Beginning of book II Vocabulary List Aeneid Vergil 

a(d)spicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectus - to see, behold, look at 

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)

attollo, attollere - raise up, lift

aveho, avehere, avexi, avectus - to carry away, convey

careo, carere, carui + abl.  - to lack, be free from

dignor, dignari, dignatus sum + abl.   - to deem worthy

everto, evertere, eversi, eversus - to over turn; destroy 

for, farī, fatus sum - to speak 

excutio, excutere, excussī, excussus - to shake off

fugleo, fulgere - to shine, flash 

haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum - to drain, to drink in

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically 

incumbo, incumbere, incubui + dative - to lean upon, hand over

includo, inculdere, inclusi, inclusus - to enclose, confine 

insto, instare - to press on, urge + dative

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

lambo (1) to lick 

lateo, latere, latui - to hide, to lurk (latent

ligo (1) to bind, fasten

lego, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose 

macto (1) slaughter 

occido, occidere, occidi, occasus - to fall, to perish 

occulto (1) to hide (occult) 

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to give birth, gain, acquire

sinuo (1) fold, curve, twist (insinuate) 

statuo, statuere, statui, statutus - establish, set up 

sisto, sistere, steti, status - stand, stop, stay

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to lay low; spread; strew 

suscito (1) to stir, to arouse

supero (1) to surmount, overcome

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover

tango, tangere, tetigi, tactus (papyrus saxum tangit).

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to watch over; protect

ulcisor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge   (Temple of Mars Ultor) 

 

aether, eris (m) upper air; heavens

ala, -ae (f) wing

amnis, -is (m) river 

anguis, -is (m) snake

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint, body

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

caterva, -ae (f) crowd, band

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill 

conubium, -ii (n) marriage

culpa, -ae (f) fault, offense, blame

culmen, culminis (n) peak, summit, top; acme 

custos, custodis (m) guard 

dolus, -i (m) trick, fraud, deciet

dolor, doloris (m) grief; angry; pain 

ensis, -is (m) sword; knife

error, erroris (m) error; trick, deceit; a wandering

facies, faciei (m) face; appearance 

fictum, -i (n) falsehood

fragor, fragoris (m) a crashing, crashing noise

insania, -ae (f) madness, frenzy

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, wailing 

latus, lateris (n) side, flank 

letum, -i (n) death

lignum, -i (n) wood

nepos, nepotis (m) descendent 

pulvis, pulveris (m) dust 

quisquis, quidquid (indef. pronoun) whoever, whatever

robur, roburis (m) oak; strength 

rota, -ae (f) wheel 

sermo, sermonis (m) speech, conversation 

solum, -i (n) ground, soil, earth 

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate, destiny 

uterus, -i (m) womb, belly

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each, both 

vitta, -ae (f) garland, fillet

 

conscius, a, um - aware, privy to 

defessus, a, um - weary; exhausted 

extremus, a, um- final, last, furthest 

incolumis, -e - safe, unharmed, uninjured 

invisus, a, um - hated; hateful 

laevus, a, um - left; stupid; ill-omened 

fetus, a, um - teeming with, pregnant with 

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting, filthy 

furtivus, a, um - stolen, secret

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift, active 

secundus, a, um - following, favorable 

tenax, tenacis (adj.) holding

tutus, a, um - safe

umidus, a, um - damp, dewy, wet

 

enim (adv.)  for, indeed, truly 

denique (adv.) finally, at last 

nusquam (adv.) nowhere; never

pariter (adv.) equally, alike 

passim (adv.) everywhere, here and there 

procul (adv.) at or from a distance 

totidem - the same number; so many

totiens - so often

list for the Aeneid

Be able to decline:  haec vis or illud mare or litus ipsum

Anchises, -ae (m) acc. =Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argi, -orum (m. pl.) Argos, city in Greece where Juno is worshipped 

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek 

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Ganymēdēs, -is (m) Trojan boy and son of Laomedon, king of Troy

Lāvīnius, a, um - Lavinian, of Lavinium 

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates 

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan (Teucer was a king of Troy)

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn 

Trōs, Trōis (m) Trojan

Words of Special Significance:

moles, molis (f) a mass, weight, burden 

pietas, pietatis (f) 

pius, a, um 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

vatēs, vatis (m) bard, prophet, singer; poet

accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage 

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter 

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain 

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive 

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent 

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour 

furo, furere, furui - to rage, rave, be frantic 

iacto (1) to toss, buffet 

impello, impellere, impulī, impulsus - to strike against, drive, force 

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to stride; go forth; walk 

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, to slide 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to hurt, strike, offend 

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow 

pateo, patere, patui - to be open, to be revealed

ruo, ruere, rui - fall; rush; sink

sino, sinere, sivi - to permit, allow

tendo, tendere, tetendi, tentus - to stretch

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea 

altum, -i (n) the deep, the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field 

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason 

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune, chance

cura, -ae (f) care, anxiety, 

currus, -ūs (m) chariot

donum, -i (n) gift

fatum, -i (n) fate

fors, fortis (f) chance, fortune

fluctus, us (m) wave, tide, flood, sea

furia, -ae (f) rage, madness 

genus, generis (n) race; kind, origin, 

gens, gentis (f) clan, race, nation

litus, litoris (n) shore

moenia, -ium (n) walls

numen, numinis (n) divine authority, divinity

ora, -ae (f) shore 

pontus, -i (m) sea

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring 

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul 

relinquiae, ārum (fe. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star

socius, -i (m) ally, comrade, follower 

sanguis, -inis (m) blood

somnus, -i (m) sleep, slumber; dream 

turbo, turbinis (m) whirlwind 

 

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh 

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black, gloomy

caelestis, -e(adj.) of the sky, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) rich 

fessus, a, um - tired, weary 

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous 

insignis, -e- marked, distinguished 

invīsus, a, um - hated 

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed 

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath

imus, a, um - the lowest, the deepest

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage

vetus, veteris (adj.) old 

 

enim - for, indeed, in truth 

insuper (adv.) above, besides 

lātē (adv.) widely, far and wide 

longe (adv.) far off

necdum (adv.) not yet

olim (adv.) once upon a time, once

praeterea (adv.) besides, hereafter

qua (adv.) where, in anyway

quo (adv.) to where?

quippe - truly, indeed surely 

una (adv.) together, at the same time 

unde - from which, whenc 

Final Caesar Vocabulary List

Verb game on:  vereor, verērī, veritus sum

Be able to decline:   hoc līberum mūnus or ista turpis vis

cingō, cingere, cinxī, cinctus - to surround, to grid; to equip 

cōgō, cōgere, cōēgī, cōactus - to compel, to bring together

communicō (1) to share, to impart 

comprendō, comprehendere, comprehendī, comprehensus - to grasp; to seize (comprehensive, comprehension) 

concidō, concidere, concidī - to fall, to collapse 

concīdō, concīdere, concīdī, concīsus - to cut down 

contendō, contendere, condendī, contentus - to strive, to hasten 

dēfīgō, dēfīgere, dēfīxī, dēfīxus - to stick fast 

discō, discere, didicī - to learn (discāmus) 

ēdūcō, ēdūcere, ēdūxī, ēductus - to lead out, to bring up

expectō, expectāre - to look out for; wait for 

haereō, haerēre - to cling (inherent) 

hauriō, haurīre, hausī, hausus - to drain, to empty 

iactō (1) to toss (frequentive) + reflexive pron.  = to boast

iūdicō, iūdicāre - to judge (ius, iuris n.)

imperō (1) to command + dative of person commanded 

iuvō, iuvāre, iuvī - to help (adiutor, adiutoris m. - helper)

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to chose, to pick

ligō, ligare - to bind, to tie (ligament) 

metuō, metuere - to fear (Metus Gallicus

mandō (1) to entrust; to order 

necō, necāre - to kill 

noscō, noscere, nōvī, nōtus - to recognize, to learn, to be familiar with; to know 

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tactile)

opugnō (1) to attack

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case

pariō, parere, peperī, partus - to give birth to, to produce

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive (repellent, repulsive) 

percutiō, percutere, percussī, percussus - to strike hard

praeficiō, praeficere - to put an accusative in charge of a dative

praesum, praeesse, praefuī - to be in charge of + dative

rumpō, rumpere, rupī, ruptus - to burst 

servō (1) to save, to keep

serviō, servīre - to serve + dative

tradō, tradere, tradidī, traditus - to hand over; surrender 

traho, trahere, traxi, tractus - to drag, to pull (detractor) 

transfīgō, transfīgere, transfīxī, transfīxus - to pierce, thrust through 

tegō, tegere, texī, tectus - to cover (tectum = building, roof). 

vehō, vehere, vēxī, vectus - to carry, to convey; to travel (middle sense) 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

versor (1) to be engaged; to be turned 

volutō (1) to roll, to turn over and over 

 

aequor, aequoris (n) level surface; sea 

aditus, aditūs (m) approach, access (ad + eo

anima, animae (f) breath, spirit, soul 

animus, animī (m) mind, heart; spirit, courage

biduum, biduī (n) two day period 

caedēs, caedis (f) slaughter, murder 

cāsus, cāsūs (f) a falling; chance, misfortune (cāsū = by chance) 

certāmen, certāminis (n) contest, conflict 

copia, copiae (f) supply, abundance; in plural: troops, forces

consuetūdō, consuetūdinis (f) custom, habit

dolor, doloris (m) suffering, pain 

dolus, dolī (m) trick; deception 

facinus, facinōris (n) crime, bad deed; deed 

fās (indecl.) right, just according to divine law

foedus, foederis (n) treaty; contract 

ignis, ignis (m) fire (igneous rock) 

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want 

lapis, lapidis (m) stone 

liber, librī (m) book 

līber, līberōrum (m. pl.) children 

mōlēs, mōlis (f) mass; burden

modus, modī (m) manner, form; measure 

morbus, morbī (m) disease, illness 

mūnus, mūneris (n) service, duty, gift; tax (munificence) 

mundus, mundī (m) world, universe (spiritus mundi

nefās (indecl.) wrong, not just according to divine law

obsidiō, obsidiōnis (f) seige

plērusque, plēraque, plērumque - very many

pons, pontis (m) bridge (Pontifex Maximus) 

pontus, pontī (m) sea (Pontus Euxinus = Black Sea) 

praesidium, praesidiī (n) a guard, protection  (Caesar praesidiō maximō semper utitur)

sinus, sinūs (m) fold, indentation, bay, etc

spatium, spatiī (n) space (both spacial and temporal) spatium temporis

supplicium, -iī (n) punishment 

supplex, supplicis (m) suppliant 

tectum, tectī (n) roof, building, hall, palace 

vāgīna, -ae (f) sheath (where gladius, gladiī m. lives) 

unda, undae (f) wave

 

ambo, ambae ambo - both (ambidextrous) 

duo, duae, duo - two

caelestis, caeleste - celestial, heavenly 

creber, crebra, crebrum - frequent, thick; crowded 

cupidus, a, um - desirous (Mia est cupida mordendārum ursārum)

foedus, a, a, um - foul, disgusting 

gratia, gratiae (f) favour, influence; thanks

immanis, immane- immense, enormous 

immitis, immite   - fierce, cruel (Lydia est immitis)

inimīcus, a, um - rivaling, hostile + dative 

insignis, insigne - distinguished, remarkable 

indignus, a, um - unworthy of + ABLATIVE CASE (Favale est dignus summā laude)   

invisus, a, um - hated, hateful, odious 

memor, menoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

- unwilling

memor, menoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

mollis, molle - soft (mollify) 

idōneus, a, um - suited to + dative

peritus, a, um - skilled in/at + genitive 

imperitus, a, um - unskilled, inexperienced 

impius, impia, impium - unholy, impious (impius Mars; pius Aeneas

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous 

līber, lībera, līberum - free; as substantive = children

reliquus, a, um - the remaining, the rest 

superior, superius - higher, earlier (Adamo est superior) 

temerārius, a, um - rash, inconsiderate (temerity) 

turpis, turpe - ugly, shameful (turpitude) 

tumulus, tumulī (m) pile, heap, mound, hill 

 

quisquam, quidquam (indefinite) anyone, anything

quisque, quidque (indefinite) each one, each thing (cuique suum redde - give to each his own) 


cōnfestim (adv.) immediately

inde  - from there, then

unde - from where, whence

modo (adv.) only, recently, just now 

nam - for

necdum - not yet

nē…quidem = not even   

praeter (prep. + acc.) beyond, past

quippe - surely, indeed

quoad - until, as far as, as long as 

quotannis - every year, yearly 

tantum (adv.) only 

unde - from where, whence

Caesar Vocabulary List - Book 5 (end) and 6

1) Be able to decline:         hoc magnum munus;  hoc grave os;   quoddam alienum numen

2) Expect verb game on:     for, fari, fatus sum - to speak and colo, colere, colui, cultus

fertur = he, she, it is said

abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditus - to put away, hide, remove, secrete

cano, canere, cecini, cantus - to sing 

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to worship; to cultivate 

comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi - seize, grasp, arrest

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, establish

conor, conari, conatus sum - to try 

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-transvestite) + dative  = to trust 

conspicor (1) to catch sight of; perceive 

contego, contegere, contexi, contextum - cover over

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum - to give out, to fail (defective, deficient)

dimico (1) to brandish weapon; contend; to fight

excido, excidere - to fall from, perish 

fertur = he, she, it is said

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak (infant, forum, fate)

foveo, fovere -to keep warm; cherish, support

iacto (1) to toss, buffet (rex se iactat = the king boasts)

immolo (1) to sacrifice , immolate 

impello, impellere, impuli, impulsus - to drive, force, strike 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum - to hurt, injure; offend 

metuo, metuere, metui - fear, dread 

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; to allow + acc. + inf. 

rego, regere, rexi, rectum - to rule, lead, direct 

servo, servare - to keep, preserve 

sino, sinere, sivi, situs - permit, allow 

succurro, succurrere - to aid, run to support + dative 

versor (1) to be engaged in 

volvo, volvere, volvi, volutus - to wind, roll, twist

 

alter, altera, alterum (-ius paradigm) the other, another, one…the other

altum, -i (n) the deep; the sea 

aequor, aequoris (n) a flat level surface; the sea

aes, aeris (n) bronze

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason; case                    

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster    casū = by chance

conspectus, -us (m) look, sight, view

currus, -us (m) chariot 

excidium, -ii (n) destruction, overthrow 

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, report

furiae, -arum (f) madness, rage 

furtum, -i (n) theft, robbery 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan

genus, generis (n) kind, class, race, (genus, sui generis)

iniuria, -ae (f) injury, wrong

litus, litoris (n) shore 

moenia, -ium (n. pl.) walls

moles, molis (f) mass, burden, difficulty (mole)

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

munus, muneris (n) service, duty; gift 

noxia, -ae (f) fault, offence, crime

numen, numinis (n) divine spirit, divine power

opinio, opinionis (f) opinion, thought, belief 

opus, operis (n) task, work; fortification; need 

ops, opis (f) help, resources, power, wealth 

ora, orae (f) shore

os, oris (n) mouth; face

os, ossis (n) bone

pilum, -i (n) spear

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring 

quisquam, quaequam, quidquam - anybody, anyone, anything

sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood; family, race 

sal, salis (n) salt; sea water; the sea

verutum, -i (n) javalin 

vultus, -us (m) face; expression 

 

asper, aspera, asperum - harsh, rough, fierce 

caelestis, caeleste - celestial, heavenly 

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

confertus, a, um - crowded together, densely packed 

dives, divitis (adj.) wealthy, rich 

immanis, immane- immense, enormous 

immitis, immite   - fierce, cruel 

insignis, insigne- distinguished, remarkable 

indignus, a, um - unworthy of + ABLATIVE CASE

invisus,a, um - hated, hateful, odious 

memor, menoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel 

tot (indecl. adj.)  so many

quot (indecl. adj.) how many? 

turpis, turpe - shameful, ugly, vile 

uter, utra, utrum?  Which of two (-ius paradigm)

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two

vetus, veteris (adj.) old 

vivus, a, um - living, alive

 

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

causā + preceding genitive = "for the sake of" 

clam (adv.) in secret

circum + acc.  = around 

dum (subord. conj.) + indicative = while 

dum (subord. conj.) + subjunctive = until 

enim - for, indeed, in truth 

magis (adv.) more, rather

necdum - not yet

nondum - not yet 

ob + acc.  - on account of 

palam (adv.) openly, publicly

paulatim (adv.) little by little

qua (adv.) where, in any way 

quoque (adv.) also 

 

fertur = he, she, it is said

List Four for De Bello Gallico

Verb game on: dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus or patior, patī, passus sum

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover 

concedo, concedere - to withdraw; to yield, to grant 

cōnsistō, cōnsistere, cōnstitī, — [sistō, stand], take a stand or position, keep one’s position, stand, form (when soldiers make a formation); stop, halt, remain, stay; (of ships) lie at anchor; consist in, depend or rest on. 

cōnstō, -stāre, -stitī, -stātum [stō, stand], stand firm; depend on; be complete; cost; constat (impersonal)  it is agreed, certain, evident, or known. 

cōnstituō, -stituere, -stituī, -stitūtum [statuō] set up], set up, erect, construct, appoint, decide, decree, determine, establish, set, settle; (of troops) draw up (in formation); (of ships) anchor, station; raise (a legion). 

cōnsuēscō, -suēscere, -suēvī, -suētum [suēscō, become used to], become accustomed or used to; perf. be accustomed; cōnsuētus, perf. part. as adj.: accustomed, usual.  

concīdō, conīidere, concīdī, concīsus - to cut down 

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to trust, to rely on + dat.

conficiō, conficere, confēcī, confectus - to exhaust; to finish off, to complete

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position 

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in 

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament) 

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose; to read

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive 

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally  in Caesar: ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri = "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

oppugnō (1) to attack 

obsideō, obsidēre, obsēdī, obsessus - to besiege, to blockade (obsession) 

oportet, oportēre, oportui (impersonal verb) - it is proper, it is fitting + subjective acc. + infinitive

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to endure; to allow (passive, patient)

pateō, patēre, patuī - to be open, to lie open (intransitive verb)

paenitet, paenitēre, paenituit (impersonal verb) - it causes one (in genitive) to regret something (in accusative) or may generate indirect statement. 

