 

differo, differre, distuli, dīlatum - to scatter about , to put off

irruo, irruere - to rush in 

obvolvo, obvolvere - to wrap up, to cover

occīdo, occīdere, occīdi, occīsus - to kill

publico (1) to make public, confiscate 

prosilio, prosilīre -- to leap forth

rogo, rogāre (1) to ask 

reperio, reperīre, repperī, repertus - to ascertain, to discover

stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictus - to draw

suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, susceptus - to undertake, to begin 

tardo (1) to slow

trado, tradere, tradidi, traditus - hand down

traicio, traicere - to pierce 

velo (1) to cover

vulnero (1) to wound


animus, -i (m) mind, intention

bracchium, -ii (n) arm

crus, cruris (n) shin, leg

eques, equitis (m) cavalry, horseman 

graphium, -i (n) stilus, sharply pointed instrument for writing

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan 

gestus, -ūs (m) gesture, posture 

iugulum, -i (n) throat 

medicus, -i (m) doctor

metus, -ūs (m) fear

officium, -iī (n) duty, business 

plaga, -ae (f) blow, wound

pugio, pugionis (m) daggers

pars, partis (f) part; party + partitive genitive 

servolus,-i (m) diminutive of servus, -i (m) 

sinus, ūs (m) fold (in a toga) 

speciēs, specieī (f) appearance, pretext

umerus, -i (m) shoulder

vis, vis (f) violence, force


adversus, a, um - turned toward, facing 

aversus, a, um - turned away (here: from the back) 

cunctus, a, um - all

exanimis, -e  -  lifeless

honestus, a, um - respectable, honorable

imus, a, um - lowest

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm) - each (of two) 


aliquamdiu = for some time

donec = until 

etsi (conj.) even if, although 

ilico (adv.) immediately, on the spot

infra + acc. = below

propius (comp. adv) nearer, closer

quasi = as if

undique (adv.) on all sides, from all sides


Vocabulary List for Ecce Romani Chapter 59-61

Be able to decline: acies inermis or impetus infestus

Verb game on caedo, caedere

abūtor, abūtī, abūsus sum - to abuse, misuse + ablative case (Ty) 

adorior, adorīrī, adortus sum - to rise up against, to attack (Samantha) 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus (intransitive) - to fall (Gabi) 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, slaughter, to kill 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to give away; yield (Lauren)

cohortor, cohortārī, cohortātus sum - to exhort, to encourage (Zack) 

cōnfīdō, cōnfīdere, cōnfīsus - to trust in, rely on + dative case (Frances) 

dēsiliō, dēsilīre, dēsiluī - to jump down, to leap down (Bay) 

dēsum, dēesse, dēfuī - to be lack + dative case 

diffīdō, diffīdere, diffīsus - to have no confidence in + dative case (Frances) 

excēdō, excēdere, excessī, excessus - to depart, withdraw

impero, imperāre, imperavi, imperatus - to command + dative case (Colin) 

instō, instāre, institī - press on, attack (Kelin) 

prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī - to help, to profit + dative case (Sunny) 

succurrō, succurrere, succurrī, succursūrus - to help, assit + dative case (Ben) 

supersum, superesse, superfuī - to be left, be remaining


aciēs, aciēī (f) battle line 

caedēs, caedis (f) murder, slaughter 

calceus, -ī (m) shoe 

cornū, cornūs (n) horn; wing of an army (Parker) 

facinus, facinoris (n) crime 

furor, furōris (m) rage, madness (Kallia) 

impetus, impetūs (m) attack (Clara) 

impedīmenta, impedīmentōrum (neut. pl.) baggage 

insidiae, insidiārum (fem. pl.) ambush (Gracie) 

initium, initiī (n) beginning 

latus, lateris (n) side, flank (Petronius) 

officium officiī (n) duty; service (Serina) 

ops, opis (f) aid, help; resources

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour (Isha) 

