Vocabulary Lists for Vocabulary Quizzes

frangō, frangere, frēgī, fractus - to break 

relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus - to abandon, to leave behind, to relinquish 

secō, secāre, secuī, sectus - to cut (secant, dissect, section) 

taceō, tacēre, tacuī, tactus - to be silent (taciturn, tacit) 

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tactus (tangent, tangible, tactile) 

tegō, tegere, texī, tectus - to cover (protect)


Fourth Declension Nouns 


domus, domūs (f) house; home 

manus, manūs (f) hand; band of men

quercus, quercūs (f) oak tree (Jupiter’s tree) 

pīnus, pīnūs (f) pine tree, umbrella pine


cornū, cornūs (n) horn; bow, moon, wing of an army

gelū, gelūs (n)  frost, chill

genū, genūs (n) knee


aestus, aestūs (m) heat, boiling; tides 

amictus, amictūs (m) cloak, garment  

adventus, adventūs (m) arrival (advent) 

aditus, aditūs (m) approach (ad + eo, ire) 

artus, artūs (m) limb 

arcus, arcūs (m) bow 

aspectus, aspectūs (m) appearance (aspect) 

cantus, cantūs (m) song (incantation) 

casus, casūs (m) chance; misfortune; a falling (from cado, cadere, cedidi, casus

cōnātus, cōnātūs (m) an effort, attempt

conspectus, conspectūs (m) sight 

currus, currūs (m) chariot (car) 

cursus, cursūs (m) a running, a race; race course (cursus honōrum) 

exitus, exitūs (m) exit, end; death  (ex + eo, ire) 

exercitus, exercitūs (m) army (exercise) 

equitātus, equitātūs (m) cavalry 

fetus, fetūs (m) offspring (fetal, fetus) 

fletus, fletūs (m) weeping 

fluctus, fluctūs (m) wave (fluctuate) 

gemitus, gemitūs (m) groaning 

gradus, gradūs (m) step; grade (gradual, graduation, gradation, retrograde) 

impetus, impetūs (m) attack (impetuous) 

impulsus, impulsūs (m) impulse, shock 

ictus, ictūs (m) a blow, a striking, a hit; a beating 

lacus, lacūs (m) lake (Lacus Albanus) 

luctus, luctūs (m) mourning, crying 

metus, metūs (m) fear

monitus, monitūs (m) a warning 

occasus, occasūs (m) setting, falling (occasional) 

ortus, ortūs (m) a rising 

passus, passūs (m) step

peditātus, peditātūs (m) infantry (pes, pedis (m) - foot) 

porticus, porticūs -  colonnade, porch 

portus, portūs (m) port, harbour 

ritus, ritūs (m) rite, ceremony, ritual (rite, ritual) 

senātus, senātūs (m) senate (from senex - old man) 

spīritus, spīritūs (m) breath, life, spirit (spiritus mundi)

situs, sitūs (m) place, position (in sitū) 

sinus, sinūs (m) fold; bend; lap; bay (geography) 

sonitus, sonitūs (m) sound 

versus, versūs (m) verse 

vultus, vultūs (m) expression, face, countenance 

vīsus, vīsūs (m) vision, sight 

usus, usūs (m) use 


Fifth Declension Nouns 


aciēs, aciēī (f) line, edge, battle line, battle; sight; keenness  

diēs, diēī (m) day (per diem, carpe diem, quotidian) 

faciēs, faciēī (f), shape, form, figure, face

glaciēs, glaciēī (f) ice 

fidēs, fideī (f) faith, trust, loyalty (bonafide, fidelity) 

rēs, reī (f) affair, situation (in medias res, republic) 

spēs, speī (f) hope (sine spē) 

seriēs, seriēī (f) row, chain; serious 

speciēs, speciēī (f) form, sight, view


Pronominal Adjectives (-ius variation paradigm)


U ūnus, a, um - one, only one

N nūllus, a, um -no (negative of ullus, a, um

U ūllus, a, um - any

S sōlus, a, um - alone, only, sole

N neuter, neutra, neutrum -neither (of two)

A alter, altera, alterum - the other (of 2);  

the second

U uter?, utra?, utrum?  - which (of two)?

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each (of two)

T tōtus, a, um -whole, entire

A alius, alia, aliud -another, other 

(alii...alii - some...others)

(for genitive singular use alterius)

Pyramus _ and_ Thisbe _ Pompeii.jpg


Time Constructions and Related Vocabulary

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to spend, to pass

occidō, occidere, occidī, occasus - to fall, to set (occidiental) 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise (oriental)

Nouns

aetas, aetātis (f) age, time of life 

aestās, aestatis (f) summer (aestival) 

annus, annī (m) year (annus horribilis, annual)

autumnus, autumnī (m) autumn (autumnal) 

biduum, biduī (n) two day period

bĭennĭum, bĭennĭuī (n)
a period or space of two years (bis-annus) 

diēs, diēī (m) day (per diem, carpe diem) 

hora, horae (f) hour

hĭems or hiemps, -ĕmis (f) winter 

lux, lucis (f) light (fiat lux) 

mensis, mensis (m) month

nox, noctis (f) night (nocturnal) 

saeculum, saeculī (n) age, generation, period of time 

sōl, solis (m) sun (solar) 

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal) 

vēr, vēris (n) spring (vernal) 

Adjectives


aeternus, a, um - eternal 

nocturnus, a, um - of the night 

perpetuus, a, um - continuous, perpetual 

multus, a, um - many

paucus, a, um - a few 

prīmus, a, um - first 

prior, prius - earlier 

secundus, a, um - second 

trēs, tria - three

superior, superius - earlier 

ūnus, a, um - one 

quotiens?  how often 

quando?  when

aliquandō - at some point 

Prepositions 

post (prep. + acc. )

ante (prep. + acc.) 

Adverbs

pridem 

diū (adv.) for a long time 

cotidie (adv.) everyday (quotidian) 

crās - tomorrow 

hodiē - today 

heri - yesterday

māne - morning, in the  morning 

iam (adv.) now, already 

nunc (adv.) now

numquam (adv.) never 

pridem (adv.) long ago, long before

saepe - often 

saepius - more often 

saepissimē - very often 

serō (adv.) late 

serius (adv.) rather late, too late

semper (adv.) always

simul (adv.) at the same time 

subito - suddenly 

statim - immidiately 

tum (adv.) at that time, then

sōl oriēns, sōlis orientis (m) rising sun, the East

sōl occidēns, sōlis orientis (m) the setting sun, the West

Phrases and Idioms 

multīs ante annīs - before by a few days 

paucīs post diēbus - after a few days 

quam diū = as long as 

quam diū?  How long? 

quam prīmum = as soon as possible 

ante lucem — before light 

eō ipsō tempore - at that very time

 illā ipsā nocte - on that very night 

paulō ante lucem - a little before dawin

longō post tempore - after a long time

tribus ante annīs = three years ago 

aliquō tempore - at some time

eōdem tempore - at the same time


Vocabulary List for The Reigns of Numa and Tullus

As part of the quiz be able to decline illa parva arx or id ferox animal

ago, agere, egi, actus- to do, to spend, to pass, to lead 

aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus - to open, to reveal 

capio, capere, cepi, captus - to take, to capture 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, to establish (A.U.C. = ab urbe condita

constituo, constituere - to decide + infinitive 

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought (+ complementary infinitive)  

facio, facere, feci, factus - to do, to make 

fio, fieri, factus sum-to be made, to happen, to become (fiat lux, ut fit) 