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance 

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray 

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance 

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; to take up; spend 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy 

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive 

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live 

vereor, vereri, veritus sum -to fear, be afraid

 

adventus, -ūs (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple 

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit 

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing

casus, -ūs (m) chance; misfortune, disaster 

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart 

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime 

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay 

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas). 

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice 

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

līberī, - ōrum (m) children 

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight 

morbus, -ī (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment 

nutus, -ūs (m) a nod

numen, numinis (f) divine spirit; divinity 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade 

ratio, rationis (f) - a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business; a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -ī (n) shield 

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)   

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard 

vallum, -ī (n) rampart, wall 

 

acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid) 

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together 

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager 

immanis, immane enormous, immense 

inferus, a, um - below, lower 

impeditus, a, um-  hindered, impeded 

impius, a, um - impious, unholy 

incolumis, incolume [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.)  a certain 

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, turpe- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude) 

uter, utra, utrum - which of two? 

vivus, a, um - living, alive 

 

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or 

bis (adv.) twice 

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively 

intus (adv.) within 

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among 

confestim (adv.) immediately 

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor 

nōndum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day. 

quidem (postpositive) - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also 

rursus (adv.) again, back 

sicut - just as, so as 

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio - “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio: 'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum - in this manner

in perpetuum - forever 

se receperunt - they retreated

longe lateque - far and wide

eodem die - on the same day 

subductis navibus - ships drawn up 

magna manu - with a large group of men 

coin british chariot .jpg

summo loco - in the highest position



List Three - Caesar, De Bello Gallico

Be able to decline:  hoc opus &  eadem fides

Expect verb game on the back for repello or pario

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - get, obtain, reach 

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; to be eager 

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall 

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessus - to move, to withdraw 

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround 

coepi, coepisse, coeptum - to begin (defective verb) 

concito (1) to incite, stir, impel 

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to admit, to reveal 

confido, confidere, confisus sum - to trust, believe (semi-deponent) 

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to see, to behold 

consulo, consulere, consului, consultus - to consult, to consider

compleo, complere, complevi, completus - to fill 

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought

despero (1) to give up, to have not hope

disco, discere, didici - to learn, get to know 

excito (1) excite, inspire; raise 

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus - to go out

impetro (1) to obtain, accomplish 

interpono, interponere, interposui - to introduce 

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, glide 

minuo, minuere, minui - to diminish 

munio, (4) to fortify 

nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum - to obtain, meet

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to recognize; know, learn  

nego (1) to deny, to say ...not 

nitor, niti, nisus sum - to lean on; to rely on 

paro (1) to prepare (semper paratus)

pareo, parere, parui - to obey + dative

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, bear 

pendeo, pendere, pependi, pensus - pay, weigh, to hang 

polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer

probo (1) to approve, demonstrate

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - raise; destroy 

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be afraid, fear

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge, take vengeance 

 

aditus, -us (m) approach, entrance 

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout 

casus, -us (m) misfortune, change

centurio, centurionis (m) centurion 

circuitus, -us (m) circumference, circuit 

contumelia, -ae (f) insult, outrage; violence 

fames, famis (f) hunger

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor; reputation 

familiaris, -e- of the family; close friend 

fides, fidei (f) faith, honor, trust 

fletus, -us (m) weeping 

hiems, hiemis (f) winter

hiberna, -orum (n. Pl.) winter-camp

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want, need

ignis, -is (m) fire 

meritum, -i (n) service, favour

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner (mos maiorum, mores)

negotium, -ii (n) business, a task 

officium, -ii (n) duty 

opus, operis (n) work, toil; defenses 

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention 

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence

praesidium, -ii (n) guard, protection 

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion/loyalty to family, state/nations and gods

ratio, rationis (f) an accounting, reasoning 

scala, -ae (f) ladder, stairs 

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, purpose 

sermo, sermonis (m) conversation, speech 

studium, -ii (n) eagerness, zeal 

stipendium, -i (n) pay; military service 

voluntas, voluntatis (f) wish, will, choice 

vulgus, -i (n) mass, mob

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak 

alacer, alacris, alacere - eager, spirited 

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious 

confertus, a, um - crowded together 

humilis, -e- on the ground; humble, low

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous 

incolumis, -e- uninjured, safe

indignus, a, um + ablative= unworthy, undeserving 

idoneus, a, um - suitable, appropriate + dative case

levis, -e - light (opposite of gravis, -e)

par, paris - equal, similar + dative

repentinus, a, um - sudden, unexpected 

saucius, a, -um - wounded 

 

adeo, (adv.) to such an extent 

apud + acc. = in the presence of, with, among

casū (adv.) by chance

confestim (adv.) immediately 

eiusmodi - of this kind, of such a kind, so 

intra + acc.   = within 

inter + acc= between, among 

procul (adv.) far off, at a distance

quotiens - as often as

quoniam - since 

nondum (adv.) not yet

paene (adv.) almost 

rursus (adv.) again, backward

sive…sive or seu…seu - whether, or 

tametsi - even if, although 

unde - whence, from where

vero (postpositive)  in fact

List Two for Caesar - Mostly Martial Words

  "Them's Fighten' Words" or Words of a Mostly Martial Nature.

Be able to decline:   eadem magna acies           haec fortis manus       illa tota pars

attingo, attingere, attigī, attāctus to touch against; touch, reach, arrive at, border (ad + tango)

animadverto, animadvertere, animadverti, animadversum -  turn mind to, notice

conspicio, conspire, conspexi, conspectus -  to look at attentively, to get sight of, to descry, perceive

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to stretch completely; stretch, strain,

conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus - to hurl, to throw

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know). 

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to struggle, vie, fight 

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus - to give up, surrender 

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail + dative case

expugno (1) to take by storm, capture

existimo (1) to judge, consider, think 

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolo, incolere - to dwell, to inhabit  

incito (1) to drive forward, incite 

munio (4) to fortify 

nanciscor, nanciscī, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

potior, potiri, potitus sum + ABL or GEN.  = to gain possession of 

probo (1) approve, commend

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi - to go before, excel 

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward 

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out  

subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative

 

acies, aciei (f) battle line; battle; edge, line of sight 

agmen, agminis (n) marching line (novissimum agmen = rear of theline)

auxilium, -ii (n) help 

castra, -arum (n) camp

cohors, cohortis (f) cohort

cornu, -us (n) wing (of an army); horn 

copiae, -arum (f) troops

equites, equitum (m. pl.) cavalry

equitatus, -us (m) cavalry 

eruptio, eruptionis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, -us (m) army

fossa, -ae (f) ditch 

frumentum, -i (n) grain, (in plural = crops)

gladius, -ii (m) sword

impedimentum, -i (n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, -us (m) attack 

latus, lateris (n) side; flank

legatus, -i (m) envoy; lieutenant general

legio, legionis (f) legion (3600-6000 milites) 

manus, -us (f) hand; band or group of soldiers

miles, militis (m) soldier

munitio, munitionis (f) fortification 

murus, -i (m) wall 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade 

pars, partis (f) part, side; direction

passus, -us (m) step, pace

pilum, i (n) javelin 

praesidium, -ii (n) guard

proelium, -ii (n)  battle

profectio, profectionis (f) departure, setting out 

salus, salutis (f) safety, salvation 

scutum, -i (n) shield 

subsidium, -ii (n) help, reinforcement, support

telum, -i (n) weapon; spear 

turris, turris (turrim and turrium) (f) tower

usus, -us (m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae (f) watch (military)

vallum, -i (n) rampart; wall 

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour 

 

expeditus, a, um- lightly armed 

fortis, forte (adj.) brave, strong

paratus, a, um - prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um - slow 

 

apud (prep. + acc.) near, among, in the presence of 

ne...quidem = not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes) 

qua (relative) where

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propterea quod - because, on account of the fact that

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio - “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

capere consilium  - to adopt plan 

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio: 'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum - in this manner

in perpetuum - forever 

se receperunt - they retreated

longe lateque - far and wide

eodem die - on the same day 

subductis navibus - ships drawn up 

magna manu - with a large group of men 

summo loco - in the highest position

milia passuum - a Roman mile 

numero hostium habēre - to consider as an enemy

Caesar assassination murder Jean-Léon_Gérôme_-_The_Death_of_Caesar_-_Walters_37884.jpg

 

Beginning of Book VI

Acheron, Acherontis (m) River of Hades

Lacus Avernus - Lake near Cumae and entrance to Underworlld

Charon, Charontis (m) Charon, ferryman of souls across the river Styx 

Cocytus, -i (m) river in the underworld 

Dis, Ditis (m) Pluto, Hades, god of underworld 

Hecate - Infernal version of Diana

Proserpina, -ae (f) Peresphone 

Iris, Iridis (f) Iris, messenger of Juno and goddess of the rainbow

 

abluo, abluere, ablui, ablutus - to wash (off)

adnitor, adniti, adnisus sum - to lean on; struggle 

aestuo (1) boil, seethe, rage

arceo, acrere, arcui - to keep off, defend 

bacchor (1) to rave, rush wildly (what are Bacchantes/Maenades?)

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall 

concutio, concutere, concussi, concussus - to shake, shatter

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know). 

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus - fail, faint 

defungor, defungi, defunctus, a, um - perform, finish + ablative case

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail + dative case

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

fremo, fremere, fremui- roar, grown 

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie 

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus - to please, to help (often used impersonally) 

haereo, haerēre, haesī, haesum - to cling

haurio, haurire, hausī, haustus - to drain, drink in 

glomero (1) to gather, collect

miseror, miserari, miseratus sum - to pity

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain 

oro (1) to plead, to beg, to beseech, to pray 

queror, querī, questus sum - to complain 

recedo, recedere, recessī, recussus - to back, retreat

seco, secare, secui, sectus - to cut, cleave, slice

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to free, loosen, set free

spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsus - to scatter, sprinkled 

sperno, spernere, sprevi, spretus - scorn, reject

spumo (1) to foam 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear, be afraid of

verro, verrere, verri, versus - to sweep (over) 

 

aether, aetheris (m) upper air; heaven 

amnis, -is (m) river 

amictus, -ūs (m) cloak, robe 

calor, caloris (m) heat, warmth

canities, canitiei (f) whiteness

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune disater

casu (adv.) by change, accidentally 

comes, comitis (m/f) companion 

consilium, -ii (n) plan, counsel 

copia, -ae (f) abundance; troops, forces; supplies

culmen, culminis (n) top, summit

crinis, crinis (m) hair

folium, -i (n) leaf 

gemitus, -ūs (m) roar, groan, lament

harena, -ae (f) sand, beach 

halitus, -ūs (m) breath

heros, herois (m) hero, great warrior

lacus, -ūs (m) lake

mentum, -i (n) chin

mens, mentis (f) mind; thought, intension 

mos, moris (m) custom, manner

mors, mortis (f) death 

omen, ominis (n) omen

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention, service, hard work 

ops, opis (f) power, support ; in plural - resources; wealth, influence

opus, operis (n) work, task; fortification 

palus, paludis (f) swamp, marsh 

ramus, -i (m) brach of a tree

remus, -i (m) oar of ship

rota, -ae (f) wheel 

ripa, -ae (f) bank

rogus, -i (m) 

senectus, senectutis (f) old age 

sinus, -ūs (m) fold, boson, bay, hollow, indentation 

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance 

spatium, -ii (n) space, interval of time

torus, -i (m) couch, bed

usus, -us (m) use, need, purpose (usui is a common dative of purpose)

tumultus, -ūs (m) tumult, uprising, clamor 

vadum, -i (n) shallow, shoal 

 

angustus, a, um - narrow

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious 

crudus, a, um - raw, fresh; bloody 

expeditus, a, um - fast, unimpeded

exsanguis, -e bloodless, lifeless, pale 

examinis, -e - breathless, 

extremus, a, um - final, last, extreme

impertius, a, um - unskilled + gen. case

incolumis, -e- unharmed, safe 

incultus, a, um - wild, unkempt 

iniquus, a, um - unfair, unjust, hostile 

inhumatus, a, um - unburied 

inops, inopis (adj.) needy, destitute, bereft of

lividus, a, um - blue, dark 

sordidus, a, um - dirty, squalid 

trepidus, a, um - agitated, trembling

 

aliter (adv.) otherwise

non aliter quam - not otherwise than, just as (introduces a simile)

demum (adv.) at length, finally

enim - for, indeed, truly 

iuxta + acc. case = next to , close to 

inde(adv.) thence, thereupon, afterward 

quia - because

totiens - so often

totidem - the same number

ūnā (adv.) together, at the same time

Book Four, Aeneid, List One 

Be able to decline:   haec pulchrior species or hoc tōtum foedus

 

Elissa, ae (f) Phoenician name of Dido

Thyias, Thyiadis (f) cultic follower of Dionysus 

 

audeo, audere, ausus sum - to dare 

ambio, ambire, ambivi, ambitus - to go around (in search of support)

cano, canere - to sing 

excio, excire, excivi, excitus - to - to excite, rouse, stir up

foveo, fovere, fovi - to keep warm, cherish, to caress lovingly  

fraudo (1) to deprive of, to cheat out of + ablative case

fundo (1) to lay a foundation; to found

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour

fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi - to flash; to shine bright

gaudeo, gaudere, gavisus sum - to rejoice

gigno, gignere, genui, genitus - to birth, give birth to 

mando (1) to entrust; to order

maturo (1) to hasten + complementary infinitive
meditor meditari, meditatus sum - to ponder; plan; contemplate 

misereor, misereri + genitive case = to pity

piget, pigere, piguit (impersonal verb + acc. + inf.) it displeases, its causes regret 

praetexō, praetexere praetexuī, praetextus - to weave in front; to fringe;  conceal (pretext) 

propero (1) to hurry, to hasten 

potior, potiri, potitus sum (+ abl. or gen.) to take possession of  

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - to break, to burst (rumpens ilia) 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - to raise, to lift up 

saevio, saevire - to rage, to be cruel 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise  

umeo, umere - to be wet 

volo, velle, volui - to wish 

volo, volare - to fly 

 

aditus, -us (m) an approach 

aether, aetheris (m) - upper air, sky 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel

ars, artis (f) skill, art (Ars Amatoria)  

artus, -us (m) limbs

aspectus, -us (m) sight, vision 

aura, -ae (f) breeze 

classis, classis (f) fleet 

coniugium, -i (n) marriage

coma, -ae (f) hair 

conubium -i (n) marriage

custos, custodis (m) guard 

cruor, cruoris (m) blood, gore 

dolus, -i (m) trick, deception 

dulcis, dulce - sweet (est dulce rapere bovinam praedam

faucēs, faucium (f) the jaws, throat, mouth, entrance, jaws

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract 

funus, funeris (n) funeral, death 

grando, grandinis (f) hail 

laena, -ae (f) cloak

limen, liminis (n) threshold, doorway

lumen, luminis (n) light, eye

metus, -us (m) fear

mūnus, mūneris (n) gift; games; duty (munificent) 

monitus, -us (m) warning, admonition 

orgia, -orum (n. pl.) secret rites, mysteries 

otium, -ii (n) leisure, time of leisure 

planta, -ae (f) sole of foot; foot

sidus, sideris (n) star

solum, solī (n) ground 

sors, sortis (f) lot, fortune, fate, chance 

species, speciei (f) appearance 

spons, spontis (f) will, volition 

tectum, tectī (n) building, palace; shelter; roof 

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak; wounded 

alienus, a, um - foreign, alien

amarus, a, um - bitter 

bovinus, a, um - bovine (bovinity) 

caecus, a, um - blind 

conscius, a, um - privy to, aware of + dative

ensis, ensis (m) sword 

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting 

furtivus, a, um - secret, furtive

hibernus, a, um - winter, of the winter

infestus, a, um - hostile 

incolumis, -e   - uninjured, safe

inops, inopis (adj.) lacking in wealth; devoid of + genitive case

mirabilis, mirabile - wonderous (mirabile dictu) 

mollis, -e soft; kind (mollify) 

