Crucial and Essential Verbs, Part II

amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus - to love (amatory, amorous) 

agitō, agitāre - to drive (agitate) 

certō, certāre - to decide by contest; fight, compete, vie
cōgitō, cōgitāre  - to think, to reflect (cognitive) 

creō, creāre, creāvī, creātus - to produce, to create, to appoint (creation) 

damnō, damnāre - to condem (damnation) 

do, dare, dedī, datus - to give (data) 

errō, errāre - to wander, to err (aberrant, errant, erroneous) 

fugō, fugāre, fugāvī, fugātus - put to flight 

habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātus - to dwell, to live (inhabit)

iūdicō, iūdicāre -  judge, decide (judge, judicial) 

iuvō iuvāre iūvī iūtus -  help, assist; please, delight 

laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus  -to praise (laud, summa cum laude

labōrō, laborāre - to toil, to work; be in trouble or distress 

līberō, līberāre - to free, to liberate (liberty) 

mūtō, mūtāre, mūtāvī, mūtātus - to change (mutation) 

narrō, narrāre, narrāvī, narrātus - to tell (narrative, narrator) 

nāvīgō, nāvīgare - to sail (navigate) 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus)

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus - to carry (transport) 

probō, probāre - to approve, prove (approve, probation) 

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus - to fight (pugnacious) 

regnō, regnāre, regnāvī, regnātus - to reign; to rule 

secō, secāre, secuī, sectus - to cut (section, secant) 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to save (preservation) 

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to watch (spectator, inspection) 

stō, stāre, stetī, status (estoy; substantive, status quo)

superō, superāre - to overcome, to surpass, to defeat

temptō,  temptāre to try, to test (attempt, tempt, temptation) 

turbō turbāre - to disturb, confuse (disturb, turbulent) 

vetō, vetāre, vetuī - to forbid (veto) 

vītō, vītāre - to avoid, to shun
vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call (advocate, evoke, convocation, vocation) 

ārdeo ārdēre ārsī ārsus -to blaze, glow; be eager (ardent, arson) 

audeō, audēre, ausus sum - to dare (audacity)

augeō augēre, auxī, auctus - to increase

caveō cavēre cāvī cautus - be on guard, to beware (caution, caveat, cavē canem, caveat emptor

dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus - owe; ought + complementary infinitive 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus  -to teach, to instruct  (docent, doctor, indoctrinate) + double accusative

exerceō, exercēre -  to train (exercise) 

fleō, flēre, flēvī, flētus - to weep

fluō, fluere, fluī, fluxus - to flow (confluence) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus  - to have; to consider (avoir, avere, haber

iaceō iacēre iacuī - lie (adjacent)
iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus
- to order

lateō, latēre, latuī -  lie hidden, be hidden (latent)
maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsus -
to remain 

mereō, merēre, meruī, meritus - to earn; to deserve, merit; 

mīsceō, mīscēre, mīscuī, mīxtus -  mix

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise (admonition, admonish, monitor) 

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move (movable, motion) 

noceō, nocēre, nocuī + dative - to harm 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative (intrans.) 

pateō, patēre, patuī - lie open, extend; be evident or obvious

respondeō -spondēre -spondī -spōnsus - to answer

rīdeō, rīdēre rīsī rīsus -  laugh, laugh at (risible) 

soleō, solēre - be accustomed + infinitive 

studeō, studēre, studuī -  be eager, be zealous, to support (+ dative case )

taceō, tacēre, tacuī, tacitus - be silent (tacit, taciturn) 

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possess (tenacious) 

contineō, continēre, continuī, contentus - contain, restrain
retineō, retinēre, retinuī, retentus -hold back, keep 

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see (video, vision)

valeō valēre valuī: be strong, excel, be valid, 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead (agent, agenda, action) 

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus - to complete, bring together 

alō, alere, aluī, alitus -  nourish (alumnī) 

ascendō, ascendere,  acscendī ascēnsus - to climb up, ascend 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, to kill     

occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - kill, cut down 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (occasion, cause) 

occidō, occidere, occidī, occasus - to fall, to set (occident, occasion) 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go, to yield (procession, procede) 

concēdō concēdere, concessī, concessus - to yield, withdraw (concession)
discēdō discēdere
-  go away, depart 

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - to cultivate, inhabit, worship (culture, cult) 

credō, credere, credidī, creditus - to trust, to believe + dative (credit) 

crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus - to grow, increase 

cernō cernere crēvī crētus - to discern, toseparate 

cingō cingere cīnxī cīnctus - encircle, surround, gird

claudō claudere clausī clausus - close, shut (claustrophobic) 

condō, condere, condidī, conditus - to bury;  build, found; to hide 

cōgnōscō -gnōscere -gnōvī -gnitum - to learn, understand
cōnsistō, cōnsistere, cōnstitī
- to take position; consist in, be composed of 

cōnstituō -stituere -stituī -stitūtus - establish, put together

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus - to run (current, curriculum; correr

occurrō, occurrere - to meet + dative case

concurro, cucurrere - to run together; to attack           

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus   - to say (dictation, dictionary)

discō, discere, didicī - to learn

dēfendō, defendere, defendī, defēnsus - to defend

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead, to produce (duct, aqueduct, conduct, produce) 

       addūcō, addūcere - to lead to, induce  

fīgō, fīgere, fīxī, fīxus - to fashion; to affix (transfix, crucifixion, infix, prefix)  

fingō fingere fīnxī fīctus  - to shape; to invent (fiction) 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - to pour, to scatter (suffuse, effusive, refund, refuse) 

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus - to wear, do, conduct, manage, to wage (gerere bellum = to wage war). 

gīgnō, gīgnere, genuī, genitus - beget, bear, bring forth
iungō,  iungere,  iūnxī,  iūnctus - to join (conjunction)

laedō, laedere, laesī, laesus -  injure by striking, hurt

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to chose; to read (lecture, election, selection, collect, lector)

       ēligō ēligere ēlēgī ēlēctus -  pick out, select 

       colligō colliigere, collēgī, collēctus - gather together

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmit, mission) 

āmittō, āmittere, āmīsī, āmissus - to lose;  let go, send away

committō, committere, commīsī, commissus - to  join, entrust to (+ dat.); perform, do

frangō, frangere, frēgī, fractus - to break (refraction) 

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentus - to show 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus -  strike, beat, push, drive

petō, petere, petivī, petitus - to seek 

pōnō, ponere, posuī, positus - to put, to place (exponent, position)

impōnō,  impōnere, imposuī, impositus 

- put in, put on + accusative + dative

quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītum - seek, inquire

quiēscō, quiēscere, quiēvī, quiētus - to rest 

regō, regere, rēxī, rēctus - guide, rule (erect, homo erectus,  insurrection, rectum, regulation) 

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus-  break, rupture (eruption) 

scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptus -  write (post scriptum) statuō, statuere, statuī, statūtus - to set up, to determine

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus -  release, to set free, set sail (solvent, solution, solve) 

spargō, spargere, sparsī, sparsus - to  scatter, to sprinkle  

trahō, trahere, traxī, tractus - to pull, to drag (tractor, attraction)

vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn (invert, extravert, reverse) 

   advertō -vertere -vertī -versus - to turn towards 

   convertō -vertere -vertī -versus - to turn about, turn

pellō pellere pepulī pulsus - strike, beat, push, drive
pendō pendere pependī pēnsus -  to weigh, to hang, suspend; pay (pendent, suspend, impending) 

premō, premere, pressī, pressus - to press, to control 

sumō, sumere, sumpsī, sumptus - to take up, to assume, to consume (consumption, assumption, assume)

surgō surgere surrēxī surrēctus - to rise (surge, insurrection, resurrection)

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tangible, tactile) 

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover (protect) 

tendō, tendere, tetendī, tentus/tēnsus - to expend, to stretch (extension, tendent) 

     intendō, intendere, intendi, intentus - stretch out, strain

trādō, trādere, tradidī, trāditus - to hand over, surrender (tradition) 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (invincible, veni, vidi, vici)

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live (vivacious) 

aspiciō,  aspicere,  aspēxī,  aspectus -  to look to or at, behold, to consider (aspect)
capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture (captive, capture, caption) 

recipiō, recipere, recēpi, receptus - take back, 

incipiō, incipere, incēpī, inceptus - to begin

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus  - to do, to make (fact, manufacture) 

          conficiō,  conficere, confēcī, confectus -

complete, to finish off, to kill 

          deficiō, deficere, defēcī, defectus -  fail, give out               

          (defective, deficient 

          efficiō, efficere, effēcī, effectus - bring about,            

           complete (effective, effect)
fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (refugee, fugitive, centrifuge) 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (reject, object)            

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize (rapacious, rapture, rapine, raptor) 

ēripiō ēripere, ēripuī, ēreptus - snatch away 

aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus - to open (aperture; abierto, abrir)                 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear (audio, audible, audit, audition) 

dormiō, dormīre - to sleep 

mūniō, mūnīre, mūnīvī, mūnītus - to fortify 

saliō, salīre, saluī, saltus - to leap, to jump (salient) 

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus - to know (omniscient, science) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus (sensitive, sentient) 

serviō, servīre - to serve, be a servant to + DATIVE CASE (serve, service)

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (venir; advent, adventure; veni, vidi, vici) inveniō, invenīre, invēnī, inventus - to find,

              to discover (invention, inventor)             

Irregular Verbs and their compounds           

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - to be (copulative verb)

possum, posse, potuī - to be able (potis + sum) +  

compl, infinitive

absum, adesse - to be away

adsum, adesse - to be present, to be at hand 

dēsum, dēesse, dēfuī, dēfutūrus - to lack + dative

volō velle voluī - to wish, be willing + compl.  infinitive 

mālō mālle māluī - to prefer + compl. infinitive
nōlō nōlle nōluī -  be unwilling + compl. infinitiv

ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus -  bear, carry, endure (odiferous) 

afferō, afferre attulī allātus - bring to
auferō, auferre, abstulī, ablātus  - take away 

eō, īre, iī/īvī, itūrus - to go (perish, spanish ir

abeō, abīre - to away

adeō, adīre - to approach 

              exeō, exīre - to go out (exit) 

pereō, perīre - to through, to perish, to die 

obeō, obīre - to go to meet; to die 

fīō, fierī, factus sum - to become, happen, be done (fiat lux)

Diana et Actaeon Vocabulary list

Be able to decline id melius ōs or haec tristis res

Expect a verb game on the back with either morior, mori or iacio, iacere

Aurora, -ae (f) Dawn

Cadmus, Cadmī (m) king of Thebes  

absum, abesse - to be away; to be absent

adsum, adesse - to be present 

addō, addere, addidī, additus - to add

clāmō (1) to shout

dēsum, dēesse, dēfuī - to lack, to fail + DATIVE 

dēficiō, dēficere, dēfecī, dēfectus - to fail (defective, deficient) 

fluō, fluere, fluxi - to flow (confluence) 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - to pour (effusive) 

fruor, fruī, fructus sum - to enjoy + ABLATIVE CASE (fructose) 

iaceō, iacēre, iacuī - to lie (adjacent) 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (eject) 

maneō, manēre, mansī, mansus - to reamin 

narrō (1) to tell 

occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to cut down, to kill 

occidō, occidere, occidī, occasus - to fall, to set (occidental) sōl occidēns

oportet, oportēre, oportuit (impersonal verb) it is necessary + acc. + inf. or noun clause

orō, orāre - to pledge, to beg, to pray (+ ut + subjunctive or double acc.) 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow + acc. + infinitive (patient, passive) 

pateō, patēre, patuī - to lie open, to be revealed (intransitive) 

persuadeo, persuadēre, persuasī - to persuade + dative + jussive noun clause

pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positus - to put, to place (opposite, exponent, deposit, deponent) 

sequor, sequī, secutus sum - to follow (sequence, non sequitur)

soleō, solēre, solitus sum - to be accustomed to 

minor (1) to threaten 

spargō, spargere, sparsī, sparsus - to scatter 

tollō, tollere, sustulī, sublatus - to raise 

vagor (1) to wander (vagrant)



arcus, arcūs (m) bow

artus, artūs (m) limbs 

auris, auris (f) ear

aura, aurae (f) breeze

aurum, aurī (n) gold

bacchium, bracchiī (n) arm

caedēs, caedis (f) slaughter

caput, capitis (n) head

collum, collī (n) neck 

collis, collis (m) hill

comes, comitis (m) companion 

cruor, cruoris (m) gore 

cornū, cornūs (m) horn; cresent moon; bow etc. 