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to manage, wage; to wear

mitto, mittere, misi, missus - to send

lego, legere, legi, lectus - to choose, to pick; to read 

pugno (1) to fight 

pono, ponere, posui, positus - to put, to place

possum, posse, potui - to be able+ complementary infinitive 

reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditus - to give back, return 

servo (1) to save, preserve 

servio, servire - to serve + DATIVE CASE

sum, esse, fui, futurus - to be

supero (1) to suprass, to defeat

timeo, timere, timui - to fear

venio, venire, vēni, ventus - to come 

voco (1) to call

 

arma, -orum (n. pl.) weapons, arms 

ars, artis (f) skill, art

arx, arcis (f) citadel

ara, arae (f) altar

bellum, belli (n) war (gerere bellum = to wage war)

caedes, caedis (f) slaughter 

causa, causaae (f) reason, cause  (sine causā and amōris causā)

consilium, consiliī (n) plan 

diēs, diēī (m) day (per diem, carpe diem, hodie)

fīlius, fīlii (m) son 

imperium, -imperiī (n) power, command, the power to command (empire, imperial)

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier 

porta, -ae (f) gates; doors 

portus, -portūs (m) port, harbour

praeda, -ae (f) booty, plunder 

proelium, -ii (n) battle

rēs, reī (f) matter, situation, event, etc. (in medias res, res publica, De Rerum Natura

spes, speī (f) hope

 

Albanus, a, um - Alban 

audax, audacis (adj.) bold 

cunctus, a, um - all

ceteri, ceterae, cetera - the other(et cetera) 

ferox, ferocis (adj.) fierce 

fessus, a, um - weary, exhausted 

geminus, a, um - twin 

integer, integra, integrum - unhurt, untouched, unharmed 

laetus, a, um - happy

lectus, a, um - chosen

par, paris (adj.) equal (+ dative case)

pauci, paucae, pauca - few 

parvus, a, um - small (Dennis parva animalia mordet)

sōlus, a, um - alone (-ius variation paradigm)

tōtus, a, um - whole, entire, all (-ius variation paradigm)

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

autem (postpositive) however

neque…neque (conj.) neither…nor 

numquam (adv.) never

umquam (adv.) ever

vel...vel = either...or 

velut (adv.) just as

mox (adv.) soon

diū (adv.) for a long time

De Mulieribus Sabinis

aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus - to open

cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitutus - decide + complementary Infinitive 

capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take

do, dare, dedī, datus - to give 

eō, īre, iī, itūrus - to go (exit, perish, obituary)

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to do, to make 

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to become, to happen, to be made (copulative)  

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus - to bear, to bring, to carry, to endure (refer, confer, infer, translate, relate, collate, etc) Irregular verb but essentially 3rd conjugation 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee

fugō, fugāre, fugāvī, fugātus - to put to flight 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have 

inveniō, invenīre, invēnī, inventus  (in + venio) - to find (inventor, to discover) 

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order 

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus - to carry on, to wage, to manage, to wear, to do, to perform

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose; to read (election, select, lector) 

misceō, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmission, omit, transmit) 

quaerō, quaerere - to seek 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper paratus

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case 

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize

servō (1) to save, preserve, to protect (preservation) 

serviō (4) to serve + dative case 

spectō, spectāre - to watch, to look at

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come 

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call 

volō, velle, voluī - to wish, to want

ager, agrī (m) field 

bellum, belli (n) war (antebellum, bellicose) 

cīvitās, cīvitātis (f) city, citizen body 

consilium, -iī (n) plan 

cōpia, cōpiae (f) supply (in plural = troops, forces) 

dolus, dolī (m) trick 

donum, donī (n) gift 

līberī, līberōrum (m. pl.) children 

liber, librī (m) book 

locus, locī (n) place

ludus, ludī (m) game

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier 

mulier, mulieris (f) woman (mujer) 

populus, populī (m) people 

ōra, ōrae (f) shoreline, shore 

os, ossis (n) bone

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face

urbs, urbis (f) city

uxor, uxoris (f) wife

aequus, a, um -equal, fair, just; level 

altus, a, um - deep; high

acer, acris, acre - fierce 

audāx, audācis - bold

cīvilis, cīvile - of a citizen, civil

fortis, forte - brave strong

fīnitimus, a, um - neighboring 

gravis, grave - heavy, serious; mighty; pregnant 

fessus, a, um - weary,  tired

levis, leve - light, floating;  trivial (levitation)

laetus, a, um - happy

līber, lībera, līberum - free

omnis, omne - all 

paucī, paucae, pauca - few 

publicus, a, um - of the people, public 

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful 

crās (adv.) tomorrow

diū (adv.) for a long time 

heri (adv.) tomorrow

hodiē (adv.) today

hīc - in this place

hinc - from this place

hūc - to this place 

inter (prep. + acc.) between, among 

longē (adv.) far 

ob (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of

ōlim (adv.)  once, formerly 

quis?  Who? (interrogative pronoun) 

quid? What? (interrogative adjective) 

quō? (adv.) where? to where? 

quoque (adv.) also 

nōn sōlum…sed etiam - not only…but also

prope (prep. + acc.) near (propinquity) 

statim (adv.) immediately 

trāns (prep. + acc. ) across 

unde? - form where, whence (interrogative adv.) 

david sabine women .jpg







Aeneas Lavinium condit & De urbe Romana

abdō, abdere, abdidi, abditus - to hide 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead, to drive, to spend, to pass (action, agenda, agent, actor, 

apellō, apellāre, apellāvī, appellātus - to call, to name (copulative when passive) 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, to slaughter 

capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go; to yield (procede, antecedent, procession, recession) 

condō, condere, condidī, conditus - to found, to establish (ab urbe conditā = AUC

discēdō, discēdere, discessī, discessus (dis + cedo) - to depart, to scatter 

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (aqueduct, duct, reduction, induction, produce)

capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coactus (co + ago)  - to compel, to drive together

cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitutus - to set up, to arrange;  to decide + complementary infinitive 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to make, to do 

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus, a, um - to bear, to bring, to carry; to endure (odiferous, refer, confer, infer, relate, collate, elate, translate, etc.) 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (centrifuge, fugitive, refuge) 

iactō, iactāre, iactāvī, iactātus - to toss

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw 

inveniō, invenīre, invēnī, inventus  (in + venio) - to find (inventor, to discover) 

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order 

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus - to carry on, to wage, to manage, to wear, to do, to perform