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift (pernicious) 

perfidus, a, um - treacherous, false; deceitful 

pinguis, pingue -fat, rich

potior, potius (comp. adj.) more powerful; stronger; more important  

saucius, a, um - wounded 

socius, a, um - allied 

tutus, a, um - safe

undosus, a, um - abounding in waves, stormy 

uxorius, a, um - under a wife’s control 

velox, velocis (adj.) swift

 

continuo (adv.) immediately, at once

nusquam (adv.) no where

numquam (adv.) never 

ocius (adv.) rahter quickly; quickly, speedily 

omnino (adv.) wholly, entirely, altogether

pro re (legal idiom) - for my own case

tandem (adv.) at last, finally

ultro (adv.) beyond, from the other side, in reply

 

 

Beginning of book II Vocabulary List Aeneid Vergil 

a(d)spicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectus - to see, behold, look at 

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)

attollo, attollere - raise up, lift

aveho, avehere, avexi, avectus - to carry away, convey

careo, carere, carui + abl.  - to lack, be free from

dignor, dignari, dignatus sum + abl.   - to deem worthy

everto, evertere, eversi, eversus - to over turn; destroy 

for, farī, fatus sum - to speak 

excutio, excutere, excussī, excussus - to shake off

fugleo, fulgere - to shine, flash 

haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum - to drain, to drink in

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically 

incumbo, incumbere, incubui + dative - to lean upon, hand over

includo, inculdere, inclusi, inclusus - to enclose, confine 

insto, instare - to press on, urge + dative

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

lambo (1) to lick 

lateo, latere, latui - to hide, to lurk (latent

ligo (1) to bind, fasten

lego, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose 

macto (1) slaughter 

occido, occidere, occidi, occasus - to fall, to perish 

occulto (1) to hide (occult) 

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to give birth, gain, acquire

sinuo (1) fold, curve, twist (insinuate) 

statuo, statuere, statui, statutus - establish, set up 

sisto, sistere, steti, status - stand, stop, stay

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to lay low; spread; strew 

suscito (1) to stir, to arouse

supero (1) to surmount, overcome

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to watch over; protect

ulcisor, ulicisci, ultus sum - to avenge   (Temple of Mars Ultor) 

 

aether, eris (m) upper air; heavens

ala, -ae (f) wing

amnis, -is (m) river 

anguis, -is (m) snake

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint, body

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

caterva, -ae (f) crowd, band

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill 

conubium, -ii (n) marriage

culpa, -ae (f) fault, offense, blame

culmen, culminis (n) peak, summit, top; acme 

custos, custodis (m) guard 

dolus, -i (m) trick, fraud, deciet

dolor, doloris (m) grief; angry; pain 

ensis, -is (m) sword; knife

error, erroris (m) error; trick, deceit; a wandering

facies, faciei (m) face; appearance 

fictum, -i (n) falsehood

fragor, fragoris (m) a crashing, crashing noise

insania, -ae (f) madness, frenzy

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, wailing 

latus, lateris (n) side, flank 

letum, -i (n) death

lignum, -i (n) wood

nepos, nepotis (m) descendent 

pulvis, pulveris (m) dust 

quisquis, quidquid (indef. pronoun) whoever, whatever

robur, roburis (m) oak; strength 

rota, -ae (f) wheel 

sermo, sermonis (m) speech, conversation 

solum, -i (n) ground, soil, earth 

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate, destiny 

uterus, -i (m) womb, belly

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each, both 

vitta, -ae (f) garland, fillet

 

conscius, a, um - aware, privy to 

defessus, a, um - weary; exhausted 

extremus, a, um- final, last, furthest 

incolumis, -e - safe, unharmed, uninjured 

invisus, a, um - hated; hateful 

laevus, a, um - left; stupid; ill-omened 

fetus, a, um - teeming with, pregnant with 

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting, filthy 

furtivus, a, um - stolen, secret

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift, active 

secundus, a, um - following, favorable 

tenax, tenacis (adj.) holding

tutus, a, um - safe

umidus, a, um - damp, dewy, wet

 

enim (adv.)  for, indeed, truly 

denique (adv.) finally, at last 

nusquam (adv.) nowhere; never

pariter (adv.) equally, alike 

passim (adv.) everywhere, here and there 

procul (adv.) at or from a distance 

totidem - the same number; so many

totiens - so often

Vocabulary List for Aeneid, Middle of Book One

Be able to decline:  haec sola vis or quoddam infelix animal or idem altum mare

Acestes, -ae (m) king of Sicily 

Aeolus, -i (m) Aeolus, King of Wind ( from Homer's Odyssey)

Dardanus, a, um = Trojan, of Dardanus, legendary king of Troy 

Latona, -ae (f) Leto, mother of Apollo and Diana

Ilium, Ilii (n) Illium = Trot as in Iliad = story of Ilium or Ilioupersis, destruction of Troy

Iulus, -i (m) son of Aeneas AKA Ascanius, hence the Gens Iulii.  

Poeni, -orum (m. pl.) Carthaginians, Phoenicians 

Teurcri- orum (m. p.) descendant of Teucer (Who the hell is Teucer?)

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian or of Tyre, a Phoenician city in the Levant 

Hesperia, -ae (f) land in the west

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn

 

adsurgo, adsurgere, adsurrexi, adsurrectus - to rise up, to stand up 

aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectus - to look at, behold, look upon 

desisto, desistere, destiti - to leave off, desist 

cieo, ciere, civi, citus - rouse, stir 

defigo, defigere, defixi, defixus - fix, to fasten 

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically 

insto, instare - to press on + dative

mollio (4) to soften

parco, parcere, pepercidative = to spare, pardon 

populo (1) to devastate, 

stupeo, stupere, stupui - to stand fixed, to be dazed 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - take, use up, consume (alsoadsumo) 

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise up, to stand up 

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to loosen, set free; bring an end to 

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to convey, carry 

veto, vetere, vetui - to forbid, prevent

voluto (1) to roll over and over and over and over and over....

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

anima, -ae (f) soul, spirit, ghost [breath , wind, air]. Transf., [the breath of life, vital principle, soul]; 'animam edere', [to give up the ghost]; poet., [life-blood]; meton., [a living being]; sometimes = animus, [rational soul].

animus, -i (m) [the spiritual or rational principle of life in man]. More specifically: (1) [the seat of feeling , the heart]; 'animi causa', [for pleasure]; loc. (or genit.) 'animi', [at heart]. (2) [character, disposition]; as a trait of character (esp. in plur.) [courage, spirit, vivacity]; also [pride, arrogance]. (3) [the seat of the will, intention]: 'habeo in animo', [I am resolved]. (4) [the seat of thought, intellect, mind, memory, consciousness].

antrum, -i (n) cave

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

aurum, -i (n) gold

auris, -is (f) ears         

aura, -ae (f) breeze 

caterva, -ae (f) crowd

caecus, a, um - blind

clarus, a, um - clear, bright; distinguished, noble 

cura, curae (f) care, worry, anxiety (sinecure) 

discrimen, discriminis (n) a dividing line; critical moment; crisis; hardship

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract 

foris, -is (f) door, gate 

harena, -ae (f) sand (arena)

inceptum,  -i (n) beginning, undertaking

iuvenis, -is (m) youth 

ius, iuris (n) law

mare, maris (n) sea

moles, molis (f) a mass; undertaking, burden 

mos, moris (m) custom 

metus, -us (m) fear

officium, -ii (n) duty, kindness, favour, service 

opus, operis (n) work, labour, task 

ops, ops (f) power, influence; resources, wealth

ora, -ae (f) shore

praeda, -ae (f) booty 

ramus, -i (m) branch 

remus, -i (m) oar

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate 

turbo, turbinis (m) storm; whirlwind 

vis, vis (f) force; in plural = strength 

 

acutus, a, um - sharp 

aetherius, a, um- of the upper air, ethereal 

ater, atra, atrum - black 

avidus, a, um - eager 

barbarus, a, um - foreign, strange, uncivilized 

crudelis, crudele- cruel, bloody 

cunctus, a, um - all 

infelix, infelicis - unhappy, ill-fated, barren 

laetus, a, um - happy 

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive 

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful, ruling over + genitive 

subnixus, a, um + abl.   resting on (from nitor, niti) 

tutus, a, um - safe

 

at, ast (adversative conj.) 

adhuc (adv.) to his point, till now

coram (adv.) openly, publicly, face to face

equidem - truly, indeed, certainly 

pariter (adv.) equally 

praeterea (adv.) here after, besides

quippe (adv.) of course, certain (tone?)

seu...seu (sive...sive)  - whether...or

coin Caesar trophy and venus .jpg

First list for the Aeneid

Be able to decline:  haec veteris vis or illud atrum mare or hic pius vir

Verb game on: eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus or for, fari, fatus sum 

Anchises, -ae (m) acc. = Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argi, -orum (m. pl.) Argos, city in Greece where Juno is worshipped 

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek 

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Ganymēdēs, -is (m) Trojan boy and son of Laomedon, king of Troy

Lāvīnius, a, um - Lavinian, of Lavinium 

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates 

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan (Teucer was a king of Troy)

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn 

Trōs, Trōis (m) Trojan

Words of Special Significance:

fatum, fatī (n) fate

moles, molis (f) a mass, weight, burden 

pietas, pietatis (f) loyalty, devotion 

pius, a, um - dutiful 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, to establish

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

vatēs, vatis (m) bard, prophet, singer; poet

 

accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage 

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter 

adsum, adesse, adfui - to present, to be at hand

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager (an ardent arsonist) 

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain (arcane) 

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive 

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent 

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour (effusive) 

furo, furere, furui - to rage, rave, be frantic 

iacto (1) to toss, buffet (freq. of iacio, iacere) 

impello, impellere, impulī, impulsus - to strike against, drive, force 

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to stride; go forth; walk 

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, to slide 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to hurt, strike, offend 

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow 

pateo, patere, patui - to lie open, to extend 

ruo, ruere, rui - fall; rush; sink

sino, sinere, sivi - to permit, allow

tendo, tendere, tetendi, tentus - to stretch

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea 

altum, -i (n) the deep, the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field 

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

auris, auris (f) ear

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason 

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune, chance

cura, -ae (f) care, anxiety, 

currus, -ūs (m) chariot

cursus, ūs (m) a running, course 

dolor, doloris (m) pain, suffering, mental anguish 

dolus, dolī (m) trick, deception 

donum, -i (n) gift

fatum, -i (n) fate

fors, fortis (f) chance, fortune

fluctus, us (m) wave, tide, flood, sea

furia, -ae (f) rage, madness 

genus, generis (n) race; kind, origin, 

gens, gentis (f) clan, race, nation

litus, litoris (n) beach, shore

moenia, -ium (n) walls

numen, numinis (n) divine authority, divinity (numinous) 

ōra, -ae (f) margin, border, coastline

ōs, ōris (n) month, face (oral, orifice) 

os, ossis (n) bone (ossified) 

pontus, -i (m) sea

pons, pontis (m) bridge 

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring 

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul 

relinquiae, ārum (fe. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star 

socius, -i (m) ally, comrade, follower 

sanguis, -inis (m) blood (sanguine)

somnus, -i (m) sleep, slumber; dream 

turbo, turbinis (m) whirlwind 

 

 

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh (per aspera ad astra

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black, gloomy

caelestis, -e(adj.) of the sky, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) rich (1 term.)

fessus, a, um - tired, weary 

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous 

insignis, -e- marked, distinguished 

invīsus, a, um - hated 

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed 

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath (infernal) 

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case (mindfulness - whatever the hell that is)

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage

vetus, veteris (1 term. adj.) old (veteran, inveterate)

 

enim - for, indeed, in truth 

insuper (adv.) above, besides 

lātē (adv.) widely, far and wide 

longē (adv.) far off

necdum (adv.) not yet

olim (adv.) once upon a time, once

praeterea (adv.) besides, hereafter

qua (adv.) where, in anyway

quippe - truly, indeed surely 

una (adv.) together, at the same time 

unde - from which, whenc 

Tit. and Mel.

Tit. and Mel.

 

Final Caesar List

Verb game on:  cōgō, cōgere, cōēgī, cōactus or vereor, verērī, veritus sum

Be able to decline:   hoc līberum mūnus or istud turpe spatium 

 

cingō, cingere, cinxī, cinctus - to surround, to grid; to equip 

cōgō, cōgere, cōēgī, cōactus - to compel, to bring together

communicō (1) to share, to impart 

comprendō, comprehendere, comprehendī, comprehensus - to grasp; to seize (comprehensive, comprehension) 

concidō, concidere, concidī - to fall, to collapse 

concīdō, concīdere, concīdī, concīsus - to cut down 

contendō, contendere, condendī, contentus - to strive, to hasten 

dēfīgō, dēfīgere, dēfīxī, dēfīxus - to stick fast, 

discō, discere, didicī - to learn 

ēdūcō, ēdūcere, ēdūxī, ēductus - to lead out 

expectō, expectāre - to look out for; wait for 

haereō, haerēre - to cling (inherent) 

hauriō, haurīre, hausī, hausus - to drain, to empty 

iactō (1) to toss (frequentive) 

iūdicō, iūdicāre - to judge 

imperō (1) to command + dative of person commanded 

iuvō, iuvāre, iuvī - to help

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to chose, to pick

ligō, ligare - to bind, to tie 

mandō (1) to entrust 

necō, necāre - to kill 

noscō, noscere, nōvī, nōtus - to recognize, to learn, to be familiar with; to know 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case

pariō, parere, peperī, partus - to give birth to, to produce

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tactile)

percutiō, percutere, percussī, percussus - to strike hard

praeficiō, praeficere - to put an accusative in charge of a dative

praesum, praeesse, praefuī - to be in charge of + dative

rumpō, rumpere, rupī, ruptus - to burst 

servō (1) to save, to keep

serviō, servīre - to serve + dative

tradō, tradere, tradidī, traditus - to hand over; surrender 

transfīgō, transfīgere, transfīxī, transfīxus - to pierce, thrust through 

tegō, tegere, texī, tectus - to cover

vehō, vehere, vēxī, vectus - to carry, to convey 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

versor (1) to be engaged; to be turned 

 

aequor, aequoris (n) level surface; sea 

aditus, aditūs (m) approach, access (ad + eo

anima, animae (f) breath, spirit, soul 

animus, animī (m) mind, heart; spirit, courage

biduum, biduī (n) two day period 

caedēs, caedis (f) slaughter, murder 

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict 

copia, copiae (f) supply, abundance; in plural: troops, forces

facinus, facinoris (n) crime, bad deed; deed 

fās (indecl.) right, just according to divine law

foedus, foederis (n) treaty; contract 

ignis, ignis (m) fire 

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want 

lapis, lapidis (m) stone 

liber, librī (m) book

modus, modī (m) manner, form; measure 

morbus, morbī (m) disease, illness

mūnus, mūneris (n) service, duty, gift; tax

mundus, mundī (m) world, universe

nefās (indecl.) wrong, not just according to divine law

obsidiō, obsidiōnis (f) seige

plērusque, plēraque, plērumque - very many

spatium, spatiī (n) space 

supplicium, -iī (n) punishment 

tectum, tectī (n) roof, building, hall, palace 

vāgīna, -ae (f) sheath 

 

ambo, ambae ambo - both (ambidextrous) 

caelestis, caeleste - celestial, heavenly 

creber, crebra, crebrum - frequent 

cupidus, a, um - desirous (Kamya est cupida mordendārum ursārum)

gratia, gratiae (f) favour, influence; thanks

immanis, immane- immense, enormous 

immitis, immite   - fierce, cruel (Virginia est immitis)

insignis, insigne- distinguished, remarkable 

indignus, a, um - unworthy of + ABLATIVE CASE (Trey est indignus magnā laude)

invisus, a, um - hated, hateful, odious 

memor, menoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

- unwilling

memor, menoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

idōneus, a, um - suited to 

imperitus, a, um - unskilled, inexperienced 

impius, impia, impium - unholy, impious 

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous 

līber, lībera, līberum - free; as substantive = children

reliquus, a, um - the remaining, the rest

superior, superius - higher, earlier 

temerārius, a, um - rash, inconsiderate 

turpis, turpe - ugly, shameful 

tumulus, tumulī (m) pile, heap, mound, hill 

 

cōnfestim (adv.) immediately

inde - from there, then

modo (adv.) only, recently, just now 

nam - for

necdum - not yet

nē…quidem = not even   

praeter (prep. + acc.) beyond, past

quippe - surely, indeed

quoad - until, as far as, as long as 

quotannis - every year, yearly 

unde - from where, whence

Caesar Vocabulary List - Book 5 (end) and 6

1) Be able to decline:          carus vaults;  magnum munus;  hoc os;   nullum numen