corona, coronae (f) horn 

corpus, corporis (n) body

dens, dentis (f) tooth

error, erroris (m) a wandering; a mistake 

fōns, fontis (m) spring, fountain 

ignotus, a, um - unknown 

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) youth 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same (is, ea, id + dem)

idoneus, -a, um -  fit, suitable, apt, capable

latus, lateris (n) side 

lucus, lucī (m) grove 

mens, mentis (f) mind

mēta, mētae (f) turn-point; goal 

metus, metūs (m) fear 

memor, memōris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

maior, maius (comp. adj.) great, bigger; older (major) 

melior, melius (comp. adj.) better (ameliorate) 

perītus, a, um - skilled at + genitive 

imperītus, a, um - unskilled at + genitive

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face (oral, orifice)
ōra, ōrae (f) shoreline, beach; border  

plēnus, a, um - full of + genitive case 

pectus, pectoris (n) chest, breast; heart 

rota, rotae (f) wheel 

sanguin sanguinis (m) blood

sagitta sagittae (f) arrow

tectum, tectī (n) roof, dwelling, building, palace 

turba, turbae (f) crowd; whirlwind 

vultus, vultūs (m) face; countenance, expression 

vulnus, vulneris (n) would

aliēnus, a, um - strange, foreign, belonging to another 

alter, altera, alterum - another, one…the other

fessus, a, um - tired 

maestus, a um - sad, unhappy 

plūrēs, plūra (comp. adj.) - more

pristinus, a, um - original

subitus, a, um - sudden 

virilis, virile - of a man, manly 

at/ast (strong adversative) but

alii…alii = some…other 

adeo (adv.) to such an extent 

at (adversative conj.) but, on the contrary 

atque or ac (coordinating conj.) and

causā + proceeding genitive case = for the sake of 

gratiā + proceeding genitive case = for the sake of 

deinde - then, next 

nam - for, moreover, again 

enim (post positive) for, indeed, in fact

ergo (post positive) - therefore 

igitur (post positive)- therefore

magnopere (adv.) greatly 

magis (comp. adv.) more, rather 

minus (adv. comparative) - less

nihil (nīl) nothing; in no way (adverbial) 

propter (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of

totiēns - so many times 

quotiēns (adv.) as often as, how may times? 

quasī (conj.) as if 

secundum (prep. + acc.) next to; in accordance with; following

sīc (adv.) in this way, thus 

sine (prep. + abl.) without 

ultimō (adv.) finally


exemplī gratiā (i.e.) for the sake of an example 

post hoc ergo propter hoc 

onus probandī

modus vīvendī

modus operandī

discimus docendō

Diana Bathing caserta statues .jpg


 

Crucial and Essential Verbs:

amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus - to love (amatory, amorous) 

do, dare, dedī, datus - to give (data) 

habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātus - to dwell, to live (inhabit)

laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus  -to praise (laud, summa cum laude

narrō, narrāre, narrāvī, narrātus - to tell (narrative, narrator) 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus - to carry (transport) 

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus - to fight (pugnacious) 

regnō, regnāre, regnāvī, regnātus - to reign; to rule 

secō, secāre, secuī, sectus - to cut (section) 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to save (preservation) 

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to watch (spectator, inspection) 

stō, stāre, stetī, status (estoy; substantive, status quo) 

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call (advocate, evoke, convocation, vocation) 

audeō, audēre, ausus sum - to dare (audacity)

dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus - owe; ought + complementary infinitive 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus  -to teach (docent, doctor, indoctrinate) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus  - to have (avoir, avere, haber)  

iaceō iacēre iacuī - lie (adjacent)
iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus
- to order

maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsus - to remain 

mīsceō, mīscēre, mīscuī, mīxtus -  mix

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise (admonition, admonish, monitor) 

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move (movable, motion) 

noceō, nocēre, nocuī + dative - to harm 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possess (tenacious) 

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see (video, vision)

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (invictus; vēnī, vīdī, vīcī; invincible) 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead (agent, agenda, action) 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to kill 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (occasion, cause) 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go, to yield (procession, procede) 

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - to cultivate, inhabit, worship (culture, cult) 

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus - to complete, bring together 

credō, credere, credidī, creditus - to trust, to believe + dative (credit) 

crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus - to grow, increase 

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus - to run (current, curriculum; correr

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus   - to say (dictation, dictionary)

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (duct, aqueduct, conduct, produce) 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - pour, scatter

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus -wear, do, conduct, manage 

laedō, laedere, laesī, laesus -  injure by striking, hurt

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to chose; to read (lecture, election, selection) 

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmit, mission) 

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentus - to show 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus -  strike, beat, push, drive

petō, petere, petivī, petitus - to seek 


pōnō, ponere, posuī, positus - to put, to place (exponent, position) 

regō, regere, rēxī, rēctus - guide, rule (erect, homo erectus,  insurrection, rectum, regulation) 

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus-  break, rupture (eruption) 

scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptus -  write (post scriptum) 

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus -  release, to set free, set sail (solvent, solution, solve) 

trahō, trahere, traxī, tractus - to pull, to drag (tractor, attraction)

 vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn (invert, extravert, reverse) 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (invincible, veni, vidi, vici)

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live (vivacious) 


capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture (captive, capture, caption) 

recipiō -cipere -cēpi -ceptus - take back, 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus  - to do, to make (fact, manufacture) 

         conficiō -ficere -fēcī -fectus - complete, 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (refugee, fugitive, centrifuge) 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (reject, object)            

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize (rapacious, rapture, rapine, raptor) 

ēripiō -ripere -ripuī -reptus - snatch away 










aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus - to open (aperture; abierto, abrir)                 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear (audio, audible, audit, audition) 

muniō, munīre, munīvī, munītus - to fortify 

saliō, salīre, saluī, saltus - to leap, to jump (salient) 

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus - to know (omniscient, science) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus (sensitive, sentient) 

serviō, servīre - to serve, be a slave + DATIVE CASE (serve, service)

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (venir; advent, adventure; veni, vidi, vici) inveniō -venīre -vēnī -ventus - to find, to discover (invention, inventor) 

           

Irregular Verbs:           

possum, posse, potuī - to be able (potis + sum) + complementary infinitive

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - to be (ser in Spanish; future) (copulative verb)



volō velle voluī - to wish, be willing + complementary infinitive 

mālō mālle māluī - to prefer + complementary infinitive

nōlō nōlle nōluī -  be unwilling + complementary infinitive


ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus -  bear, carry, endure (odiferous) 

eō, īre, iī/īvī, itūrus - to go (perish, spanish ir

fīō, fierī, factus sum - to become, happen, be done (fiat lux) (copulative verb)

STOP HERE



A. Know what the following are and their significance to Rome itself and within the Res Gestae

 

Ara Pacis 

Ianus Quirinus 

Pontifex Maximus 

Praetor

Senatus Consultum 

Curia, Curiae (f) senate house

Apollo, Apollinis (m) 

Lupercal 

Palatinum 

Iuppiter Feretrius 

Quirinus 

Iuno Regina 

Aventinus

Via Sacra 

Capitolium

Theatrum Pompeium

Via Flaminia 

Saturnus

Castor 

Forum Iulium 

Aqua Marcia 

Mars Ultor 

Forum Augustum 

M. Marcellus 

Vesta

 

B. Vocabulary List

adsum, adesse, adfui - to be present 

amplio (1) to increase 

apello (1) to name, to call (appellation) 

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessurus - to go; to yield to + dative

coemo, coemere, coemi, coemptus - to buy, to purchase (caveat emptor) 

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to cultivate, worship, look after (cult, culture)

cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitus - to desire (cupid, cupidity)

deficio, dificere, difeci, defectus - to be lacking, to be insufficient (deficient) 

desum, deesse, defui - to be lacking + dative

edo, edere, edidi, editus - to give out, to utter 

figo, figere, fixi, fixus - to drive in, to pierce

fugo, fugare, fugavi, fugatus - to put to flight 

flecto, flectere, flexi, flectus - to bend, curse, turn 

incoho (1) to start work on (inchoative) 

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus - to assit, to help

impendo, impendere, impendi, impensus - to pay out; to hang up (impending) 

 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to injure

obsequor, obsequī, obsecutus sum - to gratify, comply (obsequious) 

occupo (1) to seize, take possession of (occupation) 

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, give birth to (postpartum) 

praesum, praeesse, praefui (+ dative) to be in charge of 

praepono, praeponere, praeposui, praepositus + acc. + dative - to put in charge an accusative in charge of a dative

prodo, prodere, prodidi proditus - to hand down 

pendeo, pendere, pependi - to hang

 

recuso (1) to refuse (recusatio, recuse) 

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - to rule, guide, direct (regent, rectify, rectum) 

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to slay

teneo, tenere, tenui, tentus - to hold (tenacious) 

volvo, volvere - to roll over, to turn over, revolve (revolution)

 

 

aetās, aetātis (f) age, time of life (eternal)

aestās, aestātis (f) summer

aedes, aedis (f) temple (edifice) 

arcus, -us (m) bow

aër, aëris (m) air

aes, aeris (n) bronze

aquila, -ae (f) an eagle 

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

auris, auris (f) ear

aurum, aurī (n) gold

carmen, carminis (n) song, poem 

colonus, colonī (m) colonist 

cornu, -us (n) horn; moon; bow; frog

cuspis, cuspidis (f) tip, sharp point; spear, lance

fax, facis (f) torch; a common metonomy for marriage

fera, -ae (f) wild animal 

fors, fortis (f) chance, destiny 

forte (adv.) by chance

grex, gregis (m) flock (egregious, congregation, gregarious) 

penna, -ae (f) feather (pen)

pars, partis (f) part, direct, faction, side

pars…pars = some…others

porticus, -ūs (f) colonade, portico 

rivus, -i (m) channel, water course (derivative, rivulet) 

sagitta, -ae (f) arrow

sidus, sideris (n) star

tellus, telluris (f) earth, mother earth 

titulus, titulī (m) commemorative inscription (titular) 

venter, ventris (m) belly, abdomen

 

acutus, a, um - sharp (acute) 

argenteus, a, um - made of silver 

cunctus, a, um - the whole of, all 

grandis, grande - great 

obtusus, a, um - dull, blunt (obtuse) 

par, paris - equal 

princeps, principis - leading (prince) 

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage

tōtus, a, um (-ius variation) - whole, entire (total, todo bene, tutto bene) 

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

alii…alii = some…other 

benignē (adv.) kindly 

obviam (adv.) + dative = so as to meet 

omnino (adv.) in every respect, entirely, 

praeter (prep. + acc. ) except 

quoad - for as long as, while

de quo?  About what? 

quō - where, to where (interrogative or relative)

iam (adv.) now, already

modo (adv.) only recently, just now

nōn iam = no longer 

quod (rel. pronoun) = which, that

quod (subordinating conj.) because 

Vocabulary List for Ovid, Tristia 3.1

Be able to decline:  istud asperum iter or hic maior gradus

Verb game on:  sequor, sequī, secutus sum or pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus

 

aspiciō, aspicere, aspexī, aspectus - to look at; to behold, see (aspect)

debeō, debēre, debuī, debitus - to owe; ought (debt, debit) 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus - to teach (doctrine, doctor, docent) 

carpō, carpere, carpsī, carptus - to seize, to pluck (carpe diem

cingō, cingere, cinxī, cinctum - to surround; to gride 

fateor, fatērī, fessus sum - to acknowledge, to confess

fas est = it is just according to divine will 

iungō, iungere, iunxī, iunctus - to join (conjunction) 

miror, mirārī, mirātus sum - to marvel at, to wonder at

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (remiss, transmit, manumission) 

lateō, latēre, latuī - to hide (latent) 

liceō, licēre, licuī - to be permitted + dative + infinitive 

loquor, loquī, locutus sum - to speak (eloquent, loquacious, interlocutor) 

ludō, ludere, lusī, lusus - to play

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer; to allow (passive, patient) 

pateō, patēre, patuī - to lie open, to be revealed 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to strike, to beat (repulsive) 

petō, petere, petivī, petitus - to seek (competitive) 

possum, posse, potuī - to be able (potis + sum, esse) 

putō (1) to think to consider (dispute, repute, computer) 

odī, odisse - to hate (odium) 

quaerō, quaerere - to seek, inquire about

rogō (1) to ask (interrogation) 

stringō,  stringere, strīnxī, strīctus -  to draw tight, bind; of a sword, draw out, draw (strict, restrict) 

sequor, sequī, secutus sum - to follow (sequence; non sequitur) 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to save, to preserve, to look after

scribō, scribere, scripsī, scriptus - to write

sumō, sumere, sumpsī, sumptus - to take up (assume, assumption) 