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose; to read (election, select, lector) 

misceō, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmission, transmit) 

orō, orāre - to beg, pledge, to pray + acc. of person and acc. of thing (oration, orator) 

pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positus - to put, to place

porrigō, porrigere, prorēxī, prorēctus -  to stretch forth, hold forth, lift, to extend, (prō + regō)

quaerō, quaerere - to seek 

regō, regere, rexī, rectus - to rule; to guide (rector, rectum) 

relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus - to leave behind, abandon (relinquish)

respondeō, respondēre, respondī, responsus - to answer, to reply, to respond 

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to took at

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus - to known (science, omniscient) 

servō (1) to save, preserve, to protect (preservation) 

serviō (4) to serve + dative case 

timeō, temēre - to fear

terrō, terrēre, terruī, territus - to frighten, to terrify 

vocō (1) to call (advocate, vocation, evoke) 

volō, velle, voluī - to wish, to want (irregular in present system)  


arx, arcis (f) citadel 

amor, amōris (m) love; love affair (amorous) 

animāl, animālis (n) animal, living being 

cōpiā, cōpiae (f) abundance, supply; in plural = troops, forces (copious, cornucopia) 

colōnus, colōnī, (m) a cultivator or tiller; colonist

genus, generis (n) race, class, kind, type (sui generis, genre, genus, generic) 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan, family (Gens Iūlia = Julian clan) 

flūmen, flūminis (n) river 

mare, maris (n) sea (maritime)

mons, montis (m) mountain, hill 

nōmen, nōminis (n) name (noun, nomenclature)

nūmen, nūminis (n) divine power, divinity (numinous)

oppidum, oppidī (n) town, hill town

ōra, ōrae (f) shoreline, shore 

os, ossis (n) bone (ossify)

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face (oral)

odium, odiī (n) hatred

prŏfectĭo, prŏfectĭōnis (f) a going away, setting out, departure 

proelium, proeliī (n) battle 

sanguin, sanguinis (m) blood (sanguine) 

socius, sociī (m) ally

terra, terrae (f) land, earth 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife


aequus, a, um -equal, fair, just; level 

altus, a, um - deep; high

gravis, grave - heavy, serious; mighty; pregnant 

fessus, a, um - weary,  tired

levis, leve - light, floating;  trivial (levitation)

maximus, a, um - very great; the greatest 

insignis, insigne - marked, distinguished 

tōtus, a, um - whole, entire, all (-ius paradigm) 

tūtus, a, um - safe


diū (adv.) for a long time 

hīc - in this place

hinc - from this place

hūc - to this place 

inter (prep. + acc.) between, among 

longē (adv.) far 

ōlim (adv.)  once, formerly 

quis?  Who? (interrogative pronoun) 

quid? What? (interrogative adjective) 

quō? (adv.) where? to where? 

quoque (adv.) also 

nōn sōlum…sed etiam - not only…but also

prope (prep. + acc.) near (propinquity) 

statim (adv.) immediately 

trāns (prep. + acc. ) across 

unde? - form where, whence (interrogative adv.) 


Subordinating Conjunctions

dum - while 

postquam (subordinating conj.) afterward

quod - because 

ubi - when, where 


Coordinating Conjunctions

-que (enclitic) and 

-ve (enclitic) or

atque or ac = and, and also 

et - and 

dido dinar .jpg




Special Verbs that Govern the Dative 

appropinquō, appropinquāre (1) to approach + dat. (Taylor urbi nostrae appropinquat.)

imperō, imperāre, imperāvī, imperātus - to command (imperium, imperial, imperative, empire) + dative (Imperator tibi imparābit)

noceō, nocēre, nocuī - to harm + dat. (Ankitus Magnus mihi nocēbit.)

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dat. (semper parēte mihi)

studeō, studēre, studuī - to be eager for, to support (student) + dat.

Third Declension i-stem NOUNS

aedēs, aedis (f) in the singular = a temple; in plural = a dwelling, palace (edifice) 

ars, artis, artium (f.) art, skill (ars gratia artis

apis, apis (f) bee (apiary, apis mellifera) 

arx, arcis, arcium (f.) citadel 

auris, auris, aurium (f) ear (aural) 

avis, avis (f) bird (aviary, aviation) 

cīvis, cīvis, cīvium (m.& f.) citizen (sum cīvis Rōmānus, civics) 

cīvitās, cīvitātis, cīvitātium (f) citizen body, citizenship, state; city-state, nation 

cohors, cohortis, cohortium (f) cohort (of soldiers) 

caedēs, caedis caedium (f) slaughter 

clādēs, clādis, cladium (f.) defeat
dēns, dentis, dentium (m.) tooth (dental) 

fons, fontis, fontium (m) spring, fountain; source, origin (font, font of knowledge) 

fīnis, fīnis, fīnium (f.) end; pl. boundaries, territory (infinitive, infinity, define, definite

hostis, hostis, hostium (m.) enemy 

ignis, ignis, ignium (m) fire (igneous, ignite) 

mors, mortis, mortium (f.) death (postmortem)
mons, montis, montium (m) hill, mountain

mōlēs, mōlis, mōlium (f.) mass, structure (mole)

mensis, mensis, mensium (m) month 

navis, navis, navium (f) ship (navigate) 

nox, noctis, noctium (f.) night (nocturnal) 

nūbēs, nūbis (f) a cloud, storm 

pars, partis, partium (f.) part, share, side, direction, faction (tripartite, party)
piscis, piscis, piscium (m) fish (Pisces) 

pōns, pontis, pontium (f) bridge 

Tiberis, Tiberis (m) Tiber river (flūmen, flūminis) 

trĭdens, trĭdentis (tri+ dens, dentis) - three-pronged, tridented, trident

urbs, urbis, urbium (f.) city (urban, urbane)

Neuter “i”stem nouns

animal, animālis, animālium (n.) animal 

calcar, calcaris (n) spur 

exemplar, exemplaris, exemplarium (n.) model, pattern (exemplar) 

mare, maris (n) sea (ab marī usque ad mare; maritime; El Mare

vīs, vis (f) force; vīrēs, vīrium (f. pl) strength 

One Termination 3rd Declension Adj.

atrōx, atrōcis - cruel, fierce (atrocity)

audāx, audācis -  bold, audacious

fēlīx, fēlicis - fruitful, fortunate, lucky, happy, blessed  

ferōx, ferōcis - wild; impetuous; ferocious, fiery, fierce (ferocious) 

infēlīx, infēlicis - unfortunate, ill-fated

ingens, ingentis - huge 

par, paris - equal (prīmus inter parēs) 

prūdēns. prūdentis - knowing, skilled, experienced, versed, practiced in a thing (Jurisprudence) 

potēns, potentis - powerful (potent, impotent, omnipotent) 

recēns, rēcentis - fresh, recent 

sapiēns, sapientis - wise, knowing, sensible (homo sapiēns)

vetus, veteris - old (veteran, inveterate) 

Two Termination 3rd Declension Adj.

brevis, breve (2 term. 3rd. decl.) - short, brief (brevity) 

cīvīlis, cīvīlie - pertaining to the citizen; civil, civic (Dē Bellō Cīvīlī

crūdēlis, crūdēle - cruel, ruthless, inhuman

difficilis, difficile - difficult 

dulcis, dulce - sweet (dulcet) 

fidēlis, fidēle -  faithful (semper fidelis, fidelity)
fortis, forte - brave, strong (fortitude) 

facilis, facile - easy (facile) 

gravis, grave - heavy, serious (gravity, grave, gravitas) 

levis, leve - light, trivial (levitation) 

mitis, mite - mild, gentle, soft, ripe (mitigate) 

mollis, molle - soft (mollify) 

mortālis, mortāle - liable to death, mortal

nōbilis, nōbile - distinguished, noble 

lenis, lene - gentle

omnis, omne - all, every (omniscient, omnibus) 

pinguis, pingue - fat

similis, simile - similar + dative or genitive case 

tristis, triste - sad 

tenuis, tenue - slim, slender, thin, meager; shallow  

turpis, turpe - vile, disgraceful, ugly, shameful (turpitude)

viridis, viride - green (verdant) 