2) Expect verb game on:     for, fari, fatus sum and colo, colere, colui, cultus

fertur = he, she, it is said

 

abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditus - to put away, hide, remove, secrete

cano, canere, cecini, cantus - to sing 

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to worship; to cultivate 

comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi - seize, grasp, arrest

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, establish

conor, conari, conatus sum - to try 

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-transvestite) + dative  = to trust 

conspicor (1) to catch sight of; perceive 

contego, contegere, contexi, contextum - cover over

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum - to give out, to fail 

dimico (1) to brandish weapon; contend 

excido, excidere - to fall from, perish 

fertur = he, she, it is said

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere -to keep warm; cherish, support

iacto (1) to toss, buffet

immolo (1) to sacrifice , immolate 

impello, impellere, impuli, impulsus - to drive, force, strike 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum - to hurt, injure; offend 

metuo, metuere, metui - fear, dread 

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; to allow + acc. + inf. 

rego, regere, rexi, rectum - to rule, lead, direct 

servo, servare - to keep, preserve 

sino, sinere, sivi, situs - permit, allow 

succurro, succurrere - to aid, run to support + dative 

versor (1) to be engaged in 

volvo, volvere, volvi, volutus - to wind, roll, twist

 

alter, altera, alterum (-ius paradigm) the other, another, one…the other

altum, -i (n) the deep; the sea 

aequor, aequoris (n) a flat level surface; the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason; case                    

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster    casū = by chance

conspectus, -us (m) look, sight, view

currus, -us (m) chariot 

excidium, -ii (n) destruction, overthrow 

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, report

furiae, -arum (f) madness, rage 

furtum, -i (n) theft, robbery 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan

iniuria, -ae (f) injury, wrong

litus, litoris (n) shore 

moenia, -ium (n. pl.) walls

moles, molis (f) mass, burden, difficulty 

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

munus, muneris (n) service, duty; gift 

noxia, -ae (f) fault, offence, crime

numen, numinis (n) divine spirit, divine power

opinio, opinionis (f) opinion, thought, belief 

opus, operis (n) task, work; fortification; need 

ops, opis (f) help, resources, power, wealth 

ora, orae (f) shore

os, oris (n) mouth; face

os, ossis (n) bone

pilum, -i (n) spear

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring 

quisquam, quaequam, quidquam - anybody, anyone, anything

sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood; family, race 

sal, salis (n) salt 

verutum, -i (n) javalin 

vultus, -us (m) face; expression 

 

asper, aspera, asperum - harsh, rough, fierce 

caelestis, caeleste - celestial, heavenly 

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

confertus, a, um - crowded together, densely packed 

dives, divitis (adj.) wealthy, rich 

immanis, immane- immense, enormous 

immitis, immite   - fierce, cruel 

insignis, insigne- distinguished, remarkable 

indignus, a, um - unworthy of + ABLATIVE CASE

invisus,a, um - hated, hateful, odious 

memor, menoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel 

tot (indecl. adj.)  so many

quot (indecl. adj.) how many? 

turpis, turpe - shameful, ugly, vile 

uter, utra, utrum?  Which of two (-ius paradigm)

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two

vetus, veteris (adj.) old 

vivus, a, um - living, alive

 

 

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

causā + preceding genitive = "for the sake of" 

clam (adv.) in secret

circum + acc.  = around 

dum (subord. conj.) + indicative = while 

dum (subord. conj.) + subjunctive = until 

enim - for, indeed, in truth 

magis (adv.) more, rather

necdum - not yet

nondum - not yet 

ob + acc.  - on account of 

palam (adv.) openly, publicly

paulatim (adv.) little by little

qua (adv.) where, in any way 

quoque (adv.) also 

 

fertur = he, she, it is said

IMG_5981.JPG

List Four for De Bello Gallico

Expect a verb game and be able to decline:  istud triste numen

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover 

concedo, concedere - to withdraw 

consisto, consistere, constiti - to stand (still), to stop

concido, concidere, concidi, concisum - to cut down 

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to believe, to trust, to rely on + dative

conficio, conficere, confeci, confectus - to exhaust; to finish 

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position 

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in 

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament) 

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive 

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally  in Caesar: ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri = "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance 

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray 

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance 

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; spend 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy 

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive 

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live 

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to fear, be afraid

 

adventus, -us (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple 

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit 

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster 

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart 

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime 

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay 

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas). 

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice 

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

liberi, - orum (m) children 

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight 

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment 

nutus, -us (m) a nod

numen, numinis (n) divine spirit; divinity 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade 

ratio, rationis (f) - a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business; a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -i (n) shield 

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)   

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard 

vallum, -i (n) rampart, wall 

 

acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid) 

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together 

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager 

immanis, -e enormous, immense 

inferus, a, um - below, lower 

impeditus, a, um-  hindered, impeded 

impius, a, um - impious, unholy 

incolumis -e [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.)  a certain 

quinam, quaenam, quodnam - which, that

quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam - who?, what? 

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, -e- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude) 

uter, utra, utrum - which of two? 

vivus, a, um - living, alive 

 

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or 

bis (adv.) twice 

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively 

intus (adv.) within 

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among 

confestim (adv.) immediately 

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor 

nondum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day. 

quidem - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also 

rursus (adv.) again, back 

sicut - just as, so as 

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of

List Three - Caesar, De Bello Gallico

Be able to decline:  hoc opus &  eadem fides

Expect verb game on the back for repello or pario

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - get, obtain, reach 

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; to be eager 

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall 

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessus - to move, to withdraw 

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround 

coepi, coepisse, coeptum - to begin (defective verb) 

concito (1) to incite, stir, impel 

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to admit, to reveal 

confido, confidere, confisus sum - to trust, believe (semi-deponent) 

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to see, to behold 

consulo, consulere, consului, consultus - to consult, to consider

compleo, complere, complevi, completus - to fill 

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought

despero (1) to give up, to have not hope

disco, discere, didici - to learn, get to know 

excito (1) excite, inspire; raise 

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus - to go out

impetro (1) to obtain, accomplish 

interpono, interponere, interposui - to introduce 

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, glide 

minuo, minuere, minui - to diminish 

munio, (4) to fortify 

nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum - to obtain, meet

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to recognize; know, learn  

nego (1) to deny, to say ...not 

nitor, niti, nisus sum - to lean on; to rely on 

paro (1) to prepare (semper paratus)

pareo, parere, parui - to obey + dative

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, bear 

pendeo, pendere, pependi, pensus - pay, weigh, to hang 

polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer

probo (1) to approve, demonstrate

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - raise; destroy 

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be afraid, fear

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge, take vengeance 

 

aditus, -us (m) approach, entrance 

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout 

casus, -us (m) misfortune, change

centurio, centurionis (m) centurion 

circuitus, -us (m) circumference, circuit 

contumelia, -ae (f) insult, outrage; violence 

fames, famis (f) hunger

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor; reputation 

familiaris, -e- of the family; close friend 

fides, fidei (f) faith, honor, trust 

fletus, -us (m) weeping 

hiems, hiemis (f) winter

hiberna, -orum (n. Pl.) winter-camp

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want, need

ignis, -is (m) fire 

meritum, -i (n) service, favour

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner (mos maiorum, mores)

negotium, -ii (n) business, a task 

officium, -ii (n) duty 

opus, operis (n) work, toil; defenses 

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention 

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence

praesidium, -ii (n) guard, protection 

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion/loyalty to family, state/nations and gods

ratio, rationis (f) an accounting, reasoning 

scala, -ae (f) ladder, stairs 

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, purpose 

sermo, sermonis (m) conversation, speech 

studium, -ii (n) eagerness, zeal 

stipendium, -i (n) pay; military service 

voluntas, voluntatis (f) wish, will, choice 

vulgus, -i (n) mass, mob

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak 

alacer, alacris, alacere - eager, spirited 

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious 

confertus, a, um - crowded together 

humilis, -e- on the ground; humble, low

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous 

incolumis, -e- uninjured, safe

indignus, a, um + ablative= unworthy, undeserving 

idoneus, a, um - suitable, appropriate + dative case

levis, -e - light (opposite of gravis, -e)

par, paris - equal, similar + dative

repentinus, a, um - sudden, unexpected 

saucius, a, -um - wounded 

 

adeo, (adv.) to such an extent 

apud + acc. = in the presence of, with, among

casū (adv.) by chance

confestim (adv.) immediately 

eiusmodi - of this kind, of such a kind, so 

intra + acc.   = within 

inter + acc= between, among 

procul (adv.) far off, at a distance

quotiens - as often as

quoniam - since 

nondum (adv.) not yet

paene (adv.) almost 

rursus (adv.) again, backward

sive…sive or seu…seu - whether, or 

tametsi - even if, although 

unde - whence, from where

vero (postpositive)  in fact

Vocabulary List Two for Caesar - Mostly Martial Words

  "Them's Fighten' Words" or Words of a Mostly Martial Nature.

Be able to decline:   eadem magna acies           haec fortis manus       illa tota pars

attingo, attingere, attigī, attāctus to touch against; touch, reach, arrive at, border (ad + tango)

animadverto, animadvertere, animadverti, animadversum -  turn mind to, notice

conspicio, conspire, conspexi, conspectus -  to look at attentively, to get sight of, to descry, perceive

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to stretch completely; stretch, strain,

conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus - to hurl, to throw

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know). 

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to struggle, vie, fight 

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus - to give up, surrender 

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail + dative case

expugno (1) to take by storm, capture

existimo (1) to judge, consider, think 

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolo, incolere - to dwell, to inhabit  

incito (1) to drive forward, incite 

munio (4) to fortify 

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

potior, potiri, potitus sum + ABL or GEN.  = to gain possession of 

probo (1) approve, commend

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi - to go before, excel 

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward 

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out  

subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative

 

acies, aciei (f) battle line; battle; edge, line of sight 

agmen, agminis (n) marching line (novissimum agmen = rear of theline)

auxilium, -ii (n) help 

castra, -arum (n) camp

cohors, cohortis (f) cohort

cornu, -us (n) wing (of an army); horn 

copiae, -arum (f) troops

equites, equitum (m. pl.) cavalry

equitatus, -us (m) cavalry 

eruptio, eruptionis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, -us (m) army

fossa, -ae (f) ditch 

frumentum, -i (n) grain, (in plural = crops)

gladius, -ii (m) sword

impedimentum, -i (n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, -us (m) attack 

latus, lateris (n) side; flank

legatus, -i (m) envoy; lieutenant general

legio, legionis (f) legion (3600-6000 milites) 

manus, -us (f) hand; band or group of soldiers

miles, militis (m) soldier

munitio, munitionis (f) fortification 

murus, -i (m) wall 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade 

pars, partis (f) part, side; direction

passus, -us (m) step, pace

pilum, i (n) javelin 

praesidium, -ii (n) guard

proelium, -ii (n)  battle

profectio, profectionis (f) departure, setting out 

salus, salutis (f) safety, salvation 

scutum, -i (n) shield 

subsidium, -ii (n) help, reinforcement, support

telum, -i (n) weapon; spear 

turris, turris (turrim and turrium) (f) tower

usus, -us (m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae (f) watch (military)

vallum, -i (n) rampart; wall 

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour 

 

expeditus, a, um- lightly armed 

fortis, forte (adj.) brave, strong

paratus, a, um - prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um - slow 

 

apud (prep. + acc.) near, among, in the presence of 

ne...quidem = not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes) 

qua (relative) where

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propterea quod - because, on account of the fact that

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio - “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

capere consilium  - to adopt plan 

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio: 'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum - in this manner

in perpetuum - forever 

se receperunt - they retreated

longe lateque - far and wide

eodem die - on the same day 

subductis navibus - ships drawn up 

magna manu - with a large group of men 

summo loco - in the highest position

milia passuum - a Roman mile 

numero hostium habēre - to consider as an enemy

Roman Soldiers formation with eagle .jpg

 

End of Aeneid Book IV & the Beginning of Book VI

Acheron, Acherontis (m) River of Hades

Lacus Avernus - Lake near Cumae and entrance to Underworlld

Charon, Charontis (m) Charon, ferryman of souls across the river Styx 

Cocytus, -i (m) river in the underworld 

Dis, Ditis (m) Pluto, Hades, god of underworld 

Hecate - Infernal version of Diana

Proserpina, -ae (f) Peresphone 

Iris, Iridis (f) Iris, messenger of Juno and goddess of the rainbow

 

abluo, abluere, ablui, ablutus - to wash (off)

adnitor, adniti, adnisus sum - to lean on; struggle 

aestuo (1) boil, seethe, rage

arceo, acrere, arcui - to keep off, defend 

bacchor (1) to rave, rush wildly (what are Bacchantes/Maenades?)

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall 

concutio, concutere, concussi, concussus - to shake, shatter

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know). 