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tactus (tangent, tangible, tactile) 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come

velō (1) to veil, to cover 

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live (vivacious) 

 

carmen, carminis (n) poem, song 

corona, -ae (f) crown (coronation) 

cornū, cornūs (n) horn; wing of an army (unicorn, cornucopia) 

exul, exulis (m) an exile 

decus, decoris (n) honour (decorum) 

domus, domūs (f) house; home (domicile) 

facinus, facinoris (n) crime

genus, generis (n) kind, sort, type (genre, genus) 

gradus, gradūs (m) step; grade (gradual, graduation) 

ianua, ianuae (f) door (Janus) 

iter, itineris (n) journey (itinerant) 

lacrima, -ae (f) tear (lacrimatory) 

libellus, libellī (m) small book (diminutive of liber, librī (m) book) 

lingua, linguae (f) tongue (linguistics) 

manus, manūs (f) hand (manufacture, manumission) 

metus, metūs (m) fear

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour; fortification (magnum opus) 

pēs, pedis (m) foot (pedestrian, pedometer) 

pudor, pudoris (m) shame 

ratio, rationis (f) reason, rational; plan 

signum, signī (n) sign; signal; battle standard 

tectum, tectī (n) building, roof; palace

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporize) 

urbs, urbis (f) city (urbane) 

versus, versūs (m) verse 

 

asper, aspera, asperum - rough (per aspera ad astra

candidus, a, um - white, radiant (candidate) 

dignus, a, um - worthy of + ablative 

ensis, ensis (m) sword

fessus, a, um - tired 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same

infelix, infelicis - ill-fated, cursed, unlucky 

levis, leve - light, trial (levity) 

līber, lībera, liberum - free

miser, misera, miserum - poor, wetched, suffering in love (me miserum)

mollis, molle - soft (mollify) 

maculosus, a, um - stained (immaculate) 

novus, a, um - strange, novel, new (novel) 

timidus, a, um - fearful, timid (timid) 

tristis, triste - sad

trepidus, a, um -  agitated, uneasy, disturbed, trembling, affrighted (trepidation) 

vetus, veteris (1 term. 3rd adj.) old (veteran, inveterate) 

vicinus, a, um - neighboring + dative (vicinity)

viridis, viride - green (verdant) 

 

forsitan (adv.) perhaps 

quondam (adv.) once, formerly, at one point in time 

quoniam (subordinating conj.) since

quoque (adv.) also

magis (comp. adv.) more

minus (comp. adv.) less

vix (adv.) barely, hardly

 

Second Vocabulary list for Res Gestae Divi Augusti

Be able to decline:  hic gravis pars  or  ille magnus dies

augeo, augere, auxi, auctus - to increase (augment, augmentation) 

amplio (1) to increase (amplify) 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, to establish 

coemo, coemere, coemi, coemptus - to buy, to purchase (caveat emptor) 

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus -to fail, to be lacking, to be insufficient (deficient) 

edo, edere, edidi, editus - to give out 

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to become , to be made, to happen (copulative verb) 

incoho (1) to start work on (inchoative) 

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus - to assit, to help

impendo, impendere, impendi, impensus - to pay out (impending) 

lego, legere, lēgi, lectus - to pick, to chose; to read 

morior, morī, mortuus sum - to die (F.A.P. + moriturus, a, um

moror, morari, moratus sum - to delay

occupo (1) to seize, take possession of (occupation) 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper paratus) 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative 

pario, parere, peperi, partus - to produce, give birth to (postpartum) 

praesum, praeesse, praefui (+ dative) to be in charge of 

prodo, prodere, prodidi proditus - to hand down 

recuso (1) to refuse (recusatio, recuse) 

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live; to be  (vivacious) 

 

aetās, aetātis (f) age, time of life (eternal)

aedes, aedis (f) temple (edifice) 

annus, annī (m) year (annual, annus horribilis)

āra, ārae (f) altar 

carmen, carminis (n) song, poem 

collega, collegae (m) colleague (collegiality)  

colonus, colonī (m) colonist 

diēs, diēī (m) day (carpe diem, per diem) 

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) youth (juvenile) 

lex, legis (f) law (legislature) 

lūdus, lūdī (m) game

multitūdō, multitūdinis (f) multitude, mass

nemō, neminis (m/f) no one 

pars, partis (f) part, direct, faction, side 

porticus, -ūs (f) colonade, portico 

rivus, rivī (m) channel, water course (derivative, rivulet) 

titulus, titulī (m) commemorative inscription (titular) 

 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same  

 

argenteus, a, um - made of silver (AG)

cunctus, a, um - the whole of, all 

grandis, grande - great 

omnis, omne - all 

princeps, principis - leading, chief (prince) 

patrimonium, -ii (n) inheritance (patrimony) 

par, paris - equal 

summa, summae (f) total number, total amount 

vīvus, a, um - alive 

 

apud (prep. + acc.) among, in the presence of, at the house of 

benignē (adv.) kindly 

obviam (adv.) + dative = so as to meet 

omnino (adv.) in every respect, entirely

praeter (prep. + acc. ) except 

quoad - for as long as, while

 

Subordinating Conjunctions

(indicative mood vs. subjunctive mood) 

quod (+ indicative) - because 

quia (+ indicative) - because

quoad + subjunctive - as long as

cum - when (temporal clause + indicative mood) 

cum - when (circumstantial clause + subjunctive mood) 

cum - since/because (causal clause + subjunctive mood)

cum - although (concessive clause + subjunctive mood)

- if

nisi - unless, if…not; except

dum (+ indicative) while 

dum (+ subjunctive) until

ut + indicative mood = as, when 

   ut ante - as before 

   ut fit - as it happens, as usually

   ut factum est - as it happened 

   ut bene scis - as you know well 

   ut fama est - as the story is 

   ut traditur - as it is handed down

   ut traditum est - as it has been handed down 

   ut soleō - as I am accustomed 

   ut solēbat - as he was accustomed

ut + subjunctive = in order that (purpose clause) 

ut + subjunctive = that (substantive/noun clause or result clause)

ara pacis acanthus .jpg

Vocabulary List and Terms for Pages 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 of Res Gestae

Be able to decline:  mare līberum and hoc facinus and tōta aciēs

Know people, events, terms: 

Annōna - public distribution of grain

Dictatura - dictatorship

Pontfiex Maximus - chief priest of Rome 

Res Publica

Senātus, Senātūs (m) Senate 

Senatus Consultum - Decree of the Senate

Sextus Pompeius (son of Pompeius Magnus) 

Battle of Naulochus (36 BC) 

Marcus Antonius, Consul in 44 BC

Cleopatra

Alexandria

Ptolenmaic Egypt

Hellenistic Kingdoms

Battle of Actium (31 BC) 

Marcus Brutus

Tyrannicides

Pansa and Hirtius

Battle of Mutina (43 BC)

Battle of Philippi (42 BC) 

Res Gestae

Potestās Tribūnicia  

prīnceps Senātūs

Pontifex Maximus

 

 

 

conservo, -are, -avi, -atus - to preserve 

creo, creare, creavi, creatus - to appoint, to elect 

deposco, deposcere, depoposci - to demand

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall (intransitive verb)

consentio, consentire, consensi, consensus - to agree (consent) 

expello, expellere, expuli, expulsus - to expel, to drive out

excīdō, excīdere, excīdī, excīsus - to destroy, exterminate (ex + caedo)

ingnosco, ignoscere, ignovi, ignotus (+ dative) to pardon, to forgive

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to wear; to manage; accomplish, to; to wage

malo, malle, malui (magis + volo) - to prefer + complementary infinitive

nascor, nascī, nātus sum - to be born (natal, Nate, neonatal, cognate)

opprimo, opprimere, oppressi, oppressus - to overwhelm 

parco, parcere, peperci (+ dative) to spare

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek

scrībō, scrībere, scripsī, scriptus - to write

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus - to set free, release; fulfill 

tribuo, tribuere - to assign (attribute) 

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum - to avenge, to punish (Mars Ultor) 

vinco, vincere, vici, victus - to conquer

 

acies, aciei (f) line, battle line; edge; sight

annus, annī (m) year

cursus, cursūs (m) a course, a race, a running 

currus, -ūs (m) chariot

collēga, collēgae (f) colleague 

detrimentum, detrimentī (n) harm 

dies, diei (m) day (per diem)

deus, dei (m) god (deus ex machinā

exilium, -i (n) exile

exercitus, exercitūs (m) army 

facinus, facinoris (n) crime

frumentum, -i (n) grain supply

genus, generis (n) kind, class, race (

genū, genūs (n) knee 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan 

iudicium, -i (n) legal proceeding, judgment 

lēgātus, lēgātī (m) legate, ambassador; general 

lēx, lēgis (f) law

locum, locī (n) place, location; point; opportunity 

mare, maris (n) sea (ab mari usque ad mare) 

metus, metūs (m) fear

mora, -ae (f) dealy

mōs mōris (m) custom 

mors, mortis (f) death

navis, navis (navium) (f) ship 

ordo, ordinis (m) rank, order, class, social class

orbis, orbis (m) disk 

perpetuus, a, um - continuous, everlasting 

penuria, -ae (f) shortage (penury) 

potestas, potestatis (f) power

princeps, principitis (m) chief, leader (prince) 

rēs, rēī (f) affair, situation, matter, event, etc. (take meaning from context)

stipendium, -i (n) military service 

 

aliquis, aliquid - someone, something (ali is dropped after nisi, sī, nē

īdem, eadem, idem - the same

quisque, quaeque, quodque (indefinite adj.) each one, each thing; each 

 

civilis, -is, -e, occurring between citizens, civil 

consularis, consulare - of a consul, of consular rank

līber, lībera, līberum - free

maior, maius (comp. adj.) greater

minor, minus (comp. adj.) small

plūrēs, plūra (comp. adj.) more

tōtus, a, um (-ius paradigm) whole, entire 

sōlus, a, um (-ius paradigm) alone

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each (of two) - ius paradigm 

 

aliquanto (adv.) by some amount

intrā (prep. + acc.) within 

inter (prep. + acc.) between, among 

ob (prep. + acc.) on account of 

praeter (prep. + acc.) except

prosperē (adv.) successfully 

tūto (adv.) safely 

usque (adv.) all the way, continuously (ab marī usque ad mare, ab ovo usque ad māla)

Prima Porta Augustus Statue-Augustus_white_background.jpg

List for Interrogatives, Indefinite animals, etc. 

audeo, audēre, ausus sum - to dare

iaculor, iaculārī, iaculātus sum   – to throw, to hurl 

vereor, verērī, vērītus sum – to fear

loquor, loquī, locūtus sum –to speak

patior, patī, passus sum – to suffer, to endure; to allow

orior, orīrī, ortus sum – to rise

ūtor, utī, ūsus sum - to use, to enjoy + ablative case

pateō, patēre, patuī (intransitive) - to lie open, to be open, to spread out

genus, generis (n) kind, class, race (genus, sui generis, generic, genre)

gens, gentis (f) race, clan

genu, genūs (n) knee (genuflect) 

Interrogative Animals (pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs)

cūr? why? for what reason? 

quārē - why? 

quot? How many (number) 

quantus, a, um - how great? what size? (magnitude) 

qualis, quale (adj.) what sort? 

quando?  when? (time) 

quis? quid? (interrogative pronoun) who? what? 

quī, quae, quod?  (interrogative adjective)  what? which? 

quā? by what means? by what route? 

quō?  - to what place? where? wither? 

quam? How? 

quam ob rem?  = on account of what matter? why?  

quamdiu? - how long? 

quō modo? = in what way? 

quotiēns - how often? How many time? 

ubi?  Where? or When? 

unde? from where? whence?

uter, utra, utrum? (-ius paradigm) which (of two)? 

utrum…an = whether… or

-ne (enclitic) - signal a neutral questions 

nōnne - signals a question expected a positive response 

num - signals a question expected a negative response

num (introducing an indirect question) = whether 

 

Indefinite Pronouns or Adjectives

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) - someone, something; anyone, anything 

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adjective) - some, a certain 

quisque, quaeque, quodque (indefinite pronoun) - everyone, everything 

 

Other Related Words. 

 

aliquantō - by some amount 

aliquot - some (number) 

aliquando (adv.) at some time, once, formerly 

magnopere (adv.) greatly

magis (adv.) more

peior, peius (comp. adv.) worse

melior, melius (comp. adv.) better

minor, minus (comp. adv.) small

ne…quidem = not even -  e.g. Ne Raina quidem id bene fecit = “not even Raina did it well”. 

neuter, neutra, neutrum - neither of two

undique (adv.) from all sides 

tam (adv.) so

tantus, a, um - so great

talis, tale (adj.) such 

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

totiēns - so many time, so often 

sīc (adv.) in such a way (sīc semper tyrannīs)

longē (adv.) far, by far

ibi (adv.) there, then  

inde (adv.) from the place, thence 

ita (adv.) in such a way

adeo (adv) to such an extent 

tam…quam (correlative conjunctions)  - as…..as 

ut (subordinating conj.+ indicative mood) as, when 

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two

Vocabulary List for Somnium Scipionis, lines 110-200. 