ōrdō, ōrdinis (m) class; order, rank (Ketty) 

pīlum, pīlī (n) spear, javelin 

praesidium, -iī (n) guard; protection 

spatium, -iī  - space, interval of time

tēlum, tēlī (n) weapon; spear 


apertus, a, um - open (Izumi) 

impedītus, a, um - loaded down, burdened 

inermis, -is, -e unarmed 

infestus, a, um - hostile (Kate) 

perītus, a, um - skilled at + genitive case 

praesēns, praesentis (adj.) present, at hand 

sollemnis, -is, -e  - customary, traditional (Lucina) 


istīc (adv.) over there 

magnopere (adv.) greatly, seriously 

paulātim (adv.) little by little 

prīdiē (adv.) on the day before

prōtinus (adv) immediately

quoad (adv.) until

Latin IV/PreAP Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, 416-450

arbitor, arbitari, arbitratus sum - to judge (arbiter bibendi, abritration) (Sunny)

ardeo, ardēre, arsi, arsus - to burn, to be inflamed (Lauren)

devincio, devincīre, devinxī, devinctum - to tie up, bind; lay under obligation 

calcitro (1) to strike with heals, to kick (recalcitrant) (Frances) 

confīdo, confīdere, confisus sum (semi-deponent, like audeo, soleo, gaudeo) to trust in, be confident in + dative case or accusative subjunctive + infinitive (Gracie) 

dīluo, dīluere, dīluī, dīlūtum - to wash away; remove (dilution) (Gabi) 

expono, exponere, exposuī, expositus - to place out, expose, explain (Ben) 

fateor, fatērī, fassus sum - to confess, acknowledge (profiteor confiteor) (Parker)

loquor, loquī, locutus sum - to speak (Petronius)

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear 

mōlior, mōlīrī, mōlītus sum - to labour at, to construct, build (Izumi) 

nato (1) to swim

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure, allow + acc. + inf. (Isha) 

pello, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive, strick (Ketty) 

pervulgo (1) to publish, make common, prostitute one’s self (Kelin)

probo (1) test, try, prove, inspect, examine, approve  (Bay) 

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - take, take up, assume (Collin) 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 


foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract 

foris, foris (f) door (generally in plural - double doors) 

hortus, hortī (m) garden (horticulture) 

iuventus, -ūs (m) youth 

gravitas, gravitatis (f) weight, seriousness, dignity (Morgan)

metus, metūs (m) fear

mens, mentis (f) mind, intention (Zack) 

ratio, rationis (f) accounting, reasoning (Ty) 



foedus, a, um - foul, vile, polluted

ferreus, a, um - made of iron (FE) 

effrēnatus, a, um - unbridled, unrestrained 

infelix, infelicis (adj. one termination) unhappy, ill-fated (Clara) 

inanis, inane - empty, void (inane) (Serina) 

iniquus, -a, -um - unequal, unfair, unjust; hostile (Kallia) 

molestus, a, um - bothersome, annoying 

parcus, a, um - frugal, stingy (Samantha) 

praeceps, praecipitis (adj.) plunging head long, impetuous, rash  (Kate) 

vērus, a, um - true (Lucina) 


autem ((postpositive)  however, moreover

demum (adv.) at last, finally 

igitur (postpositive) therefore

potissimum (superlative adv.)

plurimum (superlative adv.) 

vērō (postpositive) indeed, truly, in fact 

Latin IV/PreAP Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, 385-415

Be able to decline foedus grave and idem limen

admoneo, admonere, admonui, admonitus - to warn, to advise 

celebro (1) to frequent (a place)

complector, complecti, complexus sum - to embrace

comito (1) to accompany, go along 

detraho, detrahere, detraxi, detractus - to drag down, pull down 

dirimo, dirimere, diremi, diremptus - to separate, to divide; to rip up 

excito (1) call forth, arouse, stir up 

ferio, ferire - to strike

foedus ferire - to strike an agreement 

malo, malle, malui - to prefer

munio (4) to build; to construct; to fortify 

nubo, nubere, nupsi, nuptus - to cover, to veil; to marry

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum - to seek; to inquire, to ask 