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus - fail, faint 

defungor, defungi, defunctus, a, um - perform, finish + ablative case

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail + dative case

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

fremo, fremere, fremui- roar, grown 

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie 

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus - to please, to help (often used impersonally) 

haereo, haerēre, haesī, haesum - to cling

haurio, haurire, hausī, haustus - to drain, drink in 

glomero (1) to gather, collect

miseror, miserari, miseratus sum - to pity

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain 

oro (1) to plead, to beg, to beseech, to pray 

queror, querī, questus sum - to complain 

recedo, recedere, recessī, recussus - to back, retreat

seco, secare, secui, sectus - to cut, cleave, slice

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to free, loosen, set free

spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsus - to scatter, sprinkled 

sperno, spernere, sprevi, spretus - scorn, reject

spumo (1) to foam 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear, be afraid of

verro, verrere, verri, versus - to sweep (over) 

 

aether, aetheris (m) upper air; heaven 

amnis, -is (m) river 

amictus, -ūs (m) cloak, robe 

calor, caloris (m) heat, warmth

canities, canitiei (f) whiteness

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune disater

casu (adv.) by change, accidentally 

comes, comitis (m/f) companion 

consilium, -ii (n) plan, counsel 

copia, -ae (f) abundance; troops, forces; supplies

culmen, culminis (n) top, summit

crinis, crinis (m) hair

folium, -i (n) leaf 

gemitus, -ūs (m) roar, groan, lament

harena, -ae (f) sand, beach 

halitus, -ūs (m) breath

heros, herois (m) hero, great warrior

lacus, -ūs (m) lake

mentum, -i (n) chin

mens, mentis (f) mind; thought, intension 

mos, moris (m) custom, manner

mors, mortis (f) death 

omen, ominis (n) omen

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention, service, hard work 

ops, opis (f) power, support ; in plural - resources; wealth, influence

opus, operis (n) work, task; fortification 

palus, paludis (f) swamp, marsh 

ramus, -i (m) brach of a tree

remus, -i (m) oar of ship

rota, -ae (f) wheel 

ripa, -ae (f) bank

rogus, -i (m) 

senectus, senectutis (f) old age 

sinus, -ūs (m) fold, boson, bay, hollow, indentation 

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance 

spatium, -ii (n) space, interval of time

torus, -i (m) couch, bed

usus, -us (m) use, need, purpose (usui is a common dative of purpose)

tumultus, -ūs (m) tumult, uprising, clamor 

vadum, -i (n) shallow, shoal 

 

angustus, a, um - narrow

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious 

crudus, a, um - raw, fresh; bloody 

expeditus, a, um - fast, unimpeded

exsanguis, -e bloodless, lifeless, pale 

examinis, -e - breathless, 

extremus, a, um - final, last, extreme

impertius, a, um - unskilled + gen. case

incolumis, -e- unharmed, safe 

incultus, a, um - wild, unkempt 

iniquus, a, um - unfair, unjust, hostile 

inhumatus, a, um - unburied 

inops, inopis (adj.) needy, destitute, bereft of

lividus, a, um - blue, dark 

sordidus, a, um - dirty, squalid 

trepidus, a, um - agitated, trembling

 

aliter (adv.) otherwise

non aliter quam - not otherwise than, just as (introduces a simile)

demum (adv.) at length, finally

enim - for, indeed, truly 

iuxta + acc. case = next to , close to 

inde(adv.) thence, thereupon, afterward 

quia - because

totiens - so often

totidem - the same number

ūnā (adv.) together, at the same time

Book Four, Aeneid, List One 

Be able to decline:   haec species or totum foedus

Elissa, ae (f) Phoenician name of Dido

Thyias, Thyiadis (f) cultic following of Dionysus 

 

ambio, ambire, ambivi, ambitus - to go around in search of support

excio, excire, excivi, excitus - to - to excite, rouse, stir up

foveo, fovere, fovi - to keep warm, cherish 

fraudo (1) to deprive of, to cheat out of + ablative case

fundo (1) to lay a foundation; to found

fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi - to flash; to shine bright

mando (1) to entrust; to order

meditor meditari, meditatus sum - to ponder; plan; contemplate 

misereor, misereri + genitive case = to pity

piget, pigere, piguit (impersonal verb + acc. + inf.) it displeases, its causes regret 

propero (1) to hurry, to hasten 

potior, potiri, potitus sum (+ abl. or gen.) to take possession of  

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - to break, to burst 

saevio, saevire - to rage, to be cruel 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise  

umeo, umere - to be wet

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

artus, -us (m) limbs

aspectus, -us (m) sight, vision 

coniugium, i (n) marriage

conubium -i (n) marriage

dolus, -i (m) trick, deception 

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract 

funus, funeris (n) funeral, death 

laena, -ae (f) cloak

metus, -us (m) fear

monitus, -us (m) warning, admonition 

orgia, -orum (n. pl.) secret rites, mysteries 

otium, -ii (n) leisure, time of leisure 

planta, -ae (f) sole of foot; foot

sidus, sideris (n) star

sors, sortis (f) lot, fortune, fate, chance 

species, speciei (f) appearance 

spons, spontis (f) will, volition 

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak; wounded 

alienus, a, um - foreign, alien

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting 

furtivus, a, um - secret, furtive

hibernus, a, um - winter, of the winter

incolumis, -e   - uninjured, safe

inops, inopis (adj.) lacking in wealth; devoid of + genitive case

mirabilis, mirabile - wonderous (mirabile dictu) 

mollis, -esoft; kind 

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift 

perfidus, a, um - treacherous, false; deceitful 

potior, potius (comp. adj.) more powerful; stronger 

tutus, a, um - safe

undosus, a, um - abounding in waves, stormy 

uxorius, a, um - under a wife’s control 

velox, velocis (adj.) swift

 

continuo (adv.) immediately, at once

nusquam (adv.) no where

numquam (adv.) never 

ocius (adv.) quickly, speedily 

 

omnino (adv.) 

pro re (legal idiom) - for my own case

tandem (adv.) at last, finally

ultro (adv.) beyond, from the other side, in reply

Beginning of book II Vocabulary List Aeneid Vergil 

a(d)spicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectus - to see, behold, look at 

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus - mating position of frogs)

attollo, attollere - raise up, lift

aveho, avehere, avexi, avectus - to carry away, convey

careo, carere, carui + abl.  - to lack, be free from

dignor, dignari, dignatus sum + abl.   - to deem worthy

everto, evertere, eversi, eversus - to over turn; destroy 

for, farī, fatus sum - to speak 

excutio, excutere, excussī, excussus - to shake off

fugleo, fulgere - to shine, flash 

haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum - to drain, to drink in

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically 

incumbo, incumbere, incubui + dative - to lean upon, hand over

includo, inculdere, inclusi, inclusus - to enclose, confine 

insto, instare - to press on, urge + dative

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

lambo (1) to lick 

lateo, latere, latui - to hide, to lurk (latent

ligo (1) to bind, fasten

lego, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose 

macto (1) slaughter 

occido, occidere, occidi, occasus - to fall, to perish 

occulto (1) to hide (occult) 

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to give birth, gain, acquire

sinuo (1) fold, curve, twist (insinuate) 

statuo, statuere, statui, statutus - establish, set up 

sisto, sistere, steti, status - stand, stop, stay

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to lay low; spread; strew 

suscito (1) to stir, to arouse

supero (1) to surmount, overcome

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to watch over; protect

ulcisor, ulicisci, ultus sum - to avenge   (Temple of Mars Ultor) 

 

aether, eris (m) upper air; heavens

ala, -ae (f) wing

amnis, -is (m) river 

anguis, -is (m) snake

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint, body

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

caterva, -ae (f) crowd, band

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill 

conubium, -ii (n) marriage

culpa, -ae (f) fault, offense, blame

culmen, culminis (n) peak, summit, top; acme 

custos, custodis (m) guard 

dolus, -i (m) trick, fraud, deciet

dolor, doloris (m) grief; angry; pain 

ensis, -is (m) sword; knife

error, erroris (m) error; trick, deceit; a wandering

facies, faciei (m) face; appearance 

fictum, -i (n) falsehood

insania, -ae (f) madness, frenzy

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, wailing 

latus, lateris (n) side, flank 

letum, -i (n) death

lignum, -i (n) wood

nepos, nepotis (m) descendent 

pulvis, pulveris (m) dust 

quisquis, quidquid (indef. pronoun) whoever, whatever

robur, roburis (m) oak; strength 

rota, -ae (f) wheel 

sermo, sermonis (m) speech, conversation 

solum, -i (n) ground, soil, earth 

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate, destiny 

uterus, -i (m) womb, belly

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each, both 

vitta, -ae (f) garland, fillet

 

conscius, a, um - aware, privy to 

defessus, a, um - weary; exhausted 

extremus, a, um- final, last, furthest 

incolumis, -e - safe, unharmed, uninjured 

invisus, a, um - hated; hateful 

laevus, a, um - left; stupid; ill-omened 

fetus, a, um - teeming with, pregnant with 

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting, filthy 

furtivus, a, um - stolen, secret

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift, active 

secundus, a, um - following, favorable 

tenax, tenacis (adj.) holding

tutus, a, um - safe

umidus, a, um - damp, dewy, wet

 

enim (adv.)  for, indeed, truly 

denique (adv.) finally, at last 

nusquam (adv.) nowhere; never

pariter (adv.) equally, alike 

passim (adv.) everywhere, here and there 

procul (adv.) at or from a distance 

totidem - the same number; so many

totiens - so often

Vocabulary List for Aeneid, Middle of Book One

Be able to decline:  haec vis or illud mare or lītus ipsum

Acestes, -ae (m) king of Sicily

Aeolus, -i (m) Aeolus, King of Wind ( from Homer's Odyssey)

Dardanus, a, um = Trojan, of Dardanus, legendary king of Troy 

Latona, -ae (f) Leto, mother of Apollo and Diana

Ilium, Ilii (n) Illium = Trot as in Iliad = story of Ilium or Ilioupersis, destruction of Troy

Iulus, -i (m) son of Aeneas AKA Ascanius, hence the Gens Iulii.  

Poeni, -orum (m. pl.) Carthaginians, Phoenicians 

Teurcri- orum (m. p.) descendant of Teucer (Who the hell is Teucer?)

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian or of Tyre, a Phoenician city in the Levant 

Hesperia, -ae (f) land in the west

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn

 

adsurgo, adsurgere, adsurrexi, adsurrectus - to rise up, to stand up 

aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectus - to look at, behold, look upon 

desisto, desistere, destiti - to leave off, desist 

cieo, ciere, civi, citus - rouse, stir 

defigo, defigere, defixi, defixus - fix, to fasten 

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically 

insto, instare - to press on + dative

mollio (4) to soften

parco, parcere, peperci + dative = to spare, pardon 

populo (1) to devastate, 

stupeo, stupere, stupui - to stand fixed, to be dazed 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - take, use up, consume (alsoadsumo) 

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise up, to stand up 

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to loosen, set free; bring an end to 

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to convey, carry 

veto, vetere, vetui - to forbid, prevent

voluto (1) to roll over and over and over and over and over....

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

anima, -ae (f) soul, spirit, ghost [breath , wind, air]. Transf., [the breath of life, vital principle, soul]; 'animam edere', [to give up the ghost]; poet., [life-blood]; meton., [a living being]; sometimes = animus, [rational soul].

animus, -i (m) [the spiritual or rational principle of life in man]. More specifically: (1) [the seat of feeling , the heart]; 'animi causa', [for pleasure]; loc. (or genit.) 'animi', [at heart]. (2) [character, disposition]; as a trait of character (esp. in plur.) [courage, spirit, vivacity]; also [pride, arrogance]. (3) [the seat of the will, intention]: 'habeo in animo', [I am resolved]. (4) [the seat of thought, intellect, mind, memory, consciousness].

antrum, -i (n) 

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

aurum, - (n) gold

auris, -is (f) ears         

aura, -ae (f) breeze 

caterva, -ae (f) crowd

caecus, a, um - blind

clarus, a, um - clear, bright; distinguished, noble 

cura, ae (f) care, worry, anxiety 

discrimen, discriminis (n) a dividing line; critical moment; crisis; hardship

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract 

foris, -is (f) door, gate 

harena, -ae (f) sand

inceptum, , -i (n) beginning, undertaking

iuvenis, -is (m) youth 

ius, iuris (n) law

mare, maris (n) sea

moles, molis (f) a mass; undertaking, burden 

mos, moris (m) custom 

metus, -us (m) fear

noxa, -ae (f) crime

officium, -ii (n) duty, kindness, favour

opus, operis (n) work, labour, task 

ops, ops (f) power, influence; resources, wealth

ora, -ae (f) shore

praeda, -ae (f) booty 

ramus, i (m) branch 

remus, -i (m) oar

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate 

turbo, turbinis (m) storm; whirlwind 

vis, vis (f) force; in plural = strength 

 

acutus, a, um - sharp 

aetherius, a, um- of the upper air, ethereal 

ater, atra, atrum - black 

avidus, a, um - eager 

barbarus, a, um - foreign, strange, uncivilized 

crudelis, -e- cruel, bloody 

cunctus, a, um - all 

infelix, infelicis - unhappy, ill-fated, barren 

laetus, a, um - happy 

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive 

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful, ruling over + genitive 

subnixus, a, um + abl.   resting on 

tutus, a, um - safe

 

at, ast (adversative conj.) 

adhuc (adv.) to his point, till now

coram (adv.) openly, publicly, face to face

equidem - truly, indeed, certainly 

pariter (adv.) equally 

praeterea (adv.) here after, besides

quippe (adv.) of course, certain (tone?)

seu...seu  - whether...or

First list for the Aeneid

Be able to decline:  haec vis or illud mare or litus ipsum

Anchises, -ae (m) acc. =Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argi, -orum (m. pl.) Argos, city in Greece where Juno is worshipped 

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek 

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Ganymēdēs, -is (m) Trojan boy and son of Laomedon, king of Troy

Lāvīnius, a, um - Lavinian, of Lavinium 

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates 

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan (Teucer was a king of Troy)

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn 

Trōs, Trōis (m) Trojan

 

Words of Special Significance:

 

moles, molis (f) a mass, weight, burden 

pietas, pietatis (f) 

pius, a, um 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

vatēs, vatis (m) bard, prophet, singer; poet

 

accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage 

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter 

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain 

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive 

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent 

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour 

furo, furere, furui - to rage, rave, be frantic 

iacto (1) to toss, buffet 

impello, impellere, impulī, impulsus - to strike against, drive, force 

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to stride; go forth; walk 

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, to slide 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to hurt, strike, offend 

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow 

ruo, ruere, rui - fall; rush; sink

sino, sinere, sivi - to permit, allow

tendo, tendere, tetendi, tentus - to stretch

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea 

altum, -i (n) the deep, the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field 

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason 

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune, chance

cura, -ae (f) care, anxiety, 

currus, -ūs (m) chariot

donum, -i (n) gift

fatum, -i (n) fate

fors, fortis (f) chance, fortune

fluctus, us (m) wave, tide, flood, sea

furia, -ae (f) rage, madness 

genus, generis (n) race; kind, origin, 

gens, gentis (f) clan, race, nation

litus, litoris (n) shore

moenia, -ium (n) walls

numen, numinis (n) divine authority, divinity

ora, -ae (f) shore 

pontus, -i (m) sea

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring 

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul 

relinquiae, ārum (fe. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star

socius, -i (m) ally, comrade, follower 

sanguis, -inis (m) blood

somnus, -i (m) sleep, slumber; dream 

turbo, turbinis (m) whirlwind 

vetus, veteris (adj.) old 

 

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh 

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black, gloomy

caelestis, -e(adj.) of the sky, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) rich 

fessus, a, um - tired, weary 

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous 

insignis, -e- marked, distinguished 

invīsus, a, um - hated 

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed 

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage

 

enim - for, indeed, in truth 

insuper (adv.) above, besides 

lātē (adv.) widely, far and wide 

longe (adv.) far off

necdum (adv.) not yet

olim (adv.) once upon a time, once

praeterea (adv.) besides, hereafter

qua (adv.) where, in anyway

quippe - truly, indeed surely 

una (adv.) together, at the same time 

unde - from which, whenc 

 

Caesar Vocabulary List - Book 5 (end) and 6

1) Be able to decline:          carus vaults;  magnum munus;  hoc os;   nullum numen

2) Expect verb game on:     for, fari, fatus sum and colo, colere, colui, cultus

fertur = he, she, it is said

 

abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditus - to put away, hide, remove, secrete

cano, canere, cecini, cantus - to sing 

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to worship; to cultivate 

comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi - seize, grasp, arrest

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, establish

conor, conari, conatus sum - to try 

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-transvestite) + dative  = to trust 

conspicor (1) to catch sight of; perceive 

contego, contegere, contexi, contextum - cover over

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum - to give out, to fail 

dimico (1) to brandish weapon; contend 

excido, excidere - to fall from, perish 

fertur = he, she, it is said

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere -to keep warm; cherish, support

iacto (1) to toss, buffet

immolo (1) to sacrifice , immolate 

impello, impellere, impuli, impulsus - to drive, force, strike 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum - to hurt, injure; offend 

metuo, metuere, metui - fear, dread 

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; to allow + acc. + inf. 

rego, regere, rexi, rectum - to rule, lead, direct 

servo, servare - to keep, preserve 

sino, sinere, sivi, situs - permit, allow 

succurro, succurrere - to aid, run to support + dative 

versor (1) to be engaged in 

volvo, volvere, volvi, volutus - to wind, roll, twist

 

alter, altera, alterum (-ius paradigm) the other, another, one…the other

altum, -i (n) the deep; the sea 

aequor, aequoris (n) a flat level surface; the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason; case                    

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster

conspectus, -us (m) look, sight, view

currus, -us (m) chariot 

excidium, -ii (n) destruction, overthrow 

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, report

furiae, -arum (f) madness, rage 

furtum, -i (n) theft, robbery 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan

iniuria, -ae (f) injury, wrong

litus, litoris (n) shore 

moenia, -ium (n. pl.) walls

moles, molis (f) mass, burden, difficulty 

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

munus, muneris (n) service, duty; gift 

noxia, -ae (f) fault, offence, crime

numen, numinis (n) divine spirit, divine power

opinio, opinionis (f) opinion, thought, belief 

opus, operis (n) task, work; fortification; need 

ops, opis (f) help, resources, power, wealth 

ora, orae (f) shore

os, oris (n) mouth; face

os, ossis (n) bone

pilum, -i (n) spear

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring 

quisquam, quaequam, quidquam - anybody, anyone, anything

sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood; family, race 

sal, salis (n) salt 

verutum, -i (n) javalin 

vultus, -us (m) face; expression 

 

asper, aspera, asperum - harsh, rough, fierce 

caelestis, caeleste - celestial, heavenly 

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

confertus, a, um - crowded together, densely packed 

dives, divitis (adj.) wealthy, rich 

immanis, immane- immense, enormous 

immitis, immite   - fierce, cruel 

insignis, insigne- distinguished, remarkable 

invisus,a, um - hated, hateful, odious 

memor, menoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel 

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

turpis, turpe - shameful, ugly, vile 

uter, utra, utrum?  Which of two (-ius paradigm)

vetus, veteris (adj.) old 

vivus, a, um - living, alive

 

 

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

causā + preceding genitive = "for the sake of" 

clam (adv.) in secret

circum + acc.  = around 

dum (subord. conj.) + indicative = while 

dum (subord. conj.) + subjunctive = until 

enim - for, indeed, in truth 

magis (adv.) more, rather

necdum - not yet

nondum - not yet 

ob + acc.  - on account of 

palam (adv.) openly, publicly

paulatim (adv.) little by little

qua (adv.) where, in any way 

quoque (adv.) also 

 

fertur = he, she, it is said

List Four for De Bello Gallico

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover 

concedo, concedere - to withdraw 

consisto, consistere, constiti - to stand (still), to stop

concido, concidere, concidi, concisum - to cut down 

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to believe, to trust, to rely on 

conficio, -ere - to exhaust; to finish 

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position 

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in 

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament) 

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive 

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally  in Caesar: ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri = "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance 

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray 

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance 

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; spend 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy 

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive 

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live 

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - fear, be afraid

 

adventus, -us (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple 

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit 

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster 

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart 

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime 

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay 

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas). 