Three Termination 3rd Declension Adj.

acer, acris, acre - fierce, harsh, sharp (acrid)

celer, celeris, celere -swift, fast, quick (celerity)

Here is the list for the 3rd declension Consonant stem nouns. STOP WHEN YOU SEE BRUCE.

apppropinquō, appropinquāre - to approach + DATIVE (propinquity) 

clamō, clamāre, clamāvī, clamātus - to shout (exclamation) 

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus - to run (current, curriculum, course) 

deleō, delēre, delēvī, delētus - to destroy (delete) 

desiderō, desiderāre - to desire 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus - to teach (docent, doctor, doctrine, indoctrinate)

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (aqueduct, duke, reduce, induce, conduct)

noceō, nocēre, nocuī - to harm + DATIVE

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper paratus)

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + DATIVE

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus - to carry (transport, to carry) 

possum, posse, potuī - to be able + complementary infinitive (potential)

regnō, regnāre - to reign 

temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus - to try + complementary infinitive



aequor,  aequoris (n) level surface, sea, plain (equal)

aetās, aetātis (f) age, time of life (eternity, eternal, aetās aurea

aestās, aestātis (f) summer (estival)

amor, amōris (m) love (amorous, amatory) 

arbor, arboris (f) tree (arborist sp: arbol

bellātrīx, bellātrīcis (f) a female warrior

canis, canis (m/f) dog (canine, cavē canem) 

caput, capitis (n) head (decapitate, capitol) 

carmen, carminis (n) song, poem (charm) 

celeritās, celeritātis (f) speed (celerity) 

cīvitās, cīvitātis (f) citizenship, city-state, nation (civic, civilization)

cīvis, cīvis (m) citizen (this is an “i” stem 3rd decl. noun) 

coniunx coniugis (m./f): spouse, husband, wife (con + iungo)

consul, consulis (m) consul = chief elected magistrate of Roman Republic

cor, cordis (n) heart (discord, concord)

corpus, corporis (n) body (corpus, corporal, corpse, corporation) 

dux, ducis (m) leader (duke, Doge) 

eques, equitis (m) horseman, knight (equestrian)

error, errōris (m) wandering; error, mistake (erroneous)

flōs, flōris (m) flower (floral) 

flūmen, flūminis (n) river

fōns, fontis (m) spring, fountain (font of knowledge)

frāter, frātris (m) brother (fratricide, fraternal, fraternity) 

fulmen, fulminis (n) lightening, thunderbolt (fulminate) 

fūnus, fūneris (n) death, funeral 

furor, furōris (m) rage, fury 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan (Gens Romana, Gens Iulia)

genus, generis (n) kind (genus, sui generis

grex, gregis (f) flock (egregious, gregarious)

hostis, hostis (m) enemy (-i stem noun) 

homo, hominis (m) man, human begin (homo sapiens, homo erectus, ad hominem, homo novus) 

imperātor, imperatōris (m) commander, general (emperor) 

iter, itineris (n) journey, route, march (itinerary, itinerant) 

iudex, iudicis (m) judge (judicial, judge)

legiō, legiōnis (f) legion (largest unit of Roman army,  3600-6000 milites)

labor, labōris (m) work, labor) 

lībertās, lībertātis (f) liberty, freedom 

līmen, līminis (n) threshold, doorway (liminal)

lītus, lītoris (n) sea shore, beach (littoral)

līs, lītis (f) strife, contest, dispute (litigious, litigation)

lūmen, lūminis (n) light; eyes (illuminate) 

lūx, lūcis (f) light (fiat lux, Lucifer) 

mater, matris (f) mother (material, matriarch)

mēns mentis (f) mind (mens sana in corore 

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier (military, militant) 

mōlēs, mōlis (f) mass, burden, weight (mole) 

mons, montis (m) mountain (i-stem)

mōs, mōris (m) habit, custom (mores, morals, mos maiorum

mors, mortis (f) death (mortal, immortal) 

multĭtūdo, multĭtūdĭnis (f) a great number, multitude

mulier, mulieris (f) woman (sp. mujer)

mūnus, mūneris (n) duty, function, serviceō

mūs, mūris (m/f) a mouse ( derivative = muscle; cognate = mouse). 

nōmen, nōminis (n) name (noun, nomenclature) 

nūmen, nūminis (n) divine authority (numinous) 

ops, opis (f) influence, power, resources (opulent)

opus, operis (n) work, task, labor (magnum opus, opera) 

orbis, orbis (m) circle, disk, orb (orb, orbit, orbital, orbis terrārum

ordō, ordinis (m) order, rank, class, row (order, ordinal) 

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face (oral, orifice)

os, ossis (n) bone (ossify)

pastor, pastōris (m) shepherd 

pater, patris (m) father (paternal, patriarch, paterfamilias

pāvō, pāvōnis (m) peacock 

pāx, pācis (f) peace (Pax Romana, pacify) 

pēs, pedis (m) foot (pedal, pedestrian, pedestal) 

pietās, piētātis (f) familial devotion, loyalty (piety) devotion country, gods and family 

pons, pontis (m) bridge (Pontifex Maximus) Don’t confuse with pontus, ponti (m)

princeps, principis (m) leader, chief; emperor (prince)

rēx, rēgis (m) king (Oedipus Rex) 

salūs, salūtis (f) healthy, safely, salvation (salutation)

soror, sorōris (f) sister (sorority) 

sōl, sōlis (m) sun (solar) 

tempestās, tempestātis (f) storm, season, weather (tempest) 

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal, temporary, tense) 

tellūs, tellūris (f) earth, mother earth

tridēns, tridentis (m/f) (trēs + dēns), three-pronged, trident

uxor, uxōris (f) wife (uxorius) 

urbs, urbis (f) city (this is an “i” stem 3rd decl. noun) 

vōx, vōcis (f) voice (vociferous, vox populi

vēritās, vēritātis (f) truth (veracity, in vino veritas) 

victor, victōris (m) conqueror (victor, victorious) 

virgō, virginis (f) maiden (Virgo, virgin, virginal) 

virtūs, virtūtis (f) courage, valour, virtus (virtue, virtuous) 

voluntās, voluntātis (f) wish, desire


voluptās, voluptātis  (f) pleasure, enjoyment (voluptuous)

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound (vulnerable) 

WHERE IS BRUCE?