repeto, repetere, repetivi, repetitum - to seek back; recall

utor, uti, usus sum - to use, to employ + ablative case


amor, amoris (m) love; love affair

avus, -i (m) grandfather

currus, -us (m) chariot, triumphal chariot

foedus, foederis (n) agreement, treaty, contract 

imago, imaginis (f) image, likeness; wax death mask, portrait 

limen, liminis (n) threshold, doorway

mos, moris (m) custum (mos maiorum - custom of ancestors

persona, -ae (f) mask; character; personality 

pes, pedis (m) foot; step

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring, descendent

temeritas, temeritatis (f) chance, accident, rashness

vitium, -i (n) vices


aemulus,a ,um - rivalling; as substantive = a rival 

amplus, a, um - large, spacious, ample 

barbatus, a, um - bearded, wearing a beard

cognatus, a, um - related, kindred 

clarus, a, um - clear, illustrious, bright

inferius, a, um - lower, below, infernal 

horridus, a, um - rough, bristling, 

muliebris, -e - of a woman, womanly

priscus, a, um - old, ancient 

urbanus, a, um - of the city; refined, elegant, polite


cotidie (adv.) daily, every day

cum…tum (correlative conj.) both…and; not only…but also 

ne...quidem = not even

quidem (postpositive) indeed, infact 

magis quam - rather than 

mininum (superlative adv.) the least, not at all 

potius quam = rather than 

potissimum (superlative adv.) especially 

prope (adv.) nearly

simul (adv.) at the same time together

usque (adv.) as far as one can go, all the way 


Derivatives/Etymology for the above list. 

  1. amorous/amatory (Gabi)

  2. nuptial (Bay Penny)

  3. nuptial pad (biology)

  4. nubile (Collin)

  5. cognate (Super Sunny)

  6. avuncular (Frances)

  7. federal (Zack)

  8. comity of nations (Ketty B.)

  9. liminal (Parker)

  10. infernal (Kelin)

  11. clarity (Lauren)

  12. mores (Lucina)

  13. urbane (Morgan)

  14. quotidian (Serina)

  15. progeny (Petronius)

  16. detractor (Kate)

  17. admonish (Isha)

  18. pedestrian (Ty)

  19. muliebrity (Izumi)

  20. Pyrrhic victory (Samantha)

  21. Mos Maiorum (Kallia)

  22. ab marī usque ad mare (Lauren)

  23. dulce et decorum est pro patria mori (Clara)

Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, lines 354-380.

cogo, cogere, coegi, coactus - compel. constrain, force

commodo (1) to furnish, make fit, adapt 

depello, depellere, depuli, depulsus - to drive off

erro (1) to wander; to make a mistake 

exsisto, exsistere, exstiti - to appear, arise, become

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to wage, conduct, wear, accomplish

neco (1) to kill

oppugno (1) to attack 

oportet, oportēre, oportuit (impersonal verb) - it is proper, it is fitting + subjective acc. + infinitive

paenitet, paenitēre, paenituit (impersonal verb) - it causes an accusative to regret something in the genitive case

postulo (1) claim, demand, request, accuse

progredior, progredi, progressus sum - go forth, advance

puto (1) to think 

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum- to seek, to procure, to get 

removeo, removere, removi, remotus - remove

repello, repellere, reppuli, repulsus - to drive away, repel 

studeo, studere, studui + dative=  to be eager for, support, to favour

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take, assume, consume

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to protect, watch over, look at, to keep


auctor, auctoris (m/f) the person with authority or power; agent 

aurum, -i (n) gold

fons, fontis (m) - spring, source, font 

matrona, -ae (f) married woman, 

mulier, mulieris (f) woman

odium, -i (n) hate, hatred 

ops, opis (f) resources; power, influence

opus, operis (n) work, task, labor

persona, -ae (f) an actor’s mask, dramatic character

potio, potionis (f) drink, 

quaesito, quaesitionis (f) a seeking, investigation, judicial inquiry 

sedes, sedis (f) seat, foundation

signum, -i (n) sign, signal; battle standard 

solus, a, um - along, only(-ius paradigm)

venenum, -i (n) poison 


idem, eadem, idem (adj.) the same

duo, duae, duo - two (how does this word decline?)

egregrius, a, um - outstanding, remarkable 

impudicus, a, um - immoral, indecent

inimicus, a, um + dative - hostile, political enemy

nobilis, -e-  noble, of noble birth  

notus, a, um - well-known


clam (adv.) secretly

nisi (conj.) unless, except, if...not

non solum...verum etiam (conj.) not only....but also

opus est + ablative = there is a need of + ablative case.

praesertim (adv.) especially 

potius (comp. adv.) rather, more

rursus or rursum (adv.) again

secus quam (adv.) not otherwise than 

tantus…quantus (correlatives) - as great…as; as much…as


List of Vocabulary for Pro Caelio, lines 102-165.