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice 

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

liberi, - orum (m) children 

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight 

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment 

nutus, -us (m) a nod

numen, numinis (f) divine spirit; divinity 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade 

ratio, rationis (f) - a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business; a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -i (n) shield 

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)   

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard 

vallum, -i (n) rampart, wall 

 

acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid) 

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together 

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager 

immanis, -e enormous, immense 

inferus, a, um - below, lower 

impeditus, a, um-  hindered, impeded 

impius, a, um - impious, unholy 

incolumis -e [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.)  a certain 

quinam, quaenam, quodnam - which, that

quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam - who?, what? 

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, -e- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude) 

uter, utra, utrum - which of two? 

vivus, a, um - living, alive 

 

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or 

bis (adv.) twice 

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively 

intus (adv.) within 

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among 

confestim (adv.) immediately 

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor 

nondum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day. 

quidem - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also 

rursus (adv.) again, back 

sicut - just as, so as 

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio - “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio: 'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum - in this manner

in perpetuum - forever 

se receperunt - they retreated

longe lateque - far and wide

eodem die - on the same day 

subductis navibus - ships drawn up 

magna manu - with a large group of men 

summo loco - in the highest position

List Three - Caesar, De Bello Gallico

Be able to decline:  hoc opus &  eadem fides

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - get, obtain, reach 

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; to be eager 

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall 

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessus - to move, to withdraw 

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround 

coepi, coepisse, coeptum - to begin (defective verb) 

concito (1) to incite, stir, impel 

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to admit, to reveal 

confido, confidere, confisus sum - to trust, believe 

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to see, to behold 

consulo, consulere, consului, consultus - to consult, to consider

compleo, complere, complevi, completus - to fill 

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought

despero (1) to give up, to have not hope

disco, discere, didici - to learn, get to know 

excito (1) excite, inspire; raise 

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus - to go out

impetro (1) to obtain, accomplish 

interpono, interponere, interposui - to introduce 

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, glide 

minuo, minuere, minui - to diminish 

munio, (4) to fortify 

nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum - to obtain, meet

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to recognize; know, learn  

nego (1) to deny, to say ...not 

nitor, niti, nisus sum - to lean on; to rely on 

paro (1) to prepare

pareo, parere, parui - to obey + dative

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, bear 

pendeo, pendere, pependi, pensus - pay, weigh, to hang 

polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer

probo (1) to approve, demonstrate

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - raise; destroy 

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be afraid, fear

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge, take vengeance 

 

aditus, -us (m) approach, entrance 

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout 

centurio, centurionis (m) centurion 

circuitus, -us (m) circumference, circuit 

contumelia, -ae (f) insult, outrage; violence 

fames, famis (f) hunger

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor; reputation 

familiaris, -e- of the family; close friend 

fides, fidei (f) faith, honor, trust 

fletus, -us (m) weeping 

hiems, hiemis (f) winter

hiberna, -orum (n. Pl.) winter-camp

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want, need

ignis, -is (m) fire

meritum, -i (n) service, favour

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner

negotium, -ii (n) business, a task 

opus, operis (n) work, toil; defenses 

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention 

ops, opis (f) power, resources, influence

praesidium, -ii (n) guard, protection

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion/loyalty to family, state/nations and gods

ratio, rationis (f) an accounting, reasoning 

scala, -ae (f) ladder, stairs 

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, purpose 

sermo, sermonis (m) conversation, speech 

studium, -ii (n) eagerness, zeal 

stipendium, -i (n) pay; military service 

voluntas, voluntatis (f) wish, will, choice 

vulgus, -i (n) mass, mob

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak 

alacer, alacris, alacere - eager, spirited 

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious 

confertus, a, um - crowded together 

humilis, -e- on the ground; humble, low

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous 

incolumis, -e- uninjured, safe

indignus, a, um + ablative= unworthy, undeserving 

idoneus, a, um - suitable, appropriate + dative case

levis, -e - light

par, paris - equal, similar 

repentinus, a, um - sudden, unexpected 

saucius, a, -um - wounded 

 

adeo, (av.) to such an extent 

apud + acc. = in the presence of, with, among

confestim (adv.) immediately 

eiusmodi - of this kind, of such a kind, so 

intra + acc.   = within 

inter + acc= between, among 

procul (adv.) far off, at a distance

quotiens - as often as

quoniam - since 

nondum (adv.) not yet

paene (adv.) almost 

rursus (adv.) again, backward

sive…sive or seu…seu - whether, or 

tametsi - even if, although 

unde - whence, from where

vero - in truth, in fact

 

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio - “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio: 'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum - in this manner

in perpetuum - forever 

se receperunt - they retreated

longe lateque - far and wide

eodem die - on the same day 

subductis navibus - ship drawn up 

magna manu - with a large group of men 

summo loco - in the highest position

 

Vocabulary List Two for Caesar - Mostly Martial Words

  "Them's Fighten' Words" or Words of a Mostly Martial Nature.

conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus (con + iacio) - to hurl, to throw

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know). 

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to struggle, vie, fight 

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus - to give up, surrender 

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail + dative case

expugno (1) to take by storm, capture

existimo (1) to judge, consider, think 

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolo, incolere - to dwell 

incito (1) to drive forward, incite 

munio (4) to fortify 

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

probo (1) approve, commend

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi - to go before, excel 

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward 

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out  

subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative

subsequor, subsequi, secutus sum - to follow after, to follow closely; to succeed 

succurro, succurrere- to run to aid + dative 

 

acies, aciei (f) battle line

agmen, agminis (n) marching line (novissimum agmen = rear of theline)

auxilium, -ii (n) help 

castra, -arum (n) camp

cohors, cohortis (f) cohort

cornu, -us (n) wing (of an army); horn 

copiae, -arum (f) troops

equites, equitum (m. pl.) cavalry

equitatus, -us (m) cavalry 

eruptio, eruptionis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, -us (m) army

fossa, -ae (f) ditch 

frumentum, -i (n) grain, (in plural = crops)

gladius, -ii (m) sword

impedimentum, -i (n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, -us (m) attack 

latus, lateris (n) side; flank

legatus, -i (m) envoy; lieutenant

legio, legionis (f) legion 

manus, -us (f) hand; band or group of soldiers

miles, militis (m) soldier

munitio, munitionis (f) fortification 

murus, -i (m) wall 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade 

pars, partis (f) part, side; direction

passus, -us (m) step, pace

pilum, i (n) javelin 

praesidium, -ii (n) guard

proelium, -ii (n)  battle

profectio, profectionis (f) departure, setting out 

salus, salutis (f) safety, salvation 

scutum, -i (n) shield 

subsidium, -ii (n) help, reinforcement, support

telum, -i (n) weapon; spear 

turris, turris, turrium (f) tower

usus, -us (m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae (f) watch (military)

vallum, -i (n) rampart; wall 

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour 

 

expeditus, a, um- lightly armed 

fortis, forte (adj.) brave, strong

paratus, a, um - prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um - slow 

 

ne...quidem = not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes) 

qua (relative) where

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

plerumque (adv.) generally, usually; often

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propterea quod - because, on account of the fact that

 

End of Aeneid Book IV & the Beginning of Book VI

Acheron, Acherontis (m) River of Hades

Lacus Avernus - Lake near Cumae and entrance to Underworlld

Charon, Charontis (m) Charon, ferryman of souls across the river Styx 

Cocytus, -i (m) river in the underworld 

Dis, Ditis (m) Pluto, Hades, god of underworld 

Hecate - Infernal version of Diana

Proserpina, -ae (f) Peresphone 

Iris, Iridis (f) Iris, messenger of Juno and goddess of the rainbow

 

abluo, abluere, ablui, ablutus - to wash (off)

adnitor, adniti, adnisus sum - to lean on; struggle 

aestuo (1) boil, seethe, rage

arceo, acrere, arcui - to keep off, defend 

bacchor (1) to rave, rush wildly (what are Bacchantes/Maenades?)

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall 

concutio, concutere, concussi, concussus - to shake, shatter

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know). 

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus - fail, faint 

defungor, defungi, defunctus, a, um - perform, finish + ablative case

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail + dative case

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

fremo, fremere, fremui- roar, grown 

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie 

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus - to please, to help (often used impersonally) 

haereo, haerēre, haesī, haesum - to cling

haurio, haurire, hausī, haustus - to drain, drink in 

glomero (1) to gather, collect

miseror, miserari, miseratus sum - to pity

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain 

oro (1) to plead, to beg, to beseech, to pray 

queror, querī, questus sum - to complain 

recedo, recedere, recessī, recussus - to back, retreat

seco, secare, secui, sectus - to cut, cleave, slice

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to free, loosen, set free

spargo, spargere, sparsi, sparsus - to scatter, sprinkled 

sperno, spernere, sprevi, spretus - scorn, reject

spumo (1) to foam 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear, be afraid of

verro, verrere, verri, versus - to sweep (over) 

 

 

aether, aetheris (m) upper air; heaven 

amnis, -is (m) river 

amictus, -ūs (m) cloak, robe 

calor, caloris (m) heat, warmth

canities, canitiei (f) whiteness

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune disater

casu (adv.) by change, accidentally 

comes, comitis (m/f) companion 

consilium, -ii (n) plan, counsel 

copia, -ae (f) abundance; troops, forces; supplies

culmen, culminis (n) top, summit

crinis, crinis (m) hair

folium, -i (n) leaf 

gemitus, -ūs (m) roar, groan, lament

harena, -ae (f) sand, beach 

halitus, -ūs (m) breath

heros, herois (m) hero, great warrior

lacus, -ūs (m) lake

mentum, -i (n) chin

mens, mentis (f) mind; thought, intension 

mos, moris (m) custom, manner

mors, mortis (f) death 

omen, ominis (n) omen

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention, service, hard work 

ops, opis (f) power, support ; in plural - resources; wealth, influence

opus, operis (n) work, task; fortification 

palus, paludis (f) swamp, marsh 

ramus, -i (m) brach of a tree

remus, -i (m) oar of ship

rota, -ae (f) wheel 

ripa, -ae (f) bank

rogus, -i (m) 

senectus, senectutis (f) old age 

sinus, -ūs (m) fold, boson, bay, hollow, indentation 

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance 

spatium, -ii (n) space, interval of time

torus, -i (m) couch, bed

usus, -us (m) use, need, purpose (usui is a common dative of purpose)

tumultus, -ūs (m) tumult, uprising, clamor 

vadum, -i (n) shallow, shoal 

 

angustus, a, um - narrow

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious 

crudus, a, um - raw, fresh; bloody 

expeditus, a, um - fast, unimpeded

exsanguis, -e bloodless, lifeless, pale 

examinis, -e - breathless, 

extremus, a, um - final, last, extreme

impertius, a, um - unskilled + gen. case

incolumis, -e- unharmed, safe 

incultus, a, um - wild, unkempt 

iniquus, a, um - unfair, unjust, hostile 

inhumatus, a, um - unburied 

inops, inopis (adj.) needy, destitute, bereft of

lividus, a, um - blue, dark 

sordidus, a, um - dirty, squalid 

trepidus, a, um - agitated, trembling

 

 

aliter (adv.) otherwise

non aliter quam - not otherwise than, just as (introduces a simile)

demum (adv.) at length, finally

enim - for, indeed, truly 

iuxta + acc. case = next to , close to 

inde(adv.) thence, thereupon, afterward 

quia - because

totiens - so often

totidem - the same number

ūnā (adv.) together, at the same time

 

Book Four, Aeneid, List One 

Be able to decline:   haec species or totum foedus

Elissa, ae (f) Phoenician name of Dido

Thyias, Thyiadis (f) cultic following of Dionysus 

 

ambio, ambire, ambivi, ambitus - to go around in search of support

excio, excire, excivi, excitus - to - to excite, rouse, stir up

foveo, fovere, fovi - to keep warm, cherish 

fraudo (1) to deprive of, to cheat out of + ablative case

fundo (1) to lay a foundation; to found

fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi - to flash; to shine bright

mando (1) to entrust; to order

meditor meditari, meditatus sum - to ponder; plan; contemplate 

misereor, misereri + genitive case = to pity

piget, pigere, piguit (impersonal verb + acc. + inf.) it displeases, its causes regret 

propero (1) to hurry, to hasten 

potior, potiri, potitus sum (+ abl. or gen.) to take possession of  

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - to break, to burst 

saevio, saevire - to rage, to be cruel 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise  

umeo, umere - to be wet

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

artus, -us (m) limbs

aspectus, -us (m) sight, vision 

coniugium, i (n) marriage

conubium -i (n) marriage

dolus, -i (m) trick, deception 

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract 

funus, funeris (n) funeral, death 

laena, -ae (f) cloak

metus, -us (m) fear

monitus, -us (m) warning, admonition 

orgia, -orum (n. pl.) secret rites, mysteries 

otium, -ii (n) leisure, time of leisure 

planta, -ae (f) sole of foot; foot

sidus, sideris (n) star

sors, sortis (f) lot, fortune, fate, chance 

species, speciei (f) appearance 

spons, spontis (f) will, volition 

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak; wounded 

alienus, a, um - foreign, alien

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting 

furtivus, a, um - secret, furtive

hibernus, a, um - winter, of the winter

incolumis, -e   - uninjured, safe

inops, inopis (adj.) lacking in wealth; devoid of + genitive case

mirabilis, mirabile - wonderous (mirabile dictu) 

mollis, -esoft; kind 

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift 

perfidus, a, um - treacherous, false; deceitful 

potior, potius (comp. adj.) more powerful; stronger 

tutus, a, um - safe

undosus, a, um - abounding in waves, stormy 

uxorius, a, um - under a wife’s control 

velox, velocis (adj.) swift

 

continuo (adv.) immediately, at once

nusquam (adv.) no where

numquam (adv.) never 

ocius (adv.) quickly, speedily 

 

omnino (adv.) 