IMG_2045.jpg

ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī, ambulātus - to walk (ambulatory) 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus - to teach (docent, doctor)

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have, to hold (habitual, Fr. avoir;  It. avere, Sp.  haber)

mōnstrō, mōnstrāre, mōnstrāvī, mōnstrātus - to show (demonstrate, domonstrative)

mordeō, mordēre, momordī, morsus - to bit (mordant, morsel) 

mūtō, mutāre, mutāvī, mutātus - to change (mutation, mutant)

necō, necāre, necāvī, necātus - to kill 

negō, negāre, negāvī, negātus - to deny, say no to (negate, negation) 

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus - to fight (pugnacious, pugnacious Dan Brown)

pendeō, pendēre, pependī, pensus - to hang (pendent, pendulum)

respondeō, respondēre, respondī, responsus - to respond

temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus - to attempt

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call (invoke, evocative, invocation, vocation)

simulō, simulāre, simulāvī, simulātus - to simulate



Nouns of the Second Declension

ager, agrī (m) field, farmland (agriculture) 

magister, magistrī (m) master, teacher

liber, librī (m) book (ex librīs) 

puer, puerī (m) boy (puerile) 

vir, virī (m) man; hero; husband (virile) 



amīcus, amīcī (m) friend (amicable) 

animus, animī (m) soul, mind, spirit (animation, animate, inanimate)

campus, campī (m) plain (campus) 

cibus, cibī (m) food

dominus, dominī (m) master, lord ( dominus et deus) 

deus, deī (m) god (deus = vocative case) Deus ex Machinā, deify, 

discipulus, discipulī (m) student (disciple) 

dolus, dolī (m) trick, deception 

equus, equī (m) horse (equine) 

fīlius, fīliī (m) son (filial) 

gladius, gladiī (m) sword (gladiator) 

hortus, hortī (n) garden (horticulture) 

inimīcus, inimīcī (m) personal enemy (inimical) 

iocus, iocī (m) joke (jocular) 

modus, modī (m) way, method; measure (mode)

mundus, mundī (m) world, universe (spiritus mundi)

mūrus, mūrī (n) wall (intramural, mural) 

nasus, nasī (m) nose (nasal) 

numerus, numerī (m) number (numerus) 

oculus, oculī (m) eye (ocular) 

pontus,  pontī (m) the sea; the deep

populus, populī (m) people (SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus

servus, servī (m) slave, servant (servile) 

socius, sociī (m) ally (social, society) 

somnus, somnī (m) sleep (insomnia) 



humus, humī (f) ground (exhume, inhumation) 



aedificium, aedificiī (n) a building 

aevum,  aevī (n) age, period of time, time (medieval) 

astrum, astrī (n) star; constellation 

aurum, aurī (n) gold (AU) 

auxilium, auxiliī (n) help, aid (auxiliary) 

atrium, atriī (n) atrium, central room in a Roman domus/house

caelum, caelī (n) sky, heaven (ceiling) 

consilium, consiliī (n) plan, advice, strategy 

basium, basiī (n) kiss

dōnum, dōnī (n) gift (donation) 

bellum, bellī (n) war (bellicose, belligerent, antebellum) 

ferrum, ferrī (n) iron; sword (FE)

forum, forī (n) forum, public square

initium, initiī (n) beginning (initial, initiate) 

membrum, membrī (n) limb 

officium, officiī (n) duty (official, office, officious) 

odium, odiī (n) hatred (odium) 

oppidum, oppidī (n) town, hill town 

otium, otiī (n) leisure (negotiate) 

periculum, periculī (n) danger (peril)

pīlum, pīlī (n) spear, javalin

pomum, pomī (n) fruit, apple

proelium, proeliī (n) battle 

imperium, imperiī (n) power, command; empire (imperial, empire) 

regnum, regnī (n) kingdom; kingship; royal power

remedium, remediī (n) cure

saxum, saxī (n) rock 

scūtum, scūtī (n) shield

signum, signī (n) sign, signal; battle standard 

studium, studiī (n) zeal, eagerness; study, pursuit 

tectum, tectī (n) roof; building 

tēlum, tēlī (n) spear; weapon 

templum, templī (n) sacred space, shrine; temple 

verbum, verbī (n) word (verb, verbal, verbose) 

vinculum, vinculī (n) chain, bond


First/Second Declension Adjectives


aequus, a, um - equal, fair, just

amīcus, a, um - friendly (+ dative case)

altus, a, um - high, lofty, deep 

aeneus, a, um - bronze 

argenteus, a, um - silver 

aureus, a, um - golden 

carus, a, um - dear (+ dative case) 

clārus, a, um - bright, famous, illustrius

cūnctus, a, um  - all taken together; all in a body; all, the whole

dīvus, a, um -  divine; godlike

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh

ferreus, a, um - iron, made of iron 

foedus, a, um - ugly, disgraceful

formōsus, a, um - shapely, beautiful 

inimīcus, -a, -um - hostile, unfriendly (+ dative case) 

immēnsus, a, um - unmeasured; boundless; vast, immense

latus, a, um - wide

magnus, a, um - great 

obscūrus, a, um - dim, dark, dusky, obscure

paucī, paucae, pauca (plural) a few, few

parvus, a, um - small

periculōsus, a, um - dangerous 

prŏfundus, a, um - deep, profound, vast

saevus, a, um - savage, cruel

tūtus, a, um - safe

varius , a, um -  diversified, manifold, various



dexter, dextera, dexterum - right

līber, lībera, līberum - free

miser, misera, miserum - poor, wretch, miserable 

noster, nostra, nostrum - our (possessive adjective) 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful

sinister, sinistra, sinstrum - left


Prepositions Governing Ablative Case:

Sub - under (place where at)

In - in, on (place where at) 

- down from, about, concerning (place where from)

Sine - without (sinecure) 

Prō - on behalf of, instead of, in front of 

Ab (ā) - from, by (place where from)

Cum - with (accompaniment or manner) 

Ex (ē) - from, out of (place where from)


Prepositions Governing the Accusative Case:


ante - before (antebellum)

post - after (post mortem) 

ad - to, toward, against (ab marī usque ad mare, ad hominem

contra - against (contradict

circum - around (circumvent

per - through, along (per diem

in - into, against 

sub - under (going) 

trans - across (transfer) 

arachne and minerva.jpg





On the quiz you will complete the dictionary entry with the English meaning(s) and give the case governed for prepositions.

Feminine First Declension Words

amīcitia, amīcitiae (f) friendship

aquila, aquilae (f) eagle 

aqua, aquae (f) water 

amīca, amīcae (f) friend (female) 

audācia, audāciae (f) boldness, audacity

cauda, caudae (f) tail (of an animal)

causa, causae (f) cause, reason; trial 

copia, copiae (f) supply, abundance

cura, curae (f) care, worry, anxiety 

dea, deae (f) goddess 

domina, dominae (f) mistress of domus

fābula, fābulae (f) story 

fāma, fāmae (f) rumor, story, report

fēmina, fēminae (f) woman

forma, formae (f) sharp, beauty 

fortūna, fortūnae (f) luck, fortune 

fīlia, fīliae (f) daughter 

glōria, glōriae (f) glory, fame, renown 

grātia, grātiae (f) favour, influence, charm, thanks

hōra, hōrae (f) hour

insula, insulae (f) island; apartment building 

invidia, invidiae (f) jealousy, envy, spite 

iānua, iānuae (f) door

īra, īrae (f) anger 

laetitia, laetitiae (f) joy

lūna, lūnae (f) moon

mātrona, mātronae (f) lady

mensa, mensae (f) table

mora, morae (f) delay

nympha, nymphae (f) nymph

patria, patriae (f) fatherland 

pecūnia, pecūniae (f) money

potentia, potentiae (f) power

porta, portae (f) gate

prudentia, prudentiae (f) wisdom, prudence 

prōvincia, prōvinciae (f) province 

puella, puellae (f) girl 

rāna, rānae (f) frog

rēgīna, rēgīnae (f) queen 

rēgia, rēgiae (f) palace

rosa, rosae (f) rose

terra, terrae (f) land

sagitta, sagittae (f) arrow

silva, silvae (f) forest 

sīmia, sīmiae (f) monkey 

stella, stellae (f) star 

superbia, superbiae (f) arrogance 

umbra, umbrae (f) shadow, shade, ghost

ursa, ursae (f) bear

via, viae (f) road, path

vīta, vītae (f) life 

 