 

careō, carēre, caruī - to lack, to be without + ablative case

cingō, cingere, cinxī, cinctus - to surround 

ēlābor, ēlābī, ēlāpsus sum - to slip or glide away (elapse) 

expetō, expetere, expetivī, expetītus - to seek after, long for 

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to be made; to happen; to become (copulative) 

frangō, frangere, frēgī, fractus - to break (refraction, fracture) 

impellō, impellere, impulī, impulsus - to drive forward, strike against, to push

mānō (1) to flow, to spread

mereor, merērī, meritus sum - to earn (merit, meretricious) 

morior, morī, mortuus sum - to die 

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move 

nascor, nascī, natus sum - to be born (natal, cognate, nascent) 

obeō, obīre, obiī, obitus - go down, to go down facing; to meet death (obituary)  

occidō, occidere, occidī, occasus - fall (occidental) 

occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to kill

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise (orient, oriental) 

praecipitiō (1) to throw headlong (precipitous) 

reor, rērī, ratus sum - to think (head verb)

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus - to set free, release (solvent, solve) 

stō, stāre, stetī, statūrus - to stand 

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live, to be alive; to act as (vivacious) 

 

necesse est - it is necessary, it is inevitable + acc. subject + infinitive  

oportet, oportēre, oportuit - it is fitting, it is necessary + acc. subject + infinitive  or substantive/noun clause (ut+ subjunctive) 

 

acies, aciēī (f) line, edge, battle line; sight (triplex acies

aura, aurae (f) breeze 

auris, auris (f) ears (aural) 

aurum, aurī (n) gold (AU)

digitus, digitī (m) figure 

decus, decoris (n) honour, glory, splendor

fōns, fontis (m) spring, fountain (font)

macula, maculae (f) stain, stop (immaculate)

mons, montis (m) mountains 

gens, gentis (f) race, clam

genus, generis (n) class, race, kind, type 

latus, lateris (n) side (lateral) 

orīgō, orīginis (f) origin (aboriginal) 

pars, partis (f) side, direction, part, faction 

ratiō, ratiōnis (f) an accounting, a reckoning; a reasoning; reason 

salūs, salūtis (f) safety, health, salvation 

sermō, sermonis (m) speech, talk 

sonitus, -ūs (m) sound 

vis, vis (f) force, violence (in plural = strength) 

voluptās, voluptātis (f) pleasure (voluptuary) 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) -  anything, anyone; someone, something

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.) - a certain, some

quisque, quidque (indefinite pronoun) -  each one, each thing  

 

acūtus, a, um - sharp 

aliēnus, a, um - foreign

aeternus, a, um - eternal

gravis, grave - heavy, serious

inanimus, a, um - lifeless, without spirit 

maior, maius - great, bigger 

obliquus, a, um - sidelong, slanting, oblique

ōcior, ōcius: adj. comp. (superl., ōcissimus, a, um), swifter, more fleet

omnis, omne - all, 

par, paris (1 term. adj.) equal

parvus, a, um - small 

proprius, a, um - one’s own (property) 

tenuis, tenue - thin, slender  

vēlox, vēlōcis (1 term.) -  swift, quick, fleet, rapid, speedy

 

adversum (av.) opposite) 

autem (postpositive) however, moreover

identidem (adv.) repeatedly 

ōcius (comp. adv.)  more swiftly; rapidly, speedily, quickly, swiftly

quidem (post postive) indeed, in fact

nē…quidem = not even

partim (adv.) partly 

tam…quam (correlatives) just as, as much as

 

Derivaties and Latin Phrases: 

aboriginal

aural

absolution

acuity, acute, acumen

elapse, relapse, lapse 

macular, immaculate, immaculate conception 

tenuous

sonorous 

occidental 

orient, oriental 

oblique 

omniscient, omnipotent, omnibus 

precipitous

precipice 

decorum 

natal, cognate, nascent

merit, meretricious

fiat

impulsive 

voluptuary

salutary

vivacious 

 

condicio sine quā nōn 

modus vīvendī

status quō

suum cuique

quisque sibi proximus

prīmus inter parēs

cicero.jpg

 

Vocabulary List for Somnium Scipionis, lines 70-110

animō (1) to fill with breath or life 

arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitrātus sum - to judge 

arceō, arcēre, acrui, arctus - to shut in, to enclose

aspiciō, aspicere, aspexī, aspectus - to look at, to see

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - to cultivate, to care for 

compleō, complēre, complēvī, complētus - to fill 

conficiō, conficere, confēcī, confectus - to complete, to finish off

fīgō, fīgere, fīxī, fīxus - to fix, to fasten

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee

gignō, gignere, genuī, genitus - to beget

līberō (1) to free, to liberate (often with ablative of separation) 

loquor, loquī, locutus sum - to speak

migrō (1) to go from one place to another,  to depart

nectō, nectere, nexuī, nexus - to tie, to bind 

pateō, patēre, patuī (intrans.) -to lie open, to extend; be evident or obvious

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to permit, endure

profundō, profundere, profūdī, profūsus - to pour forth 

reprimō, reprimere, repressī, repressus - to repress, to check 

retineō, retinēre, retinuī, retentus - to hold back

suspicor, suspicārī, suspicātus sum - suspect, to mistrust

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tactus - to touch

tueor, tuērī, tutus sum - to look at, to look after, to protect

videor, vidērī, vīsus sum - to seem (copulative verb + dative of reference) 

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live, to be alive 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer

volvō, volvere, volvī, volūtus - to roll

 

aditus, aditūs (m) approach, entrance (ad + eo, ire) 

anima, animae (f) breath, soul 

astrum, astrī (n) star, constellation, heavenly body

auris, auris (f) ear

aura, aurae (f) breeze

aurum, aurī (n) gold

candor, candōris (m) brilliant whiteness, radiant whiteness 

carcer, carceris (m) prison 

coetus, coetūs (m) a uniting, meeting (co + eo, ire) 

cursus, cursūs (m) course; race, a running 

genus, generis (n) king, class, race 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan 

globus, globī (m) sphere, globe 

homo, hominis (m) man 

metus, metūs (m) fear

mēta, mētae (f) goal, turning point, cone-shaped pillar 

mēns, mentis (f) mind

mors, mortis (f) death 

mōtus, mōtūs (m) movement, motion 

mūnus, mūneris (n) gift, duty, obligation 

lux, lucis (f) light 

lūmen, lūminis (n) light

orbis, orbis (m) disk (orbis terrārum) 

pondus, ponderis (n) weight 

punctum, punctī (n) a point (punctuation) 

templum, templī (n) sacred space; temple 

sidus, sideris (n) star

vinculum, vinculī (n) chain 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pron.) - anyone, anything, some one, something

 

alacer, alacris, alacre - eager, active 

alter, altera, alterum - the one, the other of two

candidus, a, um - white, bright 

caelestis, caeleste - heavily, celestial

dulcis, dulce - sweet

īdem, eadem, idem - the same 

infimus, a, um (superlative) the lowest

lūcĭdus, a, um - lux, containing light, full of light, clear, bright, shining 

maior, maius - greater, bigger

melior, melius - better

pius, a, um - loyal, dutiful 

quīdam, quaedam, quiddam - a certain, some 

reliquus, a, um - the remaining 

sempiternus, a, um (semper + aeternus) - everlasting, always eternal 

summus, a, um - the highest, the highest part of 

vetus, veteris (1 term. adj.) old 

 

 

apud (prep. +acc.) 

cum…tum (correlative conj.) both…and 

facile (adv.) easily 

ferē (adv.) almost, nearly 

igitur (postpostive) therefore 

iniussū - without a command or an order

magis (comp. adv.) more, rather

potius (comp. adv.) rather 

quārē - for which reason, therefore

subter (adv.) below, beneath

ut prīmum - as soon as

 

Know the etymology and English meaning/usage of the following English words derived from Latin words on the list above

ameliorate, amelioration

animate

arcane

arbitration

aspect

candor

centrifugal

cult

dulcet

generic, genre

incarceration

incandescent

interstellar

infix, prefix, suffix

loquacious, eloquent, circumlocution, interlocutor

elucidate

lucid

munificent

nexus

patently, patent

ponder

ponderous

profuse, profusion

postmortem

punctual

repression

retention

rotund, rotunda

rutilant

sempiternal

subterfuge

summation, summative

tangent, tangible, tactile

vivacious, vivacity

 

per aspera ad astra

ad hominem

mens rea

mens sana in corpore sano

suī generis

fiat lux

Sōl Invictus

summā cum laude

spiritus mundī

vēnī, vīdī, vīcī

 

Vocabulary List for Somnium Scipionis, lines 33-70

Expect a verb game on augeo or utor and be able to decline:

                                                     haec brevis aetas or iste magnus metus 

augeō, augēre, auxī, auctus - to increase (augment) 

arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitrātus sum - to judge, to think 

coepī, coepisse, coeptus - to begin (defective verb) 

conficiō, conficere, confēcī, confectus - to complete, to finish 

extinguō, extinguere, extinxī, extinctus - to put out, extinguish 

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to become, to happen; to be made (copulative verb) 

fruor, fruī, fructus sum (+ ablative) to enjoy 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - to pour forth 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to consider; to have; to hold 

moror, morārī, morātus sum - to delay, to linger (moratorium) 

morior, morī, mortuus sum -to die 

nītor, nītī, nīsus sum - to reply on (often + ablative case)

oportet, oportēre, oportuit (impersonal verb) it is fitting, it is necessary (+ acc. subject and infinitive or ut + subjunctive - a substantive clause)  

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum - to depart, to start out

regō, regere, rexī, rectus - to guide, direct; rule 

spectō, spectāre - to watch, to look at

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come 

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call

volō, volāre, volāvī, volātus - to fly (volatile)  

volō, velle, voluī - to wish, to want + complementary infinitive

utor, utī, usus sum - to use, to employ, to enjoy + ABLATIVE CASE

 

 

aetās, aetātis (f) age, period of life

aestās, aestātis (f) summer 

animus, animī (m) mind, spirt 

carcer, carceris (m) prison 

cīvitās, cīvitātis (f) citizen body, nation, state, city-state

coetus, -ūs (m)  a coming together 

cōnsilium, consiliī (n) plan, advice, consul, strategy 

fātum, fātī (n) fate (for, fari, fatus sum - to speak) 

ingenium, ingeniī (n) natural ability, talent, genius 

ius, iuris (n) law, right (jurisdiction, jurisprudence) 

lex, lēgis (f) law

lūmen, lūminis (n) light (illuminate) 

manus, -ūs (f) hand; band of men (manipulative, manufacture, manumission) 

mūnus, mūneris (n) duty, service; gift; games (municipal, munificent)  

metus, metūs (m) fear

rēgius, a, um - royal, of a king

rēgia, -ae (f) palace

regnum, regnī (n) kingdom, kingship, royal power

salūs, salūtis (f) safety, health, salvation 

somnum, somnī (n) sleep (insomnia) 

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporize) 

vīs, vis (f) force 

vīrēs, vīrium (f. pl.) strength 

 

 

ălăcer, ălăcris,  ălăcre - keen, eager (alacrity) 

excelsus, a, um - elevated, high, lofty 

impius, a, um - impious, wicked 

mīrābilis, mīrābile - amazing

nōtus, a, um - familiar, recognized, known 

pius, a, um - loyal, devoted, pius 

plēnus, a, um - full of + genitive case

talis, tale - such 

tantus, a, um - so great, such a size

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each (of two) 

 

 

hīc - in this place

hūc - to this place

hinc - from this place

quasi - as if

quidem - infact, indeed

tam (adv.) so 

verō (postpositive) indeed, in fact 

verum (adversative conj.) but 

verē (adv.) truly 

 

tam…quam - so (much)…as 

talis….qualis - such…as 

tantus…quantus - as great…as

tot…quot - as many as 

tamquam - as if 

 