pro re (legal idiom) - for my own case

tandem (adv.) at last, finally

ultro (adv.) beyond, from the other side, in reply

Beginning of book II Vocabulary List Aeneid Vergil 

a(d)spicio, -spicere, -spexi, -spectus - to see, behold, look at 

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus - mating position of frogs)

attollo, attollere - raise up, lift

aveho, avehere, avexi, avectus - to carry away, convey

careo, carere, carui + abl.  - to lack, be free from

dignor, dignari, dignatus sum + abl.   - to deem worthy

everto, evertere, eversi, eversus - to over turn; destroy 

for, farī, fatus sum - to speak 

excutio, excutere, excussī, excussus - to shake off

fugleo, fulgere - to shine, flash 

haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum - to drain, to drink in

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically 

incumbo, incumbere, incubui + dative - to lean upon, hand over

includo, inculdere, inclusi, inclusus - to enclose, confine 

insto, instare - to press on, urge + dative

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi - to please, to help (often used impersonally)

lambo (1) to lick 

lateo, latere, latui - to hide, to lurk (latent

ligo (1) to bind, fasten

lego, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose 

macto (1) slaughter 

occido, occidere, occidi, occasus - to fall, to perish 

occulto (1) to hide (occult) 

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to give birth, gain, acquire

sinuo (1) fold, curve, twist (insinuate) 

statuo, statuere, statui, statutus - establish, set up 

sisto, sistere, steti, status - stand, stop, stay

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to lay low; spread; strew 

suscito (1) to stir, to arouse

supero (1) to surmount, overcome

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to watch over; protect

ulcisor, ulicisci, ultus sum - to avenge   (Temple of Mars Ultor) 

 

aether, eris (m) upper air; heavens

ala, -ae (f) wings

amnis, -is (m) river 

anguis, -is (m) snake

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint, body

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

caterva, -ae (f) crowd, band

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill 

conubium, -ii (n) marriage

culpa, -ae (f) fault, offense, blame

culmen, culminis (n) peak, summit, top; acme 

custos, custodis (m) guard 

dolus, -i (m) trick, fraud, deciet

dolor, doloris (m) grief; angry; pain 

ensis, -is (m) sword; knife

error, erroris (m) error; trick, deceit; a wandering

facies, faciei (m) face; appearance 

fictum, -i (n) falsehood

insania, -ae (f) madness, frenzy

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, wailing 

latus, lateris (n) side, flank 

letum, -i (n) death

lignum, -i (n) wood

nepos, nepotis (m) descendent 

pulvis, pulveris (m) dust 

quisquis, quidquid (indef. pronoun) whoever, whatever

robur, roburis (m) oak; strength 

rota, -ae (f) wheel 

sermo, sermonis (m) speech, conversation 

solum, -i (n) ground, soil, earth 

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate, destiny 

uterus, -i (m) womb, belly

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each, both 

vitta, -ae (f) garland, fillet

 

conscius, a, um - aware, privy to 

defessus, a, um - weary; exhausted 

extremus, a, um- final, last, furthest 

incolumis, -e - safe, unharmed, uninjured 

invisus, a, um - hated; hateful 

laevus, a, um - left; stupid; ill-omened 

fetus, a, um - teeming with, pregnant with 

foedus, a, um - foul, disgusting, filthy 

furtivus, a, um - stolen, secret

pernix, pernicis (adj.) swift, active 

secundus, a, um - following, favorable 

tenax, tenacis (adj.) holding

tutus, a, um - safe

umidus, a, um - damp, dewy, wet

 

enim (adv.)  for, indeed, truly 

denique (adv.) finally, at last 

nusquam (adv.) nowhere; never

pariter (adv.) equally, alike 

passim (adv.) everywhere

procul (adv.) at or from a distance 

totidem - the same number; so many

totiens - so often


Vocabulary List for Aeneid, Middle of Book One

Be able to decline:  haec vis or illud mare or lītus ipsum

Acestes, -ae (m) king of Sicily

Aeolus, -i (m) Aeolus, King of Wind ( from Homer's Odyssey)

Dardanus, a, um = Trojan, of Dardanus, legendary king of Troy 

Latona, -ae (f) Leto, mother of Apollo and Diana

Ilium, Ilii (n) Illium = Trot as in Iliad = story of Ilium or Ilioupersis, destruction of Troy

Iulus, -i (m) son of Aeneas AKA Ascanius, hence the Gens Iulii.  

Poeni, -orum (m. pl.) Carthaginians, Phoenicians 

Teurcri- orum (m. p.) descendant of Teucer (Who the hell is Teucer?)

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian or of Tyre, a Phoenician city in the Levant 

Hesperia, -ae (f) land in the west

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn


adsurgo, adsurgere, adsurrexi, adsurrectus - to rise up, to stand up 

aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectus - to look at, behold, look upon 

desisto, desistere, destiti - to leave off, desist 

cieo, ciere, civi, citus - rouse, stir 

defigo, defigere, defixi, defixus - fix, to fasten 

haereo, haereo, haesi, haesum - to cling, to stick, to get stuck; be embarrassed

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to go forth, stride, walk majestically 

insto, instare - to press on + dative

mollio (4) to soften

parco, parcere, peperci + dative = to spare, pardon 

populo (1) to devastate, 

stupeo, stupere, stupui - to stand fixed, to be dazed 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - take, use up, consume (alsoadsumo) 

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise up, to stand up 

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to loosen, set free; bring an end to 

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to convey, carry 

veto, vetere, vetui - to forbid, prevent

voluto (1) to roll over and over and over and over and over....


aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

anima, -ae (f) soul, spirit, ghost [breath , wind, air]. Transf., [the breath of life, vital principle, soul]; 'animam edere', [to give up the ghost]; poet., [life-blood]; meton., [a living being]; sometimes = animus, [rational soul].

animus, -i (m) [the spiritual or rational principle of life in man]. More specifically: (1) [the seat of feeling , the heart]; 'animi causa', [for pleasure]; loc. (or genit.) 'animi', [at heart]. (2) [character, disposition]; as a trait of character (esp. in plur.) [courage, spirit, vivacity]; also [pride, arrogance]. (3) [the seat of the will, intention]: 'habeo in animo', [I am resolved]. (4) [the seat of thought, intellect, mind, memory, consciousness].

antrum, -i (n) 

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

aurum, - (n) gold

auris, -is (f) ears         

aura, -ae (f) breeze 

caterva, -ae (f) crowd

caecus, a, um - blind

clarus, a, um - clear, bright; distinguished, noble 

cura, ae (f) care, worry, anxiety 

discrimen, discriminis (n) a dividing line; critical moment; crisis; hardship

foedus, foederis (n) treaty, contract 

foris, -is (f) door, gate 

harena, -ae (f) sand

inceptum, , -i (n) beginning, undertaking

iuvenis, -is (m) youth 

ius, iuris (n) law

mare, maris (n) sea

moles, molis (f) a mass; undertaking, burden 

mos, moris (m) custom 

metus, -us (m) fear

noxa, -ae (f) crime

officium, -ii (n) duty, kindness, favour

opus, operis (n) work, labour, task 

ops, ops (f) power, influence; resources, wealth

ora, -ae (f) shore

praeda, -ae (f) booty 

ramus, i (m) branch 

remus, -i (m) oar

sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate 

turbo, turbinis (m) storm; whirlwind 

vis, vis (f) force; in plural = strength 


acutus, a, um - sharp 

aetherius, a, um- of the upper air, ethereal 

ater, atra, atrum - black 

avidus, a, um - eager 

barbarus, a, um - foreign, strange, uncivilized 

crudelis, -e- cruel, bloody 

cunctus, a, um - all 

infelix, infelicis - unhappy, ill-fated, barren 

laetus, a, um - happy 

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive 

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful, ruling over + genitive 

subnixus, a, um + abl.   resting on 

tutus, a, um - safe


at, ast (adversative conj.) 

adhuc (adv.) to his point, till now

coram (adv.) openly, publicly, face to face

equidem - truly, indeed, certainly 

pariter (adv.) equally 

praeterea (adv.) here after, besides

quippe (adv.) of course, certain (tone?)

seu...seu  - whether...or


First list for the Aeneid

Be able to decline:  haec vis or illud mare or litus ipsum


Anchises, -ae (m) acc. =Anchisen - Trojan Prince and father of Aeneas

Argi, -orum (m. pl.) Argos, city in Greece where Juno is worshipped 

Argivus, a, um - Argive, Greek 

Danaus, a, um - Danaan, Greek

Ganymēdēs, -is (m) Trojan boy and son of Laomedon, king of Troy

Lāvīnius, a, um - Lavinian, of Lavinium 

Parcae, -arum (f) Fates 

Teucrus, a, um - Teucrian, Trojan (Teucer was a king of Troy)

Troia, -ae (f) city of Troy or Ilium

Tyrius, a, um - Tyrian, of Tyre, a Phoenician city on the coast of the Levant

Saturnius, a, um - of Saturn 

Trōs, Trōis (m) Trojan


Words of Special Significance:


moles, molis (f) a mass, weight, burden 

pietas, pietatis (f) 

pius, a, um 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo

vatēs, vatis (m) bard, prophet, singer; poet


accendo, accendere, accendi, accensus - to inflame; enrage 

adeo, adire, adiī, aditus - to approach, encounter 

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; be eager

arceo, arcere, arcui - keep off, defend, restrain 

cano, canere, cecinī, cantus - to sing

cerno, cernere, crevi, cretus - to discern, perceive 

doleo, dolere, dolui - to suffer, grieve, resent 

eripio, eripere, eripui, ereptus - to snatch away

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere, fovi - to cherish, fondle 

fundo, fundere, fudi, fusus - to pour 

furo, furere, furui - to rage, rave, be frantic 

iacto (1) to toss, buffet 

impello, impellere, impulī, impulsus - to strike against, drive, force 

incedo, incedere, incessi, incessus - to stride; go forth; walk 

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, to slide 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to hurt, strike, offend 

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow 

ruo, ruere, rui - fall; rush; sink

sino, sinere, sivi - to permit, allow

tendo, tendere, tetendi, tentus - to stretch

voluto (1) to turn over, roll

volvo, volvere, volui, volutus - to move in a curved course; to roll; to unroll; to undergo


aequor, aequoris (n) sea 

altum, -i (n) the deep, the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel, fort; height

ara, ae (f) altar

arvum, -i (n) field 

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

aurum, -i (n) gold

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason 

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune, chance

cura, -ae (f) care, anxiety, 

currus, -ūs (m) chariot

donum, -i (n) gift

fatum, -i (n) fate

fors, fortis (f) chance, fortune

fluctus, us (m) wave, tide, flood, sea

furia, -ae (f) rage, madness 

genus, generis (n) race; kind, origin, 

gens, gentis (f) clan, race, nation

litus, litoris (n) shore

moenia, -ium (n) walls

numen, numinis (n) divine authority, divinity

ora, -ae (f) shore 

pontus, -i (m) sea

portus, -us (m) port

porta, -ae (f) gate

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring 

pelagus, -i (n) sea

pectus, pectoris (n) chest; heart; soul 

relinquiae, ārum (fe. pl.) the leavings, remnants

sidus, sideris (n) star

socius, -i (m) ally, comrade, follower 

sanguis, -inis (m) blood

somnus, -i (m) sleep, slumber; dream 

turbo, turbinis (m) whirlwind 

vetus, veteris (adj.) old 


asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh 

ater, atra, atrum - dark, black, gloomy

caelestis, -e(adj.) of the sky, heavenly

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) rich 

fessus, a, um - tired, weary 

immanis, -e- huge, monstrous, enormous 

insignis, -e- marked, distinguished 

invīsus, a, um - hated 

infelix, infelicis (adj.) unfortunate, unhappy, accursed 

inferus, a, um - low, below, underneath

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage


enim - for, indeed, in truth 

insuper (adv.) above, besides 

lātē (adv.) widely, far and wide 

longe (adv.) far off

necdum (adv.) not yet

olim (adv.) once upon a time, once

praeterea (adv.) besides, hereafter

qua (adv.) where, in anyway

quippe - truly, indeed surely 

una (adv.) together, at the same time 

unde - from which, whence 



Final Caesar Vocabulary List - Book 6

1) Be able to decline:          carus vultus;  insigne munus;  hoc os;   nullum numen

2) Expect verb game on:     for, fari, fatus sum and colo, colere, colui, cultus

fertur = he, she, it is said

abdo, abdere, abdidi, abditus - to put away, hide, remove, secrete

cano, canere, cecini, cantus - to sing 

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to worship; to cultivate 

comprehendo, comprehendere, comprehendi - seize, grasp, arrest

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, establish

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-transvestite) + dative  = to trust 

conspicor (1) to catch sight of; perceive 

contego, contegere, contexi, contextum - cover over

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectum - to give out, to fail 

dimico (1) to brandish weapon; contend 

excido, excidere - to fall from, perish 

fertur = he, she, it is said

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak

foveo, fovere -to keep warm; cherish, support

iacto (1) to toss, buffet

immolo (1) to sacrifice , immolate 

impello, impellere, impuli, impulsus - to drive, force, strike 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesum - to hurt, injure; offend 

metuo, metuere, metui - fear, dread 

patior, pati, passus sum - to suffer, endure; to allow + acc. + inf. 

rego, regere, rexi, rectum - to rule, lead, direct 

servo, servare - to keep, preserve 

sino, sinere, sivi, situs - permit, allow 

versor (1) to be engaged in 

volvo, volvere, volvi, volutus - to wind, roll, twist


altum, -i (n) the deep; the sea 

aequor, aequoris (n) a flat level surface; the sea

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason; case                    

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster

conspectus, -us (m) look, sight, view

currus, -us (m) chariot 

excidium, -ii (n) destruction, overthrow 

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, report

furiae, -arum (f) madness, rage 

furtum, i (n) theft, robbery 

gens, gentil (f) race, clan

iniuria, -ae (f) injury, wrong

litus, litoris (n) shore 

moenia, -ium (n. pl.) walls

moles, molis (f) mass, burden, difficulty 

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

munus, muneris (n) service, duty; gift 

noxia, -ae (f) fault, offence, crime

numen, numinis (n) divine spirit, divine power

opinio, opinionis (f) opinion, thought, belief 

opus, operis (n) task, work; fortification; need 

ops, opis (f) help, resources, power, wealth 

ora, orae (f) shore

os, oris (n) mouth; face

os, ossis (n) bone

progenies, progeniei (f) offspring 

quisquam, quaequam, quidquam - anybody, anyone, anything

sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood; family, race 

sal, salis (n) salt 

vultus, -us (m) face; expression 


asper, aspera, asperum - harsh, rough, fierce 

caelestis, -e- celestial, heavenly 

carus, a, um - dear + dative case

dives, divitis (adj.) wealthy, rich 

immanis, -e- immense, enormous 

immitis, -e   - fierce, cruel 

insignis, -e- distinguished, remarkable 

invisus,a, um - hated, hateful, odious 

memor, menoris (adj.) mindful, remembering + genitive case

saevus, a, um - cruel 

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

turpis, -e- shameful, ugly, vile 

vetus, veteris (adj.) old 

vivus, a, um - living, alive



admodum (adv.) completely, just about

causā + preceding genitive = "for the sake of" 

clam (adv.) in secret

circum + acc.  = around 

dum (subord. conj.) + indicative = while 

dum (subord. conj.) + subjunctive = until 

enim - for, indeed, in truth 

magis (adv.) more, rather

necdum - not yet

nondum- not yet 

ob + acc.  - on account of 

palam (adv.) openly, publicly

qua (adv.) where, in any way 

quoque (adv.) also 


fertur = he, she, it is said



 

List for Quiz on Monday, November 24. 

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

audeo, audere, ausus sum - to dare 

cano, canere, cecini, cantus - to sing 

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover 

concedo, concedere - to withdraw 

consisto, consistere, constiti - to stand (still), to stop

concido, concidere, concidi, concisum - to cut down 

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to believe, to trust, to rely on 

conficio, -ere - to exhaust; to finish 

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position 

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in 

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament) 

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive 

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally  in Caesar: ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri = "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance 

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray 

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance 

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; spend 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy 

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive 

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live 

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - fear, be afraid

 

adventus, -us (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple 

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout 

aer, aeris (m) air (useful for rebuilding ships) 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

balteus, -i (m) belt, baldric, girdle 

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit 

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster 

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart 

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime 

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay 

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas). 

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice 

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

liberi, - orum (m) children 

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight 

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment 

nutus, -us (m) a nod

numen, numinis (f) divine spirit; divinity 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade 

ratio, rationis (f) - a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business; a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -i (n) shield 

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard 

vallum, -i (n) rampart, wall 

 

acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid) 

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together 

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager 

immanis, -e enormous, immense 

inferus, a, um - below, lower 

impeditus, a, um-  hindered, impeded 

impius, a, um - impious, unholy 

incolumis -e [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.)  a certain 

quinam, quaenam, quodnam - which, that

quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam - who?, what? 