Masculine First Declension Worlds

auriga, aurigae (m) charioteer 

poēta, poētae (m) poet

pīrata, pīratae (m) pirate

incola, incolae (m) tenant, inhabitant 

agricola, agricolae (m) farmer

nauta, nautae (m) sailor 

 

First/Second Declension Adjectives 

aureus, a, um - golden

bonus, a, um - good 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh

ferus, a, um - wild

formōsus, a, um - beautify, shapely 

laetus, a, um - happy 

lentus, a, um - slow

līber, lībera, līberum - free

miser, misera, miserum - poor, wretched 

malus, a, um -bad

magnus, -a, um - great

multus, a, um - many 

parvus, a, um - small 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful 

saevus, a, um - savage

tardus, a, um - slow, late

 

Possessive Adjectives

meus, a, um - my

tuus, a, um - your (singular) 

noster, nostra, nostrum - our

vester, vestra, vestrum - your (plural)

 

Prepositions Governing Ablative Case:

Sub - under (place where)

In - in, on (place where) 

- down from, about, concerning

Sine - without (sinecure) 

Prō - on behalf of, instead of, in front of 

Ab (ā) - from, by 

Cum - with

Ex (ē) - from, out of 

 

Prepositions Governing the Accusative Case:

ad - to, toward

per - through, along

in - into

sub - under (going) 

trans - across




The_Abduction_of_Europa,_Jean-François_de_Troy.jpg
  1. List One: Essential Latin Verbs to Know and Love 

amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus - to love (amatory, amorous) 

do, dare, dedī, datus - to give (data) 

errō, errāre, errāvī, errātus - to wander; to err (error, aberrant) 

habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātus - to dwell, to live (inhabit) 

laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus  -to praise (laud, summa cum laude

narrō, narrāre, narrāvī, narrātus - to tell (narrative, narrator) 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus - to carry (transport) 

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus - to fight (pugnacious) 

regnō, regnāre, regnāvī, regnātus - to reign; to rule (reign) 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to save (preservation) 

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to watch, to look at (spectator, inspection) 

stō, stāre, stetī, status (Sp: estoy; substantive, status quo

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call (advocate, evoke, convocation, vocation) 




dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus - owe; ought + complementary infinitive 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus  -to teach (docent, doctor, indoctrinate) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus  - to have (avoir, avere, haber

maneō, manēre, mansī, mansus - to remain, to stay (permanent, remain)

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise (admonition, admonish, monitor) 

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move (movable, motion, terramota

sedeō, sedēre, sēdī - to sit (sedentary, sediment, sedimentary) 

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possess (tenacious) 

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see (video, vision)







agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead (agent, agenda, action) 

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus - to run (current, curriculum; Sp: correr

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus   - to say (dictation, dictionary)

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (duct, aqueduct, conduct, produce) 

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to chose; to read (lecture, election, selection) 

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmit, mission) 

pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positus - to put, to place (exponent, position) 

trahō, trahere, traxī, tractus - to pull, to drag (tractor, attraction) 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (invincible, veni, vidi, vici)

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live (vivacious) 




capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture (captive, capture, caption, reception) 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus  - to do, to make (fact, manufacture) 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (refugee, fugitive, centrifuge) 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (reject, object, inject)            

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize (rapacious, rapture, rapine, raptor) 



aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus - to open (aperture; abierto, abrir)                 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear (audio, audible, audit, audition) 

saliō, salīre, saluī, saltus - to leap, to jump (salient) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus (sensitive, sentient) 

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus - to know (omniscient, science) 

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (Sp: venir; advent, adventure; veni, vidi, vici)              

         

possum, posse, potuī - to be able (potis + sum) + complementary infinitive

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - to be (ser in Spanish; future)



Commodus Hercules _Musei_Capitolini_MC1120.jpg




Tarquinius Priscus Vocabulary List

abeo, abire - to go away (ab + eo, ire)

adeo, adire - to approach  (ad + eo, ire)

ago, agere, egi, actus - to lead, to do, to pass, to spend 

amo, amare, amavi, amatus - to love (amatory, Amanda)

audio, audire, audivi, auditus - to hear

augeo, augere, auxi, auctus - to increase (augment, augmentation) 

discedo, discedere, discessi, discessus, a, um - to depart, to scatter 

do, dare, dedi, datus - to give (data) 

eo, ire, ii, iturus - to go

exeo, exire - to go out (exit) 

facio, facere, feci, factus - to make, to do (hacer in spanish) 

fio, fieri, factus sum - to be made, to become, to happen (copulative verb)

iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussus - to order (+ accusative + infinitive) 

mitto, mittere, misi, missus - to send (transmit, transmission) 

pereo, perire, perii, periturus - to perish (per + eo) 

possum, posse, potui - to be able + complementary infinitive 

pono, ponere, posui, positus - to place, to put

regno, regnare, regnavi, regnatus - to reign 

teneo, tenere, tenui, tentus - to hold, to possesses (tenacious) 

sum, esse, fui, futurus - to be (copulative verb)

venio, venire, veni, venturus, a, um - to come (advent; veni, vidi, vici)

video, videre, vidi, visus, a, um - to see (video, vision) 

videor, videri, visus sum - to seem (copulative verb) with dative of reference

volo, volare, volavi, volatus - to fly (volatile)  

volo, velle, volui - to wish, to want + complementary infinitive

 

animal, animalis (n) animal 

aquila, aquilae (f) eagle (aquiline) 

caput, capitis (n) head (decapitate, capital) 

civis, civis (m) citizen 

civitas, civitatis (f) citizenship, citizen body, nation, state

dea, deae (f) goddess

deus, dei (m) god

impetus, impetūs (m) attack (impetuous) 

locus, loci (m) place (locus

mare, maris (n) sea (marine, maritime; ab mari usque ad mare

mors, mortis (f) death (postmortem) 

patria, patriae (f) fatherland (dulce et decorum est pro patria mori) 

populus, populi (m) people (vox populi, SPQR = Senatus Populusque Romanus)

prudentia, prudentiae (f) foresight, intelligence (prudence) 

regnum, regni (n) kingdom, kingship, royal power 

rex, regis (m) king

urbs, urbis (f) city (i-stem) (urban, urbane, suburban) 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife (uxorius) 

verbum, verbi (n) word

vir, viri (m) man, hero; husband (virile)

vita, vitae (vital signs, CV= curriculum vitae)

 

ego, mei, mihi, me, me - I, me

tu, tui, tibi, te, te - you

nos, nostri, nobis, nos, nobis - we, us

vos, vestri, vobis, vos, vobis - you (plural) 