abhorreo, abhorrere, abhorrui - to shudder, to shrink back from

arbitror (1) to think, reckon 

coepi, coepisse, coeptus - to begin (defective verb, lacks present system).

deleo, delere, delevi, deletus - to destory 

exsisto, exsistere, exstiti - to apear, arise 

haereo, haerere, haesi, haesum - to stick, to cling to, adhere 

memini, meminisse (defective verb) to remember

nego (1) to deny; say… not (head verb) 

nitor, nitī, nisus sum - to rely on + ablative case

odī, odiise - to hate (defective verb, lacks present system).

oportet, oportēre, oportui (impersonal verb) - it is proper, it is fitting + subjective acc. + infinitive

paenitet, paenitēre, paenituit (impersonal verb) - it causes one (in genitive) to regret something (in accusative)

studeo, studere, studui + dative=  to be eager for, support, to favour

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to protect, watch over, look at, to keep

utor, uti, usus sum + abl. case=  to use, to enjoy, to employ

vivo, vivere, vixi, victum - to live, to be; to act 


advocatus, -i (m) supporter, assistant

aetas, aetatis (f) age; time of life

crimen, criminis (n) charge

facultas, facultatis (f) power, skill, opportunity 

finis, finis (m) boundary, end, limit

gravitas, gravitatis (f) seriousness, authority, dignity 

infamia, -ae (f) bad repute, infamy

libīdo, libidinis (f) passion, sexual desire 

modus, -i (m) measure, limit, manner, way

radix, radicis (f) root; foundations (radical) 

studium, - i (n) eagerness, zeal; pursuit

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, excellence; virtue

vitium, -i (n) vice


adsiduus, a, um - continuous, uninterrupted 

aliquot (indecl. adj.) some, several 

familiaris, -is, -e- intimate, familial, friendly + dative

improbus, a, um - base, immoral

iucundus, a, um - pleasant, agreeable 

turpis, -is, -e-  base, vile, disgusting 


aliquanto (adv.) at some time 

aliquanto (adv.) by somewhat

cum....tum (conj.) both...and; not only...but also


iterum (adv.) again, a second time

magis (comp. adv.) more, rather

paene (adv.) almost, nearly 

umquam (adv.) ever

nimium or nimis (adv. or adj.) too much, excessive 

numquam (adv.) never

ergo (adv.) therefore


Phrases and idioms: 

opus est = there is a need

quā rē - for which reason 

quōque modō - however much



List for the exordium of the Pro Caelio

Be able to decline: opus acre and ops nulla as part of this quiz. 

adsum, adesse, adfui - to be present

cōnstituō, cōnstituere, constituī, constitūtus - to establish, put in place

dubito (1) to doubt, to be uncertain 

ignosco, ignoscere, ignovi, ignotum - to pardon + dative case

improbo (1) to disapprove, condemn 

licet, licere, licuit - it is permitted + dative + infinitive 

miror, mirari, miratus sum - to wonder or marvel at

nitor,, nitī, nisus or nixus sum - to rely on + ABLATIVE CASE

oppugno (1) to attack 

obsideo obsidere, obsedi, obsessus - to besiege, to blockade (obsession) 

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitum - to investigate, inquire

verso (1) to turn over and over; to engage in 


aetas, aetātis (f) age, time of life; youth 

causa, -ae (f) cause; case

crimen, criminis (n) charge (not a crime) 

civitas, civitatis (f) state, nation 

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; crime

gratia, -ae (f) charm, influence (ingratiate) 

iudicium, -ii (n) court, trial, judgment

lex, legis (f) law

ludus, -i (m) game, games 

negotium, -ii (n) business, legal work 

odium, -ii (n) hatred, hate 

otium, -ii (n) leisure 

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion to father/family, gods and fatherland 

spes, speī (f) hope, expectation, ambition 

vis, vis (f) force, violence; strength (in the plural) 


aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, anything

quisquam, quaequam, quicquam/quidquam (indef. pron.) - someone, anyone 

uter, utra, utrum (interrogative pron.) which of two? 