Vocabulary List for Somnium Scipionis, lines 1-33

Expect a verb game on one of the verbs below and be able to decline:   hoc solum cornū, ille brevis dies, iste celer currus, idem clarus rex, ea brevis res, illud clarum astrum

crēdō, crēdere, crēdidī, crēditus - to believe + dative case

cōgō, cōgere, cōēgī, cōactus - to compel, to bring together

cōgītō (1) to think (cogito ergo sum) 

complector, complector, complexus sum - to embrace (complex) 

dēleō, dēlēre, dēlēvī, dēlētus - to destroy (delete, Carthago delenda est

discēdō, discēdere, discessī,  discessus - to depart, to go away

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to happen, to become, to be made (copulative verb) 

loquor, loquī, locutus sum - to speak (circumlocution, eloquent) 

meminī, meminisse - to remember (defective - no present system) 

scrībō, scrībere, scrīpsī, scrīptus - to write (manuscript) 

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus - to know (omniscient, science) 

soleō, solēre, solitus sum - to be accustomed to + complementary infinitive

suspiciō, suspicere, suspexī, suspectus - to look up 

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentus - to show

oppugnō (1) to attach

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case

pariō, parere, peperī, partus - to give birth to, to produce

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tactile) 

tegō, tegere, texī, tectus - to cover (protect) 

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see (evident, visionary) 

videor, vidērī, vīsus sum - to seem (copulative & with dative of reference)

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus (advent, adventure) 

vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn (invert, revert, reverse, introvert, extrovert) 

vehō, vehere, vēxī, vectus - to carry, to convey

 

astrum, astrī (n) star, constellation (astronaut, per aspera ad astra

antrum, antrī (n) cave

atrium, atriī (n) atrium (central room in a Roman domus

cornū, cornūs (n) horn; cresent moon 

currus, currūs (m) chariot

cursus, cursūs (m) course, a running, a race

deus, deī (m) god (deus ex machina) 

diēs, diēī (m/f) day (per diem, carpe diem

lēgātus, lēgātī (m) ambassador, lieutenant general 

luna, lunae (f) moon

nox, noctis (f) night

rēs, rēī (f) matter, situation, event, etc. (republic, in medias res, res ipsa loquitur

rēx, rēgis (m) king 

regnum, regnī (n) kingdom; kingship, royal power 

regia, regiae (f) palace

sōl, sōlis (m) sun (solar) 

stella, stellae (f) star (interstellar, constellation) 

sermō, sermōnis (m) conversation, speech 

somnus, somnī (m) sleep

triumphus, triumphī (m) triumphal procession

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pron.) anyone, anything

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adjective) some, a certain 

 

 

brevis, breve - short, brief 

clārus, a, um - bright, famous (clarity) 

fessus, a, um - tired 

potior, potius (comp. adjective) preferable, more important 

plenus, a, um - full of + genitive case

regius, a, um - royal 

sōlus, a, um (-ius paradigm) - alone

tōtus, a, um (-ius paradigm) whole, entire

ūllus, a, um -(-ius paradigm) any

nullus, a, um (-ius paradigm) no

 

autem (postpositive) in fact, indeed, moreover 

adhūc (adv.) still, yet 

aliquantō - somewhat, by somewhat 

itaque - and so, therefore 

paene (adv.) almost

Verbal Morphology Review List

amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus - to love (amatory, amorous) 

do, dare, dedī, datus - to give (data) 

laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus-to praise (laud, summa cum laude

narrō, narrāre, narrāvī, narrātus - to tell (narrative, narrator) 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus - to carry (transport) 

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus - to fight (pugnacious) 

regnō, regnāre, regnāvī, regnātus - to reign; to rule 

secō, secāre, secuī, sectus - to cut (section) 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to save (preservation) 

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to watch (spectator, inspection) 

stō, stāre, stetī, status (estoy; substantive, status quo) 

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call (advocate, evoke, convocation, vocation) 

audeō, audēre, ausus sum - to dare (audacity)

dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus - owe; ought + complementary infinitive 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus  -to teach (docent, doctor, indoctrinate) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus- to have (avoir, avere, haber

habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātus - to dwell, to live (inhabit) 

iaceō iacēre iacuī - lie (adjacent)
iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order

mīsceō, mīscēre, mīscuī, mīxtus -  mix

maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsus - to remain 

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise (admonition, admonish, monitor) 

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move (movable, motion) 

noceō, nocēre, nocuī + dative - to harm 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possess (tenacious) 

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see (video, vision)

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (invictus; vēnī, vīdī, vīcī; invincible) 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead (agent, agenda, action) 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to kill 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (occasion, cause) 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go, to yield (procession, procede) 

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - to cultivate, inhabit, worship (culture, cult) 

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus - to complete, bring together 

credō, credere, credidī, creditus - to trust, to believe + dative (credit) 

crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus - to grow, increase 

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus - to run (current, curriculum; correr

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus   - to say (dictation, dictionary)

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (duct, aqueduct, conduct, produce) 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - pour, scatter (effusive) 

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus -bear, manage (gerund, gerundive)  

laedō, laedere, laesī, laesus -  injure by striking, hurt

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to chose; to read (lecture, election, selection) 

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmit, mission) 

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentus - to show (ostentatious) 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus -  strike, beat, push, drive (repel, expel, repulsion) 

petō, petere, petivī, petitus - to seek (petition, competition) 

 

 

pōnō, ponere, posuī, positus - to put, to place (exponent, position) 

regō, regere, rēxī, rēctus - guide, rule (regent, rectum) 

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus-  break, rupture (rupture) 

scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptus -  write (post scriptum) 

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus -  release, set sail (solvent, absolute) 

trahō, trahere, traxī, tractus - to pull, to drag (tractor, attraction)

 vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn (reverse, revert, invert, extravert) 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (invincible, veni, vidi, vici)

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live (vivacious) 

 

 

 

capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture (captive, capture, caption) 

    recipiō -cipere -cēpi -ceptus - take back, 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus  - to do, to make (fact, manufacture) 

         conficiō -ficere -fēcī -fectus - complete, 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (refugee, fugitive, centrifuge) 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (reject, object)                                

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize (rapacious, rapture, rapine, raptor) 

    ēripiō -ripere -ripuī -reptus - snatch away 

 

aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus - to open (aperture; abierto, abrir)                 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear (audio, audible, audit, audition) 

muniō, munīre, munīvī, munītus - to fortify 

saliō, salīre, saluī, saltus - to leap, to jump (salient) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus (sensitive, sentient) 

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus - to know (omniscient, science) 

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (venir; advent, adventure; veni, vidi, vici)                        inveniō -venīre -vēnī -ventus - to find, to discover (invention, inventor) 

                      

Irregular Verbs: 

                          

possum, posse, potuī - to be able (potis + sum) + complementary infinitive            

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - to be (ser in Spanish; future) (copulative verb)

 

volō velle voluī - to wish, be willing + complementary infinitive

mālō mālle māluī - to prefer + complementary infinitive
nōlō nōlle nōluī -  be unwilling + complementary infinitive

 

ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus -  bear, carry, endure 

eō, īre, iī/īvī, itūrus - to go (perish, spanish ir

fīō, fierī, factus sum - to become, happen, be done (fiat lux) (copulative verb)

Fire drill Latin III and animals .JPG

 

Vocabulary List for Quiz- Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.5-68. 

ardeō, ardēre, arsī, arsus - to burn (arson, ardent) 

careō, carēre, caruī + ablative- to lack

circumfundo, circumfundere, circumfudi, circumfusus - to pour around

cresco, crescere, crevi, cretus - to rise

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus - to say, to call

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to make, to do 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have, to hold; to consider 

iungō, iungere, iunxī, iunctus - to join 

librō (1) to balance (libra) 

ligō (1) to bind, to tie (ligament)  

maneō, manēre, mansī, mansus - to remain 

obstō, obstāre, obstitī - to oppose, to block + dative case 

pendeo, pendēre - to hang

praebeō, praebēre - to hold before, afford, offer (prae and habeō)

primō, primere, pressī, pressus - to press

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus - to fight 

regō, regere, rēxī, rēctus - to rule, govern, guide, control, direct

reparō (1) to repair

tegō, tegere, texī, tectus - to cover 

trahō, trahere, traxī, tractus - to pull, to drag

 

āēr, āeris (m) air 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

aestus, aestūs (m) boiling, tide 

aqua, -ae (f) water

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

bracchium, bracchiī (n) arm

caelum, caelī (n) sky (ceiling) 

campus, campī (m) plain

corpus, corporis (n) body 

cornū, cornūs (n) horn; cresent moon 

ĕlĕmentum, -i  (n)  a first principle, element 

faex, faecis (f) grounds, sediment, lees, dregs of liquids

flāmen, flāminis (n) a blowing; blast, gale, breeze, wind

fons, fontis (m) spring, stream, fountain 

frater, fratris (m) brother 

fretum, fretī (n) strait  

forma, -ae (f) form, shape, beauty 

flumen, fluminis (n) river

fulmen, fulminis (n) thunderbolt, lightening 

gravitās, gravitātis (f) weight, heaviness (gravity, gravitās) 

lacus, lacūs (m) lake 

līs, lītis (f) a strife, contest, dispute (litigious, litigate) 

lītus, lītoris (n) shore, shoreline (littoral) 

locus, locī (m) place 

lumen, luminis (n) light; eye(illuminate) 

lux, lucis (f) light

mare, maris (n) sea (i-stem) (marine, maritime, ab marī usque ad mare)

mens, mentis (f) mind

moles, molis (f) mass; burden (mole) 

mons, montis (m) mountain 

mundus, mundī (m) universe (spiritus mundi

natūra, -ae (f) nature (De Rērum Natūrā) 

nubes, nubis (f) cloud 

onus, oneris (n) burden

orbis, orbis (m) disk, orb 

pars, partis (f) part; side, directions, faction 

pax, pacis (f) peace (pax vobiscum) 

plŭvĭa, ae (f)  rain (sc. aqua)

pondus, ponderis (n) weight 

pontus, pontī (m) sea 

regnum, regnī (n) kingdom; kingship 

res, reī (f) matter, situation, event (republic, in medias res)

ripa, ripae (f) bank 

semen, seminis (n) seed 

sōl, sōlis (m) sun 

speciēs, -ēī (f) aspect, appearance; sight

stagnum, stagnī (n) pool 

tellus, tellūris (f) earth, mother earth 

temperies, -ei (f)  proper mixture, temperature; a temperate climate

terra, terrae (f) earth (terra incognita, terra firma) 

tractus, -ūs (m) a dragging, hauling, pulling, drawing out, trailing

umor, umoris (m) liquid, water (humidity) 

unda, undae (f) wave 

vesper , eris or erī (m) the evening; the evening star; the west

vultus, vultūs (m) face, expression, countenance 

 

quisquam, quicquam (quidquam) anyone, anything

 

alius, alia, aliud (ius- paradigm) one…the other 

adsiduus, a, um -  attending, continually present, busied (assiduously)

altus, a, um - high; deep (altitude) 

caecus, a, um - blind, dark 

calidus, a, um - hot

convexus, a, um - curved, convex 

densus, a, um - dense, thick 

discors, discordis - discordant 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh 

frigidus, a, um - cold

imus, a, um - the lowest

iners, inertis - without ability; without force; inactive, inanimate, indolent; feeble, timid

igneus, a, um - full of fire, firery

levis, leve - light; floating (levity) 

liquidus, a, um - clear, liquid, flowing 

melior, melius (comp. adj.) better (ameliorate) 

mollis, mollis, molle - soft (mollify) 

novus, a, um - new, novel, strange 

nullus, a, um - no (-ius paradigm) 

oblīquus, a, um - turning sideways; slanting, lying across, 

omnis, omnis, omne - all 

proximus, a, um - nearest ( superlative adjective) 

rapidus, a, um - swirling, swift

rudis, rudis, rude - crude

siccus, a, um - dry 

solidus, a, um - solid 

summus, a, um - highest, the highest part of 

ultimus, a, um - the last, final

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each (of two) 

 

ante (prep. + acc.) before (antebellum

adhuc (adv.) still, yet, to this point

bene (adv.) well

eodem (adv.) in the same place 

et…et = both…and 

illīc: (adv.) in that place; there

nam = for

nisi = if…not, unless; except

quia (subordinating conj.) because 

sīc (adv) thus, in this way 

passim (adv.) scattered here and there

postquam (subordinating conj.) after

quoque (adv.) also

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Vocabulary List for Catullus

coepī, coepisse, coeptus - to begin (defective verb - no present system) 