------ suī, sibi, sē, sē (reflective pronoun) himself, herself, itself, themselves

acer, acris, acre - fierce, sharp, bitter 

Roman writing utensils and money fresco .jpg

amicus, a, um - friendly (+ dative)

audax, audacis (1 termination 3rd. adj.) bold, audacious 

brevis, brevis, breve - short, brief (brevity)

celer, celeris, celere - fast, swift

fortis, fortis, forte - brave, strong 

ingens, ingentis (1 termination 3rd. adj.) huge 

inimicus, a, um - hostile, unfriendly (+ dative) 

iratus, a, um - angry 

laetus, a, um - happy

novus, a, um - new, strange, novel 

peregrinus, a, um - foreign, strange (peregrination, peregrine falcon) 

repentinus, a, um - sudden 

tristis, tristis, triste - sad

 

autem (postpostive particle) however, moreover 

enim (postpostive particle) for, indeed, in fact 

diu (adv.) for a long time 

diutius (comp. adv.) for a longer time

diutissime (superlative adv.) for the longest time

cum (subordinating conj.) when + indicative mood 

dum (subordinating conj.) while + indicative mood 

igitur (postpostive particle) therefore

itaque (adv.) and so 

mox (adv.) soon 

numquam (adv.) never

olim (adv.) once, once upon at time, long ago

post (prep. + acc.) after 

quō (adv.) where, to where

quod (subordinating conj.) because 

super (prep. + acc.) above

semper (adv.) always (sic semper Tyrannis) 

sine (prep. + ablative) without (sinecure) 

ubi (subordinating conj.) when, where

umquam - ever

List for Dei Deaeque Romanorum and Alii Dei Deaeque

Be able to decline  hic gravis liber  or  haec magna res

Lar, Laris (m) deity in Lararium (there a two painted on the classroom wall) 

 

accipio, accipere, accepi, acceptus  (ad + capio) - to take, to receive, to accept 

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to recognize, to know, to learn 

conservō (1) to perserve, to conserve (conservative) 

consulō, consulere - to consult 

dō, dāre, dedī, datus - to give (data) 

donō, donāre - to gift, to give 

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus - to wear; to wage; to do; to accomplish; to manage (Res Gestae

habitō (1) to dwell, to live (habitation, inhabit) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have, to hold, to consider 

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to read; to pick, to chose (election, elect)  

regō, regere, rexi, rectus - to rule; to guide 

superō, superāre, superāvī, superātus - to defeat, surpass, to conquer 

scribō, scribere, scripsī, scriptus - to write 

terrō, terrēre, terruī, territus - to frighten, to terrify 

vocō (1) to call 

 

auctor, auctoris (m) author

auctoritās, auctoritātis (f) authority 

ager, agrī (m) field (agrarian) 

amor, amoris (m) love 

beneficium, -iī (n) benefit, kindness, favour 

caelum, caelī (n) sky, heaven (ceiling) 

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason; case

cibus, -ī (m) food 

equus, -ī (m) horse (equine) 

exercitus, -ūs (m) army (4th declension) 

focus, focī (m) hearth (focus, focal) 

fulmen, fulminis (n) thunder bolt, lighten bolt 

frumentum, -ī (n) crop; grain, wheat

homo, hominis (m) man (homo sapiens, homo erectus) 

ignis, ignis (m) fire (igneous, ignite) 

locus, locī (m) place

natūra, -ae (f) nature 

numerus, -ī (m) number 

nuntius, -iī (m) messenger; message 

liber, librī (m) book 

līberī, līberōrum (m. pl.) children 

officium, -iī (n) duty (officious

pars, partis (f) part 

pugna, -ae (f) fight, battle 

sapientia, sapientiae (f) wisdom 

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal)

unda, -ae (f) wave (undulation) 

vīta, vītae (f) life (curriculum vitae) 

 

facilis, facile - easy 

familiaris. familiare (adj.) of the family 

- free

malus, a, um - bad, evil 

nullus, a, um - no (-ius paradigm)

parvus, a, um - small 

paucī, -ae, -a - a few 

par, paris (one term. 3rd dec. adj.) equal (primus inter pares)

relinquus, a, um - the rest, the remaining 

sacer, sacra, sacrum - sacred, holy (sacrificial) 

sōlus, a, um - alone (-ius paradigm)

tōtus, a, um - whole, entire (-ius paradigm)

varius, a, um - various

ullus, a, um - any (-ius paradigm) 

 

quī, quae, quod - (relative pronoun) who, whose, whom, which, etc. 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same (is, ea, id + dem)

etiam (et) - even, also 

fortasse (adv.) perhaps 

inter (prep. + acc.) between, among (prīmus inter parēs

nam - for 

quondam (adv.) at one time, once 

tamen - nevertheless, however 

verē (adv.) truly 

 

prīmus inter parēs = first among equals 

ipsō factō - by the deed itself

Eō ipsō tempore - at this very moment

Vocabulary List for The Reigns of Numa and Tullus

ago, agere, egi, actus- to do, to spend, to pass, to lead 

aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus - to open, to reveal 

capio, capere, cepi, captus - to take, to capture 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, to establish (A.U.C. = ab urbe condita

constituo, constituere - to decide + infinitive 

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought (+ complementary infinitive)  

facio, facere, feci, factus - to do, to make 

fio, fieri, factus sum-to be made, to happen, to become (fiat lux, ut fit) 

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to manage, wage; to wear

mitto, mittere, misi, missus - to send

lego, legere, legi, lectus - to choose, to pick; to read 

pugno (1) to fight 

pono, ponere, posui, positus - to put, to place

possum, posse, potui - to be able+ complementary infinitive 

reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditus - to give back, return 

servo (1) to save, preserve 

servio, servire - to serve + DATIVE CASE

sum, esse, fui, futurus - to be

supero (1) to suprass, to defeat

timeo, timere, timui - to fear

venio, venire, vēni, ventus - to come 

voco (1) to call

 

arma, -orum (n. pl.) weapons, arms 

ars, artis (f) skill, art

arx, arcis (f) citadel

ara, arae (f) altar

bellum, belli (n) war (gerere bellum = to wage war)

caedes, caedis (f) slaughter 

causa, causaae (f) reason, cause  (sine causā and amōris causā)

consilium, consiliī (n) plan 

diēs, diēī (m) day (per diem, carpe diem, hodie)

fīlius, fīlii (m) son 

imperium, -imperiī (n) power, command, the power to command (empire, imperial)

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier 

porta, -ae (f) gates; doors 

portus, -portūs (m) port, harbour

praeda, -ae (f) booty, plunder 

proelium, -ii (n) battle

rēs, reī (f) matter, situation, event, etc. (in medias res, res publica, De Rerum Natura

spes, speī (f) hope

 

Albanus, a, um - Alban 

audax, audacis (adj.) bold 

cunctus, a, um - all

ceteri, ceterae, cetera - the other(et cetera) 

ferox, ferocis (adj.) fierce 

fessus, a, um - weary, exhausted 

geminus, a, um - twin 

integer, integra, integrum - unhurt, untouched, unharmed 

laetus, a, um - happy

lectus, a, um - chosen

par, paris (adj.) equal (+ dative case)

pauci, paucae, pauca - few 

parvus, a, um - small (Dennis parva animalia mordet)

sōlus, a, um - alone (-ius variation paradigm)

tōtus, a, um - whole, entire, all (-ius variation paradigm)