ācer, ācris, ācre - sharp, fierce, bitter, harsh

acerbus, a, um - bitter, hostile 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same

inlustris, inlustre - bright, clear, eminent 

festus, a, um - of a holiday 

forensis, forense - of the forum, legal 

nullus, a, um - no (what paradigm) 

tantus, a, um - so great



cotidie - daily, on any day

forte (adv.) by chance 

non modo…sed etiam - not only …but also 

nec (coordinating conj.) nor,  and…not

neque (coordinating conj.) nor, and…not

ne…quidem  - not even 

nimis (adv.) too much, excessive 

quīn (conj.) that- generally following negative verbs or words of doubt

vel… vel (conjunction) either..or


List for Second Vocabulary Quiz from Velleius on Gaius Gracchus

*adsum, adesse, adfui - to be present

*armo (1) to arm (armatus, a, um = armed) 

*caveo, cavere, cavi, cautus, a, um - to guard against; beware of 

*cieo, ciere, civi, citus, a, um - to move, stir, agitate 

*excido, excidere - to destroy 

*ingredior, ingredī, ingressus sum - to enter

*miror, mirari, miratus sum - to be astonished, marvel at

*occupo (1) to seize 

*peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek e

*prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus, a, um - to bring forth 


*animus, -i (m) mind 

*crudelitas, crudelitatis (f) cruelty 

*cervix, cervicis (f) neck, nape of the neck  

*eques, equitis (m) equites, knights (Rome’s non-patrician aristocracy)

*error, erroris (m) wandering, mistake; wandering from the correct path 

*exemplum, -i (n) example, a sample, model 

*frumentum, -i (n) grain, grain supply

*furor, furoris (m) rage, madness (an important Roman political word)

*iudicium, -ii (n) court, judgment 

*mors, mortis (f) death 

*mos, moris (m) manner, custom (mores)   Know: mos maiorum

*quies, quietis (f) rest, peace, quiet 

*plebs, plebis (f) Roman Plebs, common people 

*potentia, -ae (f) power

*princeps, principis (m) leader

*status, -ūs (m) state, position, condition 

*virtus, virtutis (f) courage; virtue 


*acer, acris, arce - bitter, fierce; controversial 

*mirus, a, um - miraculous, incredible 

*pravus, a, um - deformed, perverse, depraved 

*summus, a, um - highest 


*quisquam, quidquam (indefinite adj.) - any 


*gratiā or causā + preceding genitive case = for the sake off

*quin (conj.)- but indeed, rather;  that (often introduces a clause denoting doubt). 

*aeque (adv.) equally, justly 

*aliquando (adv.) at any time, once 


*forte (adv.) by chance

*paene (adv.) almost, nearly 

*plus (comp. adv.) more


Vocabulary List for Tiberius Gracchus from Periocha of Livy

*abrogo (1) - repeal, take away, remove (abrogate)

*icio, icere, ici, ictus - to hit, strike

*iudico (1) - to judge, to decide, to declare

*incito (1) - to urge, put in montion, incite

*occīdo, occīdere, occīdī, occisus - to kill

*ostendo, ostendere, ostendī, ostensus - to show, reveal, expose (ostentatious) 

*relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictum - abandon, to leave behind, to leave

*spero (1) to hope


*auctor, auctoris (m) doer, originator, leader, author of an act

*causa, -ae (f) case; cause

*collega, -ae (m) colleague 

*cupiditas, cupiditatis (f) desire

*furor, furoris (m) rage, madness 

*hēres, heridis (c.) heir 

*modus, -i (m) measure; way, means, method 

offensa, -ae (f) a striking; injury, offense

*optimates, optimatium (m. pl.) - conservation senatorial aristocracy 

*pars, partis (f) part, direction, side, party

*pecunia, -ae (f) money

*rostra, -orum (n. p.) speaker’s platform in the forum

*socer, soceri (m) father-in-law

*seditio, seditionis (f) insurrection, uprising


*amplus, a, um -large, ample, full 

*lātus, a, um - wide, broad, extensive

*privatus, a, um - private (opposite of “publicus”)


*deinde (adv.) next, then 

*adversus (prep + acc.) against = contra + acc. 

*iterum (adv.) again, a second time

*plus (comp. adv.) - more

*rursus (adv.) again 

*qua (interrogative adv.) where? 

*quoniam - since, because