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, -e- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude) 

uter, utra, utrum - each of two, one of two 

vivus, a, um - living, alive 

 

 

admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or 

bis (adv.) twice 

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively 

intus (adv.) within 

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among 

confestim (adv.) immediately 

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor 

nondum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day. 

quidem - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also 

rursus (adv.) again, back 

sicut - just as, so as 

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of


adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - to obtain, get

adhaereo, adhaerere, adhaesi - to cling to, to stick to

comperio, comperire, comperi, compertus - to find out; to discover 

concedo, concedere - to withdraw 

consisto, consistere, constiti - to stand (still), to stop

concido, concidere, concidi, concisum - to cut down 

constipo (1) to crowd together in, to stuff

confido, confidere, confisus sum (semi-deponent) - to believe, to trust, to rely on 

conficio, -ere - to exhaust; to finish 

insto, instare, institi - press on, take position 

irrumpo, irrumpere, irrupi, irruptus, a, um - burst in 

ligo (1) to tie, bind (ligament) 

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay, linger

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

nitor, niti, nixus or nisus sum - to rely on (+abl. case); to struggle to + infinitive 

noceo, nocere, nocui, nocitus - to harm + dative case [often used impersonally  in Caesar: ipsi Titurio nihil nocitum iri = "that no harm will be done to Titurius himself"]

procedo, procedere, processi, processum - to proceed, to advance 

prodo, prodere, prodidi, proditus - to bring fourth; betray 

progredior, progredi, progessus sum - to advance 

subvenio, subvenire, subveni - come up to; aid, relieve 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take; spend 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - raise; destroy 

soleo, solere, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + infinitive 

versor (1) to be engaged, move about; to live 

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - fear, be afraid


adventus, -us (m) arrival (advent)

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple 

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout

beneficium, -ii (n) kindness, favour, benefit 

caedes, caedis (f) murder, slaughter, killing

casus, -us (m) chance; misfortune, disaster 

certamen, certaminis (n) contest, conflict

cor, cordis (n) heart 

epistula, -ae (f) letter, missive

facinus, facinoris (n) deed; bad deed; crime 

fama, -ae (f) rumour, story, hearsay 

fas (n. indeclinable) right or just according to divine law (opposite is nefas). 

gratia, -ae (f) influence, favour; thanks

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice 

ius, iuris (n) justice, law, right

liberi, - orum (m) children 

moles, molis (f) a mass, a weight 

morbus, -i (m) disease, sickness, illness

poena, -ae (f) punishment 

nutus, -us (m) a nod

numen, numinis (f) divine spirit; divinity 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade 

ratio, rationis (f) - a reckoning , account, consideration, calculation; 'rationem ducere', [to compute]; [any transaction, affair, business; a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty].

scutum, -i (n) shield 

turris, -is (f) tower (Italian torre)

vagina, -ae (f) sheath, scabbard 

vallum, -i (n) rampart, wall 


acer, acris, acre - sharp; fierce; bitter; eager (acrid) 

asper, aspera, asperum - rough, harsh, violent

confertus, a, um - crowded together 

creber, crebra, crebrum - crowded, frequent

cupidus, a, um - desirous, eager 

immanis, -e enormous, immense 

inferus, a, um - below, lower 

impeditus, a, um-  hindered, impeded 

impius, a, um - impious, unholy 

incolumis -e [uninjured , safe and sound]

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.)  a certain 

quinam, quaenam, quodnam - which, that

quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam - who?, what? 

repentinus, a, um - sudden

turpis, -e- ugly, shameful, disgusting (turpitude) 

uter, utra, utrum - which of two? 

vivus, a, um - living, alive 


admodum (adv.) completely, just about

aut...aut (conjunctions) either...or 

bis (adv.) twice 

deinceps (adv.) one after another, successively 

intus (adv.) within 

intra (prep.+ acc.) within, among 

confestim (adv.) immediately 

ne...quidem = not even

neve - or not, and not, nor 

nondum (adv.) not yet

pridie (adv.) on the day before, on the previous day. 

quidem - infact, indeed

quoque - and also, also 

rursus (adv.) again, back 

sicut - just as, so as 

extra (prep. + acc.) outside, beyond, outside of

Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio - “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio: 'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum - in this manner

in perpetuum - forever 

se receperunt - they retreated

longe lateque - far and wide

eodem die - on the same day 

subductis navibus - ship drawn up 

magna manu - with a large group of men 

summo loco - in the highest position



List Four - Caesar, De Bello Gallico

Be able to decline:  hoc opus &  eadem fides

adipiscor, adipisci, adeptus sum - get, obtain, reach 

ardeo, ardere, arsi, arsus - to burn; to be eager 

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall 

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessus - to move, to withdraw 

cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus - to surround 

coepi, coepisse, coeptum - to begin (defective verb) 

concito (1) to incite, stir, impel 

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to admit, to reveal 

confido, confidere, confisus sum - to trust, believe 

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to see, to behold 

consulo, consulere, consului, consultus - to consult, to consider

compleo, complere, complevi, completus - to fill 

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought

despero (1) to give up, to have not hope

disco, discere, didici - to learn, get to know 

excito (1) excite, inspire; raise 

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus - to go out

impetro (1) to obtain, accomplish 

interpono, interponere, interposui - to introduce 

labor, labi, lapsus sum - to slipe, glide 

minuo, minuere, minui - to diminish 

munio, (4) to fortify 

nanciscor, nancisci, nactus sum - to obtain, meet

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born 

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to recognize; know, learn  

nego (1) to deny, to say ...not 

nitor, niti, nisus sum - to lean on; to rely on 

paro (1) to prepare

pareo, parere, parui - to obey + dative

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, bear 

pendeo, pendere, pependi, pensus - pay, weigh, to hang 

polliceor, polliceri, pollicitus sum - to promise, offer

probo (1) to approve, demonstrate

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - drive back, repulse 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - raise; destroy 

vereor, vereri, veritus sum - to be afraid, fear

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge, take vengeance 


aditus, -us (m) approach, entrance 

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) influence, clout 

centurio, centurionis (m) centurion 

circuitus, -us (m) circumference, circuit 

contumelia, -ae (f) insult, outrage; violence 

fames, famis (f) hunger

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor; reputation 

familiaris, -e- of the family; close friend 

fides, fidei (f) faith, honor, trust 

fletus, -us (m) weeping 

hiems, hiemis (f) winter

hiberna, -orum (n. Pl.) winter-camp

inopia, -ae (f) poverty, want, need

ignis, -is (m) fire

meritum, -i (n) service, favour

mos, moris (m) custom, habit, manner

negotium, -ii (n) business, a task 

opus, operis (n) work, toil; defenses 

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention 

praesidium, -ii (n) guard, protection

pietas, pietatis (f) devotion/loyalty to family, state/nations and gods

ratio, rationis (f) an accounting, reasoning 

scala, -ae (f) ladder, stairs 

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, purpose 

sermo, sermonis (m) conversation, speech 

studium, -ii (n) eagerness, zeal 

stipendium, -i (n) pay; military service 

voluntas, voluntatis (f) wish, will, choice 

vulgus, -i (n) mass, mob


aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak 

alacer, alacris, alacere - eager, spirited 

amplus, a, um - ample, full, spacious 

confertus, a, um - crowded together 

humilis, -e- on the ground; humble, low

incommodus, a, um - unfortunate, disastrous 

incolumis, -e- uninjured, safe

indignus, a, um + ablative= unworthy, undeserving 

idoneus, a, um - suitable, appropriate + dative case

levis, -e - light

par, paris - equal, similar 

repentinus, a, um - sudden, unexpected 

saucius, a, -um - wounded 


adeo, (av.) to such an extent 

apud + acc. = in the presence of, with, among

confestim (adv.) immediately 

eiusmodi - of this kind, of such a kind, so 

intra + acc.   = within 

inter + acc= between, among 

procul (adv.) far off, at a distance

quotiens - as often as

quoniam - since 

nondum (adv.) not yet

paene (adv.) almost 

rursus (adv.) again, backward

sive…sive or seu…seu - whether, or 

tametsi - even if, although 

unde - whence, from where

vero - in truth, in fact


Phrases or Idioms:

Res est testimonio - “the matter is for (the purpose of) evidence”

de summis rebus - “concerning the most serious circumstances”

in ipso negotio: 'in the midst of action'.

ad hunc modum - in this manner

in perpetuum - forever 

se receperunt - they retreated

longe lateque - far and wide

eodem die - on the same day 

subductis navibus - ship drawn up 

magna manu - with a large group of men 

summo loco - in the highest position




3rd Vocabulary List for Caesar - Martial Words

List for 3rd Vocabulary Quiz - "Them's Fighten' Words" or Words of a Martial Nature.

conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus - to hurl, to throw

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know). 

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to struggle, vie, fight 

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus - to give up, surrender 

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail + dative case

expugno (1) to take by storm, capture

existimo (1) to judge, consider, think 

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolo, incolere - to dwell 

incito (1) to drive forward, incite 

munio (4) to fortify 

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

probo (1) approve, commend

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi - to go before, excel 

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward 

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out  

subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative


acies, aciei (f) battle line

agmen, agminis (n) marching line (novissimum agmen = rear of theline)

auxilium, -ii (n) help 

castra, -arum (n) camp

cohors, cohortis (f) cohort

cornu, -us (n) wing (of an army); horn 

copiae, -arum (f) troops

equites, equitum (m. pl.) cavalry

equitatus, -us (m) cavalry 

eruptio, eruptionis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, -us (m) army

fossa, -ae (f) ditch 

frumentum, -i (n) grain, (in plural = crops)

gladius, -ii (m) sword

impedimentum, -i (n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, -us (m) attack 

latus, lateris (n) side; flank

legatus, -i (m) envoy; lieutenant

legio, legionis (f) legion 

manus, -us (f) hand; band or group of soldiers

miles, militis (m) soldier

munitio, munitionis (f) fortification 

murus, -i (m) wall 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade 

pars, partis (f) part, side; direction

passus, -us (m) step, pace

pilum, i (n) javelin 

praesidium, -ii (n) guard

proelium, -ii (n)  battle

profectio, profectionis (f) departure, setting out 

salus, salutis (f) safety, salvation 

scutum, -i (n) shield 

subsidium, -ii (n) help, reinforcement, support

telum, -i (n) weapon; spear 

turris, turris, turrium (f) tower

usus, -us (m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae (f) watch (military)

vallum, -i (n) rampart; wall 

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour 


expeditus, a, um- lightly armed 

fortis, forte (adj.) brave, strong

paratus, a, um - prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um - slow 


ne...quidem = not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes) 

qua (relative) where

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

plerumque (adv.) generally, usually; often

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propterea quod - because, on account of the fact that




List for 2nd Vocabulary Quiz. 

accido, accidere, accidi - to happen (often + ut + subjunctive) = it happened that ......

arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum - to judge, to think 

conficio, conficere, confeci, confectus - to complete, finish

consisto, consistere, constiti - to take up position; to place oneself; stop; stand firm 

consto, constare, constiti, constatum - to stand together; to be established; often used impersonally -  constat or constabat=   it is agreed 

constituo, constituere, constitui, constitutum - to set up, place, establish; to decide, to arrange 

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know). 

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail + dative case

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain 

persuadeo, persuadere, persuasi, persuasumdative   - to persuade

praesto, praestare, praestiti, praestatus - to perform 

praesum, praeesse, praefuidative  - to be in command of

procedo, procedere, processi, processurus - to go forward, advance

pronuntio, prountiare, pronuniavi, pronuntiatus - to announce, make known

subsequor, subsequi, subsecutus sum - to follow closely

versor, versari, versatus sum - to be involved in, to be engaged in


animus, -i (m) mind, spirit; (in plural = courage)

consuetudo, consuetudinis (f) custum, habit

consilium, -ii (n) plan, counsel 

copia, -ae (f) abundance; troops, forces; supplies

casus, -ūs (m) misfortune disater

casu (adv.) by change, accidentally 

facultas, facultatis (f) opportunity, power, skill, ability 

finis, -is (m or f) end, limit, boundary (in plural = borders, territory)

finitimi, -ōrum (m. pl.) neighboring tribe or people

imperium, -i (n) command, power

initium, -i (n) beginning; entrance

iter, itineris (n) journey, path, route, road (facere iter = to march)

navis, -is (f) ship (navium gen. pl.)

obses, obsidis (m/f) hostage

opera, -ae (f) effort, trouble

opus, operis (n) work; building; fortification 

passus, -us (m) step, pace

salus, salutis (f) safety 

tergum, -i (n) back 

usus, ūs (m) use, exercise,  practice, application 


nonnullus, a, um - some, (lit. not none)  -ius paradigm 

relinquus, a, um - the remaining, the rest

totus, a, um (-ius paradigm) whole, entire

tutus, a, um - safe

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm utriusque in gen.)  each (of two)


fere (adv.) nearly, almost

plerumque (adv.) generally, usually; often

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propter (prep. +acc.) on account of, because of

quisque, quidque (indef. pronoun) each one, each person, each thing

ne...quidem = not even 

quidem, indeed, certainly, at any rate

uti = ut (subordinating conj.) 

3rd Vocabulary List for Caesar - Martial Words

List for 3rd Vocabulary Quiz - "Them's Fighten' Words" or Words of a Martial Nature.

conicio, conicere, conieci, coniectus - to hurl, to throw

consuesco, consuescere, consuevi, consuetus - to be accustomed (to)+ infinitive

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn, come to know (in the perfect = know). 

contendo, contendere, contendi, contentus - to struggle, vie, fight 

dedo, dedere, dedidi, deditus - to give up, surrender 

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking; to fail + dative case

expugno (1) to take by storm, capture

existimo (1) to judge, consider, think 

efficio, efficere, effeci, effectus - to do, effect(often used impersonally + ut + subjunctive = “it happened that.....”

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear

incolo, incolere - to dwell 

incito (1) to drive forward, incite 

munio (4) to fortify 

nasciscor, nascisci, nactus sum - to find, to obtain

probo (1) approve, commend

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi - to go before, excel 

procedo, procedere, processi, processus - to advance, go forward 

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum - to set out  

subvenio, subvenire, subveni, subventum - to come to the aid of + dative


acies, aciei (f) battle line

agmen, agminis (n) marching line (novissimum agmen = rear of theline)

auxilium, -ii (n) help 

castra, -arum (n) camp

cohors, cohortis (f) cohort

cornu, -us (n) wing (of an army); horn 

copiae, -arum (f) troops

equites, equitum (m. pl.) cavalry

equitatus, -us (m) cavalry 

eruptio, eruptionis (f) a breaking out

exercitus, -us (m) army

fossa, -ae (f) ditch 

frumentum, -i (n) grain, (in plural = crops)

gladius, -ii (m) sword

impedimentum, -i (n) impediment, obstacle, (in plural = baggage train)

impetus, -us (m) attack 

latus, lateris (n) side; flank

legatus, -i (m) envoy; lieutenant

legio, legionis (f) legion 

manus, -us (f) hand; band or group of soldiers

miles, militis (m) soldier

munitio, munitionis (f) fortification 

murus, -i (m) wall 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) siege, blockade 

pars, partis (f) part, side; direction

passus, -us (m) step, pace

pilum, i (n) javelin 

praesidium, -ii (n) guard

proelium, -ii (n)  battle

profectio, profectionis (f) departure, setting out 

salus, salutis (f) safety, salvation 

scutum, -i (n) shield 

subsidium, -ii (n) help, reinforcement, support

telum, -i (n) weapon; spear 

turris, turris, turrium (f) tower

usus, -us (m) use (of used as a dative of purpose by Caesar)

vigilia, -ae (f) watch (military)

vallum, -i (n) rampart; wall 

virtus, virtutis (f) courage, valour 


expeditus, a, um- lightly armed 

fortis, forte (adj.) brave, strong

paratus, a, um - prepared

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest

tardus, a, um - slow 


ne...quidem = not even (surrounds the word that it emphasizes) 

qua (relative) where

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

plerumque (adv.) generally, usually; often

praeterea (adv.) besides, moreover

procul (adv.) at a distance, far away

prope (adv.) near

propterea quod - because, on account of the fact that