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - to cultivate, to worship, to inhabit 

fallō, fallere, fefellī, falsus - to mislead, deceived, in passive = to be mistaken 

loquor, loquī, locutus sum - to speak

laedō, laedere, laesī, laesum - to hurt, to harm 

mūtō, mūtāre, mūtāvī, mūtātus - to change

noscō, noscere, nōvī, nōtus - to be familiar with; to know 

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus - to loosen, to set free; to fulfill 

vorō (1) devour, to eat up

 

artus, artūs (m) limb, joint 

auris, auris (f) ear 

dīvus, dīvī (m) god (F. DIVI) 

dolor, doloris (m) suffering, emotional or mental pain 

furor, furoris (m) fury, rage; ecstasy, inspiration 

lignum, -ī (n) wood

lumen, luminis (n) light; eye

membrum, membrī (n) limb 

nepos, nepotis (m) grandson, descendent (nepotism) 

otium, otiī (n) leisure 

pars, partis (f) part, side, direction 

pontus, pontī (m) sea (Pontus Euxinus) 

plumbum, -ī (n) lead (plumber, plumb line, plumb) 

prex, precis (f) prayer (precarious) 

saeclum, -ī (n) age, lifetime, generation 

sodālis, sodālis (m) companion, friend

votum, -ī (n) vow; prayer; offering (votive) 

 

beatus, a, um - happy, blessed

cavus, -a, -um - hollowed out, dug out (cavernous) 

candidus, a, um - white, bright (candidate) 

dulcis, dulce - sweet (dulcet) 

laxus, a, um - loose (lax, laxative, relax) 

regius, a, um - royal, kingly 

optimus, a, um - best (optimist, optimal) 

pessimus, a, um - worst 

par, paris (adj.) equal

putidus, a, um - rotten, foul 

tenuis, tenue - thin, fine; refined, delicate 

tener, tenera, tenerum - soft, delicate, sensitive 

tumidus, a, um - swollen 

urbānus, a, um -  cultured, sophisticated (urbane) 

 

dēnique (adv.) finally, at last 

illinc (adv.) from that place

longē (adv.) far

modo (adv.) only, just now

nimium (adv.) too much; excessive 

rūrsus (adv.) again

audē sapere

Vocabulary & Derivatives for In Catalinam, pages 38 to 42

Be able to decline eadem lex or quīdem aspectus 

agnōscō, agnōscere, agnōvī, agnōtus - to recognize, acknowledge ( 

careō, carēre, caruī (+ ablative case) to lack, be without 

cōgitō (1) to think, to ponder (cōgito ergo sum, cogitability, cogitator, cogitation, cogitative, cogitativeness)  

ēripiō, ēripere, ēripuī, ēreptus - to snatch away, to recue 

fallō, fallere, fefelli, falsus - to deceive, to trick (fallacious, fallacy) 

līberō (1) to free

mandō (1) to entrust; to order (mandate) 

ōdī, ōdisse - to hate (defective verb) 

opprimō, opprimere, oppressī, oppressus - to check, restrain, overwhelm 

opīnor, opīnārī - to think, to suppose (opine, opinion) 

postulō (1) demand, claim, request (postulate) 

repudiō (1) to reject, to scorn (repudiate)

vītō (1) to avoid, shun, evade 

vindiciō (1) to avenge, to punish; to vindicate(vindictive, vindicate) 

 

aspectus, -ūs (m) sight, look (aspect) 

carcer, carceris (m) prison (incarcerate) 

lēx, lēgis (f) law (legislature) 

mens, mentis (f) mind (mens rea) 

mōs, mōris (m) custom, manner, mores 

pariēs, parietis (m) wall (of a house) 

parricīdium, -iī (n) parricide, murder (parricide) 

ratiō, ratiōnis (f) account, reasoning, thinking (ration, rational, reason) 

sagāx, sagācis (1 term.) keen, alert wise (sagacious, sagacity) 

tōtus, a, um (-ius) whole, entire 

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

aequus, a, um - equal, impartial, just, fair, balanced 

dignus, a, um - worth of + ablative case

impūnītus, a, um - unpunished 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same 

iustus, a, um - just, fair, right 

līber, lībera, līberum - free; children 

 

aliquis, aliquid (shorts to quis,quid after si, nisi, ne) someone, something, anyone, anything 

aliquō (adv.) to some place, somewhere

aliquandō - sometimes, at some tie 

aliquot (indecl. adj.) some number, 

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam ( indefinite adj.) some, a certain 

quisquis, quidquid (indefinite pron.) whoever, whatever 

quisque, quidque - each one, everyone 

 

quidem (postpositive) indeed, in fact 

fore = futurum esse 

vīdēlicet - of course 

 

Learn the following phrases - both their literal and idiomatic meanings in context.  

damntiō memoriae

passim

persona nōn grata

cōgito ergo sum

mens rea

mens sana in corpore sanō

rigor mortis

sensū strictō 

terra nullius

ultrā vīrēs

vae victīs

 

Vocabulary & Derivative List for In Catalinam, pages 28-36

audeō, audēre, ausus sum - to dare (audacious, audacity) 

concitō (1) to stip up, incite 

consulō, consulere, consului, consultus - to ask for advice, consult 

cumulō (1) to heap up (cumulative) 

dēfīgō, dēfīgere, dēfīxī, dēfīxus - to fix, stab, to fasten down 

dēlectō (1) to delight, to please, to charm 

ēlābor, ēlābī, ēlapsus sum - to slip off, to slip away (elapse) 

haereō, haerēre, haesī (intransitive) to cling, to stick 

obstō, obstāre, obstitī, obstatus - to stand in the way, oppose, to block + dative

ōdī, ōdisse (defective verb) - to hate (odium) 

pertineō, pertinēre, pertinuī - to extend to, to reach, to stretch out (pertinent) 

petō, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek, to aim at, attack (competitive) 

 

cāsus, cāsūs (m) chance, accident (casuist, casuistic) 

copia, copiae (f) supply, abundance; in plural: troops, resources (cornucopia, copious

dēdecus, dēdecoris (n) digrace, dishonour 

disciplina, -ae (f) training, instruction (discipline) 

facinus, facinoris (n) crime, bad deed (facinorous) 

fax, facis (f) torch 

homō, hominis (m) man, human (homo novus, ad hominem, homo sapiens, homo erectus

libīdō, libīdinis (f) lust, passion, pleasure (libidinous, libidinal) 

misercordia, -ae (f) pity, compassion 

nōta, nōtae (f) mark, sign

spiritus, -ūs (m) breath (respiration; spiritus mundī, spiritus rector

tectum, tectī (n) roof, building 

tēlum, tēlī (n) weapon 

turpitudō, turpitudinis (f) shame, disgrace (turpitude) 

tumultus, -ūs (m) confusion, uprising, panic (tumultuous) 

vitium, vitiī (n) vice, defect (vice) 

 

alius, alia, aliud - other, another (et alia or et aliī

cōnsulāris, cōnsulārie - of consular rank, of a consul

inānis, ināne - empty, vain, groundless, baseless (inane, inanity) 

iucundus, a, um - pleasant 

lēnis, lēne - smooth, gentle, mild 

perniciōsus, a, um - dangerous, destructive (pernicious

proprius, a, um - characteristic, peculiar 

reliquus, a, um - remaining, the rest 

ruīna, ruīnae (f) destruction, downfall 

ūtilis, ūtile - useful, effective 

 

apertē (adv.) openly 

causā (+ preceding genitive) for the sake of 

dēnique (adv.) at last, finally 

extrā (prep. + acc.) outside of, beyond (extravert, extramural) 

intrā (prep. + acc. ) within, inside of (intravenous, intramural) 

nōndum (adv.) not yet 

nūper (adv.) recently 

post (prep. + acc.) after 

quamquam (adv.) although 

quotiēns (adv.) how often? 

Latin Phrases Used in English

ab ovō ad mala

notā bene

homo novus

ad hominem

et al.  or et alii

et alia

honoris causā

post hoc ergo propter hoc

spiritus mundi

in nomine patris et filii et spiritus sancti

 

Cicero, In Catalinam,  Pages 16-22

admīror, admīrārī, admīrātus sum - to wonder at, be amazed at (admire) 

audeo, audēre, ausus sum - to dare 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear

comperiō, comperīre, comperī, compertus - to learn, to discover, to find out 

credo, credere, credidi, creditus - to believe, to trust + dative or indirect statement

dīmittō, dīmitere, dīmīsī, dīmissus - to send away 

fello, fellere, fefellī, falsus - to deceive 

licet, licēre, licuit ( + dative + infinitive) it is permitted to (impersonal verb) 

memini, meminisse - to remember (defective verb) 

muniō, munīre, munīvī, munitus -to construct, to fortify 

negō (1) to deny, to say that …. not 

oportet, oportēre, oportuit (+ acc. + inf.) it is fitting, it is necessary (impersonal verb) 

placet, placēre, placuit - it is pleasing + dative + infinitive 

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum - to set out, to depart 

polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum - to promise 

trucīdo (1) to slaughter 

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī, vīctus - to live

auris, auris (f) ear (aural) 

audacia, -ae (f) boldness, outrageous behavior 

coetus, -ūs (m) meeting, union 

consilium, -iī (n) advice, plan; strategy 

ferrum, ferrī (n) iron; sword (FE)

gens, gentis (f) race, clan, nation 

impetus, impetūs (m) attack (impetuous) 

incendium, incendiī (n) a fire 

lux, lucis (f) light 

mēns, mentis (f) mind, intention

pernicies, pernicieī (f) destruction, ruin (pernicious) 

prīnceps, prīncipitis (m) chief, leader, foremost one

salūs, salūtis (f) safety, salvation

scelus, sceleris (n) wicked 

tenebrae, tenebrārum (f. pl) darkness (tenebrism) 

vīs, vīs (f) force, in plural = strength 

 

quisque, quaeque, quidque - each one, each thing

 

ācer, ācris, ācre - sharp, fierce, harsh, bitter 

atrox, atrocis - terrible 

clārus, a, um - clear, bright 

īdem, eadem, idem - the sam e

prior, prius (comparative adj.) earlier, prior (priority) 

quīdem, quaedem, quoddam - a certain (indefinite adjective) 

 

adeo (adv.) to such an extent 

adhūc (adv.) yet, still, thus far 

hīc (adv.) here

hūc (adv.) to this place

hinc (adv.) from this place

magis (comp. adv.) more 

modo  - only, just now, provided that + subjunctive mood (proviso clause) 

sīcut - just as, so as 

undique (adv.) from all sides

Cicero, In Catalinam,  Pages 2, 4, 6

ēlūdō, ēlūdere, ēlūdī, ēlūsus - to mock 

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to become, to happen, to be made (copulative) 

iacto (1) to toss about

intellegō, intellegere, intellēxī, intellectus - to realize, to understand 

muniō, munīre, munīvī, munītus - to fortify, to build 

occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to cut down, to kill 

oportet, opportēre, opportuit (impersonal verb) it is necessary, it is fitting + acc. + inf. or + noun clause

pateō, patēre, patuī - to lie open, to extend (intransitive) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus - to perceive, to feel 

studeō, studēre, studuī (+ dative) to be eager for; to support 

veniō, vēnīre, vēnī, ventūrus (intransitive) - to come (venture, venue) 

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī, vīctus - to live 

 

audācia, -ae (f) boldness, arrogance 

auctōritās, auctōritātis (f) authority, influence 

caedēs, caedis (f) slaughter, killing 

concursus, -ūs (m) 

fīdēs, fīdeī (f) faith, trust

fīnis, fīnis (m/f) end. limit (infinitive, finite) 

furor, furoris (m) madness, frenzy, rashness 

manus, manūs (f) band; hand 

orbis, orbis (m) disk, sphere, orb 

ordō, ordinis (m) order, rank 

ōra, ōrae (f) shore

ōs, ōris (n) mouth, face

os, ossis (n) bone 

praesidium, praesidiī (n) protection, guard 

rēs, reī (f) thing; matter, affair, business 

spēs, speī (f) hope

tempus, temporis (n) time 

tempestās, tempestātis (f) storm 

vultus, vultūs (m) 

 

acer, acris, acre - sharp, fierce, bitter, harsh 

acerbus, a, um - bitter, severe, grievous 

alius, alia, aliud (-ius paradigm) 

amplus, a, um - more; ample, full, spacious 

facilis, facile - easy 

gravis, grave - serious, heavy

iste, ista, istud - that of yours

līber, lībera, līberum - free

melior, melius (comparative adj.) better

maior, maius (comparative adj.) bigger, larger 

minor, minus (comparative adj.) smaller 

peius, peior (comparative adj.) worse

plūrēs, plūra (comparative adj.) more (use of #)

quisque, quaeque, quidque (indefinite adj.) each one, every 

similis, simile (+ gen. or dat.) similar 

superus, -a, -um - that above, high 

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm) - each of two

 

ac=atque - and, and aslo

autem - however, moreover 

diū (adv.) for along time

plūs (adv.) or (substantive + partitive genitive) more 

prīdem (adv.) long ago, long before 

quō?  where?  to what place? 

tandem (adv.) finally, at last

Phrases

vēnī, vīdī, vīcī

orbis terrārum

novus homo

imperium sine fīne

O tempora! O Mōrēs!

Mōs maiorum

 

Vocabulary List for Cornelius Nepos, Vita Hannibalis or Life of Hannibal, Chapters 6 and 7

creo (1) to appoint, to create 

congredior, congredī, congressus sum - to come together, to meet, to join battle 

contraho, contrahere, contraxi, contractus - to draw together, to assemble 

cupio, cupire, cupivi, cupitus - to desire (+ complementary infinitive) 

effugio, effugere, effugi - to escape 

fio, fieri, factus sum - to be made, to become, to happen (copulative verb)

fugo (1) to put to flight 

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus (ex + cedo) - to leave, to withdraw 

exhaurio, exhaurire, exhausi, exhaustus - to exhaust, to deplete 

opprimo, opprimere, oppressi, oppressus - to overwhelm 

praebo, praebere, praebui - to offer

praesum, praeesse, praefui - to be in charge of + dative 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek 

pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsus - to drive off 

remitto, remittere, remisi, remissus - to send back 

revoco (1) to call back, recall 

 

acies, aciei (f) line, edge, slight, battle line, battle (triplex acies) 

colloquium, -i (n) conservation 

consultum, -i (n) decree 

biduum, -i (n) a period of two days, two days

facultas, facultatis (f) opportunity

foedus, foederis (n) treaty (federal) 

fuga, -ae (f) flight 

munus, muneris (n) gift 

nox, noctis (f) night 

obses, obsidis (m/f) hostages 

opera, -ae (f) effort

opus, operis (n) work, task, labor 

passus, -ūs (m) step, pace 

 

invictus, a, um - undefeated 

par, paris (1 term. 3rd decl. adj.) equal 

reliquus, a, um - remaining, left behind

 

apud (prep. + acc.) with, near, at, among

circiter (adv.) around, approximately 

hīc (adv.) in this place, here

hinc (adv.) from this place, next

hūc (adv.) to this place

item (adv.) likewise 

iterum (adv.) a second time, secondly 

non solum…sed etiam = not only… but also 

post (prep. + acc. ) after

postea (adv.) afterwards 

postquam (subordinating conj.) afterwards

Vocabulary List from the Aftermath of Cannae

ait, aiunt (defective verb) he said 

appareo, apparere - to appear 

cesso (1) to cease, to stop, to rest 

excito (1) to stir, to excite, to rouse 

haurio, haurire, hausi, haustus - to drain, drink in 

exspiro (1) to die, to expire, to breath out 

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie

insisto, insistere - to press on, to step foot upon 

insequor, insequi, insecutus sum - to follow

invenio (4) to find, to discover 

lacerō (1) to cut(lacerate) 

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order

mergo, mergere, mersi, mersus - to plunge, emerse 

morior, morī, mortuus sum - to die 

perfungor, perfungī, perfunctus sum - to preform + ablative case 

praecedo, praecedere, praecessi, praecessus - to precede, to go before  

reor, reri, ratus sum - to think 

scio (4) a) to know how + complementary infinitive; b) to know + acc. subjective + inf. 

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise 

stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictus - to draw tight, to close 

suadeo, suadere, suasi - to urge + dative

subtraho, subtrahere, subtraxi, subtractus - to drag or pull under (subtraction) 

sumo, sumere, sumpsi, sumptus - to take (consume, assume) 

superiacio, superiacere, superieci, superiectus - to throw over

utor, utī, usus sum - to use, enjoy, employ + ablative case 

verto, vertere, verti, versus - to turn 

videor, videri, visus sum - to seem, to appear

 

animus, -i (m) mind, spirit, courage 

cervix, cervicis (m) neck 

dens, dentis (f) tooth 

eques, equitis (m) cavalry 

frigor, frigoris (n) cold 

hostis, hostis (m) enemy

humus, humī (f) ground, earth 

īra, īrae (f) anger 

iugulum, -i (n) throat 

mora, -ae (f) delay 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour; need 

os, oris (n) mouth; face 

quies, quietis (f) rest, response, cessation, quite, peace  

rabies, rabiei (f) madness (rabid) 

salūs, salūtis (f) health; salvation; safety 

spiritus, -ūs (m) breath, breathing 

telum, -i (n) weapon 

voluntas, voluntatis (f) desire, wish, will 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound 

 

ceteri, -ae, -a (adj.) the remaining, the rest 

fessus, a, um - weary 

foedus, a, um - vile, disgusting 

inutilis, inutile - useless

quidam, quaedam, quoddam - some, certain 

reliquus, a, um - the rest, the remaining 

vivus, a, um - alive, living

 

immo (participle) on the contrary, by no means 

minimē (adv.) the least, not at all 

nimis (adv.) too much 

nimirum (adv.) without doubt 

praecipuē (adv.) chief

prius…quam - earlier…than, before 

statim (adv.) immediately 

satis (indecl. noun.) enough 

 

Vocabulary List One (Eutropius 6 and7)

Be able to decline either opus durum or aetas nulla as part of this vocabulary quiz. 

adgredior, adgredi, aggressus sum - to advance, to attack 

dimico (1) - to fight

expugno (1) take by storm, capture

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak 

finio (4) to finish, complete

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to wage, manage, conduct

licet, licēre, licuit (impersonal verb) - it is permitted + dative + infintive

praefor, praefari, praefatus sum - to speak beforehand (preface) 

profiteor, profiteri, professus sum - to acknowledge, confess

scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptus - to write, to write about (head verb)

vinco, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (vēnī, vīdī, vīcī)

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry, convey

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

adventus, -ūs (m) arrival (advent) 

collega, -ae (m) - colleague (one of the few masc. first decline words, like pirata, nauta, poeta, incola, 

scriba, agricola, aurgia)

copia, -ae (f) abundance, supply; in the plural = forces, troops

dux, ducis (m) leader, general

eques, equitis (m) knight (equestrian) 

Hannibal, Hannibalis (m) Hannibal

legatus, -i (m) abassador, leutient general 

manus, manūs (f) band (of men); hand

opus, operis (n) task, work, work of literature 

pars, partis (f) side, direction, part

populus, -i (m) people 

praeda, -ae (f) booty (not our concept), plunder, spoils of war

principium, -ii (n) beginning

umerus, -i (m) shoulder

aliquot (indeclinable adjective like tot, quot) = some

post aliquot annis = after by some years

durus, a, um - hard 

grandis, grande - large, abundan

plerique, pleraeque, pleraque (pl. nom. masc, adj.) = very many

maxime (superlative adverb of magnopere) most, very great, especially 

umquam (adv.) ever

numquam (adv.) never 

postea (subordinating conjunctive + indicative mood) after

deinde - then, next

intra + acc.  - within

Vocabulary List for Acis, Galatea, Polyphemus

 

acendo, acendere, ascendi, ascensus - to climb 

conpono, conponere, conposui, conpositus - to arrange, to compose 

demo, demere, dempsi, demptus - to remove, to take away

dehisco, dehiscere - to split open, yawn

horreo, horrere, horrui - to sudder at, to dread 

fallo, fallere, fefelli, falsus - to deceive 

fungor, fungi, functus sum - to preform + ablative case 

gradior, gradi, gressus sum - to step, to walk 

libet, libēre, libuit - it is pleasing + dative + infinitive 

ludo, ludere, ludi, lusus - to play 

moneo, monere, monui, monitus - to warn, advise 

noto (1) to mark, to take note of 

obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum - to forget + GENITIVE CASE

pendeo, pendere, pependi, - to hang

praefero, praeferre, praetuli, praelatus - to prefer 

revello, revellere, revelli, revulsus - to tear off

rideo, ridere, risi - to laugh 

signo (1) to mark 

uro, urere, ussi, ustus - to burn 

 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea; level surface of the sea 

acūmen, acūminis (n) peak, promontory 

agnus, -i (m) lamb 

auris, auris (f) ear

aurum, -i (n) gold 

collum, -i (n) neck

collis, collis (m) hill 

cornu, -ūs (n) horn

clipeus, clipei (m) round shield 

cruor, cruoris (m) blood, slaughter 

fetus, -us (m) offspring 

flumen, fluminis (n) river 

fulmen, fulminis (n) lightening bolt

imber, imbris (m) rain 

latus, lateris (n) side (lateral) 

lucus, luci (m) grove, woods

lumen, luminis (n) light; eye 

moles, molis (f) mass, burden, bolder 

munus, muneris (n) gift, ritual 

orbis, orbis (m) disk, sphere 

odium, -ii (n) hatred 

pontus, -i (m) sea

pecus, pecudis (f) flock 

rupis, rupis (f) rock cliff 

voluptas, voluptatis (f) pleasure, source of pleasure 

vates, vatis (m) poet, bard; prophet

 

almus, a, um - nurturing, kindly  

aptus, a, um - suited to + DATIVE CASE

cunctus, a, um - whole, entire 

fessus, a, um - weary, exhausted 

mollis, molle - soft

nitidus, a, um - bright, shining 

nullus, a, um (-ius paradigm) 

par, paris (adj.) equal + dative case

saevus, a, um - savage, cruel 

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm) each (of two)

 

nuper (adv.) recently 

nempe (adv.) of course, certainly

quamvis (sub. conj.) although 

tenus (+ ablative) right up to, as far as

Vocabulary List for Apollo and Daphne

adsum, adesse, adfui - to be present 

apello (1) to name, to call (appellation) 

cedo, cedere, cessi, cessurus - to go, to yield to + dative

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to cultivate, worship, look after (cult, culture)

cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitus - to desire (cupid, cupidity)

figo, figere, fixi, fixus - to drive in, to pierce

fugo, fugare, fugavi, fugatus - to put to flight 

flecto, flectere, flexi, flectus - to bend, curse, turn 

laedo, laedere, laesi, laesus - to injure

obsequor, obsequī, obsecutus sum - to gratify, comply (obsequious) 

pendeo, pendere, pependi - to hang

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to slay

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - to rule, guide, direct (regent, rectify) 

sterno, sternere, stravi, stratus - to slay

teneo, tenere, tenui, tentus - to hold (tenacious) 

volvo, volvere - to turn over, revolve (revolution)

 

arcus, -us (m) bow

aer, aeris (m) air

aquila, -ae (f) an eagle 

aura, -ae (f) breeze, air

cornu, -us (n) horn; moon; bow; frog

cuspis, cuspidis (f) tip, sharp point; spear, lance

fax, facis (f) torch; a common metonomy for marriage

fera, -ae (f) wild animal 

fors, fortis (f) chance, destiny

grex, gregis (m) flock (egregious, congregation, gregarious) 

penna, -ae (f) feather

sagitta, -ae (f) arrow

sidus, sideris (n) star

tellus, telluris (f) earth 

venter, ventris (m) belly, abdomen

 

acutus, a, um - sharp (acute) 

obtusus, a, um - dull, blunt (obtuse) 

saevus, a, um - cruel, savage

tōtus, a, um (-ius variation) - whole, entire (total, todo bene, tutto bene) 

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

alii…alii = some…other 

de quo?  About what? 

iam (adv.) now, already

modo (adv.) only recently, just now

nōn iam = no longer 

quod (pronoun) = which, that

quod (subordinating conj.) because 


Vocabulary for Priapus and Lotis from Ovid's Fasti

aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus - to open, to reveal (aperture) 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to slaughter 

caveo, cavere - to take care, beware (cave canem; caveat emptor)

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - inhabit, cultivate; worship (cultus deorum)

coepi, coepisse, coeptus - to begin (defective verb) 

concito (1) to stir, disturb 

effundo, effundere, effudī, effusus - to pour out, to spread out (effusive)

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie (adjacent) 

misceō, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix

nanciscor, nanciscī, nactus sum - to receive, to obtain  

necto, nectere, nexi, nexum - to bind, tie, to join 

praebeo, praebere, praebui - to offer

pudeo, pudēre, puduī - to cause shame 

rideo, ridere, risi, risus - to laugh (risible) 

rubeo, rubere - to be red (rubescent) 

sollicito (1) to stir, agitate; arouse 

sono, sonare, sonui, sonitus - to make a noise (sonorous) 

sino, sinere - to allow 

tango, tangere, tetigi, tactus - to touch (tangent, tactile) 

terreo, terrēre, terrui - to frighten 

uro, urere - to inflame 

 

amnis, amnis (m) river 

anima, -ae (f) breath; spirit; soul 

auctor, auctoris (m) author, agent; doer 

aura, -ae (f) breath; breeze 

causa, -ae (f) reason, cause

convivium, -i (n) feast, banquet 

custos, custodis (m) guardian 

decus, decoris (n) adornment, honor 

fastus, fastūs (m) contempt for other; pride, arrogance 

felix, felicis (adj.) happy, luckly

festum, -i (n) holiday, festival banquet 

flatus, -ūs (m) breath, blowing, snorting 

gradus, -ūs (m) step 

gratus, a, um - pleasing to + dative case 

iocus, -i (m) play, game, joke 

iuventus, iuventūtis (f) youth 

lusus, -ūs (m) play, frolic 

lumen, luminis (n) light; eyes

nemus, nemoris (n) grove 

rivus, -i (m) stream (derivative) 

rus, ruris (n) countryside (rus = to the countryside; ruri=in the countryside; rure=from the countryside)

sopor, soporis (m) deep sleep 

torus, -i (m) couch 

tutela, -ae (f) guard, safeguard; protector (tutelary) 

victima, -ae (f) sacrificial offering, victim 

votum, -i (n) vow; wish, desire, longing 

 

alienus, a, um - foreign, a stranger to a thing (+ dative case) 

aptus, a, um - suited to + dative case

fessus, a, um - weary 

niveus, a, um - snow white

parcus, a, um - sparingly 

pavidus, a, um - timid, alarmed 

pronus, a, um - inclined (toward) 

ruber, rubra, rubrum - red, ruddy 

rigidus, a, um - stiff

solitus, a, um - accustomed

 

quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque (indefinite pronoun)  whoever, what ever  

quisque, quaeque, quidque (indefinite pronoun) - each one, each thing

quidem (adv.) indeed, certainly

nimium (adv.) too much, excessively 

Vocabulary list for Ovid, Amores 1.1 and 1.2

aspicio, aspicere, aspexi, aspectus - to look at; to consider 

concutiō -cutere -cussī -cussum - to shake, strike, shatter

iuvo, iuvare, iuvi, iutus - to help; to delight; to please

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to find out, learn (perf. tense = to know) 

prōtegō -tegere -texī -tectum - to cover, conceal; protect

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus - to rise (insurrection) 

surripiō -ripere -ripuī -reptum - to take away secretly, steal

tego, tegere, texi, tectus - to cover

ūrō ūrere ussī ustum -to burn

 

arma, -ōrum (n. pl.) weapons, equipment 

castra, -ōrum (n. pl.) military camp (manchester) 

cuspis, cuspidis (f) sharp point, tip (esp. of a spear)

currus, currūs (m) chariot

iugum, -i (n) yoke

laus, laudis (f) praise 

mens, mentis (f) mind

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour

onus, oneris (n) burden 

ōra, -ae (f) shore

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face

os, ossis (n) bone

pinna -ae (f) feather, wing

pompa -ae (f)  procession, parade

praeda, -ae (f) booty, plunder

vuglus, -i (n) common people 

 

acutus, a, um - sharp 

dūrus, a, um - hard, unyielding, harsh

ferox, ferōcis -  fierce, savage, ferocious 

inermis, inerme - unarmed

insignis, insigne-  distinguished, remarkable, notable

 

assiduē (adv.) continually, constantly 

ubīque (adv.)  anywere, everywhere


Vocabulary List for Suetonius’ Account of Caesar’s Death from De Vita Caesarum

adripio, adripere, adripui, arreptus - to seize, grasp

adsideo, adsidere - to sit near

animadverto, animadvertere, animadverti, animadversus - to notice

accedo, accedere, accessi, accessum (+ dative case) - to approach 

cado, cadere, cecidī, occasus - to fall

clamo (1) to shout

conor, conārī, conātus sum - to try

conspiro (1) to conspire

dependeo, dependēre - to hang down 

differo, differre, distuli, dīlatum - to scatter about , to put off

irruo, irruere - to rush in 

obvolvo, obvolvere - to wrap up, to cover

occīdo, occīdere, occīdi, occīsus - to kill

publico (1) to make public, confiscate 

prosilio, prosilīre -- to leap forth

rogo, rogāre (1) to ask 

reperio, reperīre, repperī, repertus - to ascertain, to discover

stringo, stringere, strinxi, strictus - to draw

suscipio, suscipere, suscepi, susceptus - to undertake, to begin 

tardo (1) to slow

trado, tradere, tradidi, traditus - hand down

traicio, traicere - to pierce 

velo (1) to cover

vulnero (1) to wound


animus, -i (m) mind, intention

bracchium, -ii (n) arm

crus, cruris (n) shin, leg

eques, equitis (m) cavalry, horseman 

graphium, -i (n) stilus, sharply pointed instrument for writing

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan 

gestus, -ūs (m) gesture, posture 

iugulum, -i (n) throat 

medicus, -i (m) doctor

metus, -ūs (m) fear

officium, -iī (n) duty, business 

plaga, -ae (f) blow, wound

pugio, pugionis (m) daggers

pars, partis (f) part; party + partitive genitive 

servolus,-i (m) diminutive of servus, -i (m) 

sinus, ūs (m) fold (in a toga) 

speciēs, specieī (f) appearance, pretext

umerus, -i (m) shoulder

vis, vis (f) violence, force


adversus, a, um - turned toward, facing 

aversus, a, um - turned away (here: from the back) 

cunctus, a, um - all

exanimis, -e  -  lifeless

honestus, a, um - respectable, honorable

imus, a, um - lowest

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm) - each (of two) 


aliquamdiu = for some time

donec = until 

etsi (conj.) even if, although 

ilico (adv.) immediately, on the spot

infra + acc. = below

propius (comp. adv) nearer, closer

quasi = as if

undique (adv.) on all sides, from all sides



Chapter 55 Vocabulary Quiz

aggredior, aggredī, aggressus sum - to attach, approach 

apello (1) to name, call (copulative in the passive) 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, establish

dimico (1) to fight 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - to pour

mūto (1) to change 

succedo, succedere, successi, successus - to go or come under; to succeed

turbō, turbāre, turbāvī, turbātus - to disturb 

potior, potīrī, potītus sum (+ gen. or abl.) to get control of, gain possession of 


aetās, aetātis (f) age, period, time of life

carcer, carceris (m) prison, cell

castra, castorum (n. pl) military camp

copia, -ae (f) abundance, supply; troops (in plural) 

cornu, cornus (n) horn; wing of an army 

exercitus, -ūs (m) army 

genus, generis (n) race, class, family

honor, honōris (m) political office, honor, position 

ingenium, -ii (n) intelligence, character 

legio, legionis (f) legion (of the army = 3,600 to 6,000 soldiers) 

orbis, orbis (m) circle (orbis terrārum = the world) 

proelium, -ii (n) battle 

socius, -ii (m) comrade, associate


clārus, a, um - well-known, distinguished 

rēgius, a, um - royal 


adhuc (adv.) still, up to this time

adversum (prep. + acc.) against 

ferē (adv.) 

hinc (adv.) from here, from this place; next 

quia (conj.) because

List for Cornelius Nepos, Chapters 1 & 2

adiungō –iungere –iūnxī –iūnctum: add, connect, join to

antecēdō –cēdere –cessī –cessum: excel, surpass

bellō –āre: wage far, fight, contend

congredior –gredī –gressus sum: come together, meet, join battle

cōnservō –āre: retain, maintain, preserve

dēpōnō –pōnere –posuī –positum: lay down

dēvincō –vincere –vīcī –vīctum: conquer, overcome

immolō –āre: sacrifice, offer as sacrifice

incendō –cendere –cendī –censum: inflame, set fire to

omittō –mittere –mīsī –missum: neglect, omit

postulō –āre: ask for, demand, require

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum - to set out, to depart 

sēgregō –āre: separate, exclude, remove

videor, vidērī, visus sum (copulative verb) seems + dative of interest


consilium, consiliī (n) plan, strategy 

cupiditās cupiditātis (f) longing, desire, passion

Fortitūdō fortitūdinis (f) strength, courage, resilience

Iuppiter Iovis (m) Jupiter

invidia, invidiae (f) ill-will, hatred 

lēgātus, -ī (m) legate; ambassador; general 

nātiō nātiōnis (f) people, nation, race

odium, odiī (n) hatred 

ops, opis (f) resources, power

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour; 

virtus, virtūtis (f) courage, valour; virtue 


aliēnus, a, um - of another, another’s; foreign 

cūnctus, a, um - all 

vērus, a, um - true (veracity) 


apud (prep. + acc.) near, at, with

amplius (comparative adv.) more 

autem (postpositive) however, moreover 

anteā: before, earlier, already

quidem (postpositive) indeed, infact 

tantus, a, um…quantus, a, um (correlatives) as great…as; as much…as

velut - just as

Bacchant Bunny


Second Vocabulary List for Latin III (Eutropius 10-14 and Livy 22.49)

As part of this quiz be able to decline: crimen quoddam and aliquis, aliquid. (singular only) 

armo (1) to arm

caveo, cavere - to beware of(cave canem, caution) 

conosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus - to recognize, learn; to know (terra incognita)

detraho, detrahere, detraxī, detractus - to drag down, to pull from, remove (detractor)

deleo, delere, delevi, delētus - to destory (Carthago delenda est!)

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - ought, to owe (debit) 

exsisto, exsistere, exstiti, exsitum - to stand forth, appear (existence) 

exspiro (1) to expire, die 

firmo (1) to make strong, fortify 

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die (dulce et decorum est pro patria mori)

munio (4) to wall, to protect, to fortify 

nuntio, nuntiare - to announce 

occīdo, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to kill

oppleo, opplere, opplevi, oppletus - to fill up, to block, to cover 

occupo (1) to sieze

pareo, parēre, parui - to obey+ dative case

patior, patī, passus sum - to allow

perdo, perdere, perdidi, perditus - to destroy

promitto, promittere, promisi, promissus - to promise

protego, protegere, protexi, protectum - to protect 

sollicito (1) to disturb, to agitate 

subigo, subigere, subegi, subactus - to subject, to subdue

supersum, superesse - to be left over, to remain 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - to lift

vivo, vivere, vixi - to live

auxilium, -ii (n) 

aliquis, aliquid (indef. pronoun) anyone, anything (it shortens to quis, quid after si, nisi, ne)

comes, comitis (m) companion 

crimen, criminis (n) charge, accusation; crime

cruor, cruoris (m) blood, gore, slaughter 

lacrima, -ae (f) tear

luctus, luctūs (m) morning, weeping 

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

praeceptum, -i (n) order

supplicium, -i (n) punishment

 

aureus, a, um - golden

ingens, ingentis (adj.) huge 

integer, integra, integrum - intacted, unhurt, uninjured (integral

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.) a certain, some 

varius, a, um - diverse, various 

 

 

 

apud (prep. + acc.) 

igitur (post positive particle) therefore 

nam - for 

postquam (subordinating conj.)

postea (adv.) afterward

post (prep. +  acc.) after

quoque (adv.) also

Vocabulary List One

Be able to decline either opus durum or aetas nulla as part of this vocabulary quiz. 

adgredior, adgredi, aggressus sum - to advance, to attack 

dimico (1) - to fight

expugno (1) take by storm, capture

for, fari, fatus sum - to speak 

finio (4) to finish, complete

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to wage, manage, conduct

licet, licēre, licuit (impersonal verb) - it is permitted + dative + infintive

praefor, praefari, praefatus sum - to speak beforehand (preface) 

profiteor, profiteri, professus sum - to acknowledge, confess

scribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptus - to write, to write about (head verb)

vinco, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (vēnī, vīdī, vīcī)

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry, convey

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

adventus, -ūs (m) arrival (advent) 

collega, -ae (m) - colleague (one of the few masc. first decline words, like pirata, nauta, poeta, incola, 

scriba, agricola, aurgia)

copia, -ae (f) abundance, supply; in the plural = forces, troops

dux, ducis (m) leader, general

eques, equitis (m) knight (equestrian) 

Hannibal, Hannibalis (m) Hannibal

legatus, -i (m) abassador, leutient general 

manus, manūs (f) band (of men); hand

opus, operis (n) task, work, work of literature 

pars, partis (f) side, direction, part

populus, -i (m) people 

praeda, -ae (f) booty (not our concept), plunder, spoils of war

principium, -ii (n) beginning

umerus, -i (m) shoulder

aliquot (indeclinable adjective like tot, quot) = some

post aliquot annis = after by some years

durus, a, um - hard 

grandis, grande - large, abundan

plerique, pleraeque, pleraque (pl. nom. masc, adj.) = very many

maxime (superlative adverb of magnopere) most, very great, especially 

umquam (adv.) ever

numquam (adv.) never 

postea (subordinating conjunctive + indicative mood) after

deinde - then, next

intra + acc.  - within

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