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

autem (postpositive) however

neque…neque (conj.) neither…nor 

numquam (adv.) never

umquam (adv.) ever

vel...vel = either...or 

velut (adv.) just as

mox (adv.) soon

diū (adv.) for a long time

Domestic Architecture & Domestic Existence for Mortal Romans

accumbō, accumbere, accubuī, accubitus - to lay one's self down

bibō, bibere, bibī  - to drink (imbibe) 

cēnō cēnāre -  to dine, take a meal, eat dinner

cubō, cubere, cŭbŭi, cŭbìtúm - to recline  

dormiō, dormīre, dormīvī, dormītus - to sleep (dormant) 

sedeō, sedēre, sedī, sessus - to sit (obsession) 

 

Architecture

atrium, atriī (n) atrium 

columna, -ae (f) column, pillar 

conpluvium, conpulviī (n) pool below impluvium

culina, culinae (f) kitchen 

cubilcum, cubiculī (n) bedroom

domus, domūs (f) house

    domī = at home

    domō = from home (place from           

                   which)

    domum = (to) home (acc. of motion 

             toward) 

fauces, faucium (f. pl.) entrance hall

fons, fontis (m) fountain, string (font) 

hortus, hortī (m) garden (horticulture) 

ianua, ianuae (f) door (Janus) 

impluvium, impulviī (n) opening in roof of atrium

latrina, latrinae (f) bathroom 

lararium, -iī (n) household shrine 

līmen, līminis (n) theshold

peristylum, peristylī (n) colonnaded garden 

porticus, porticūs (f) a covered walk between columns, colonnade, arcade, gallery, porch,

triclinium, tricliniī (n) dining room 

tablinum, tablinī (n) tablinum 

tēctum, -ī (n) roof, building; palace

villa, villae (f) country house 

   villa rustica

   villa maritima

   villa suburbana

 

Things

 

aestas, aestatis (f) summer 

imagō, imaginis (f) portrait, mask  

lar, laris (m) a lar, domestic deity 

mensa, mensae (f) table

negotium, negotiī (n) business, work 

otium, otiī (n) leisure 

penates, penatium (m. pl) household gods

pictura, picturae (f) picture 

 

 

cliens, clientis (m) client 

patronus, patronī (m) patron 

salutātiō, salutātionis (f) morning salutation 

statua, statuae (f) statue 

 

People

ancilla, ancillae (f) female servant, handmade

avis, avis (f) bird (aviary) 

avus, avī (m) grandfather 

avia, aviae (f) grandmother 

anus ,anūs (f) an old woman

avunculus, -ī (m) uncle (avuncular) 

bulla, bullae (f) amulet worn by a Roman boy

canis, canis (m/f) dog (cavē canem) 

coquus, coquī (m) cook

custōs, custōdis (m) guard 

domina, dominae (f) mistress of the household 

dominus, dominī (m) master of the household 

gens, gentis (f) clan, family, race 

genus, generis (n) origin, lineage; kind 

glis, glīris  (m) a dormouse (food)

mater, matris (f) mother

   materfamilias

pater, patris (m) father

    paterfamilias 

patruus, patruī, (m) uncle

māiōrēs, māiōrum (pl. m.) ancestors 

maritus, maritī (m) husband 

matrona, matronae (f) female head of household, mother of a family

mūs, mūris (m/f) a mouse (muscle) 

familia, familiae (f) household, family 

fīlius, fīliī (m) son 

fīlia, fīliae (f) daughter (dat./abl. pl.  fīlabus)

frater, fratris (m) brother 

līber, līberī (m) child 

natus, natī (m) son

natā, natae (f) daughter 

nōmen, nōminis (n) name 

parens, parentis (m/f) parent 

soror, sororis (f) sister

servus, servī (m) servant, slave 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife 

 

Furinture

mensa, mensae (f) table 

lectica, -ae (f) bed

sella, -ae (f) chair

torus, torī (m) a bed, couch

 

Meals

ientācŭlum, ientācŭlī (n) a breakfast, taken immediately after rising

cēna, cēnae (f) dinner

prandium, -iī (n) a late breakfast, luncheon

triclinium .jpg

 

Pyramus et Thisbe Vocabulary List

bibō, bibere, bibī (bibulous, imbibe) - to drink 

clāmō (1) call out, to shout, cry out (exclamation, exclamatory) 

crescō, crescere, crēvī, cretus - to increase, to grow, to rise (crescendo, crescent moon) 

fallō, fallere, fefellī, falsus - to deceive (false, fallacious, fallacy) 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (refugee, centrifuge, centrifugal) 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (eject, inject, reject) 

iaceō, iacēre, iacuī - to lie (adjacent) 

prohibeō, prohibēre, prohibuī, prohibitus (pro + habeo) - to forbid, to prevent (prohibition

quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesitus - to ask, seek, inquire (question) 

quaesō, quaesere - to seek, to beg

relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus - to leave behind (relinquish) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus - to sense, feel, perceive, to think (sensitive, sentient) 

temptō (1) to attempt (temptation

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possesses (tenacious) 

optō (1) wish for (optative, option) 

IRREGULAR VERBS: 

eō, īre, iī or ivi, itūrus, a, um - go (spanish ir

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to happen, to become (copulative verb)

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus, a, um - to bring, bear, endure (confer, transfer, translate, relate, refer, etc.) 

volō, velle, voluī - to want, to wish + complementary Infinitive (volition) 

malō, malle, maluī - to prefer (magis + volo) + complementary Infinitive (magis + volo)

nolō, nolle, noluī, - to not want (non + volo) + complementary Infinitive (non + volo)

possum, posse, potuī - to be able + complementary Infinitive (potis + sum)

sum, esse fuī, futūrus, a, um - to be (copulative verb)

 

amāns, amantis (f/m) a lover 

arbor, arboris (f) tree (arboreal) 

amor, amoris (m) love (amorous) 

animal, animāis (n) animal, living being 

corpus, corporis (n) body (corporal, corpulent) 

consilium, -iī (n) plan, advice 

domus, domūs (f) house; home (domestic) 

fissum, fissī (n) crack (fissure

fons, fontis (m) spring, fountain (font) 

iter, itineris (n) journey, path (itinerant, itinerary) 

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) youth (juvenile

locum, -ī (n) place (location, locative) 

nox, noctis (f) night (nocturnal) 

os, ossis (n) bone (ossify) 

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face (oral) 

pōmum, pomī (n) apple; fruit (pomegranate) 

rādix, rādicis (f) root (radical, radish) 

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal, temporary) 

vēlāmen, vēlāminis (n) garment, clothing, a covering

vestigium, vestigiī (n) traces, footprints 

vir, virī (m) man (virile) 

vīs, vis (f) force (violence) 

vīrēs, vīrium (f. pl.) strength 

vox, vōcis (f) voice (vox populī, vociferous

 

———suī, sibi, se, se - himself, herself, itself, themselves 

 

quī, quae, quod (relative pronoun) who, whose, whom, which, that 

 

hic, haec, hoc - this, these 

ille, illa, illud - that, those 

iste, ista, istud - that (of yours) 

 

albus, a, um - white (albino) 

dignus, a, um - worth of, deserving of + ablative (dignity, indignant) 

miser, misera, miserum - poor, wretch, miserable 

liquidus, a, um - clear, flowing 

mollis, molle - soft (mollify

obscūrus, a, um -dark (obscure) 

prior, prius (gen. sing. = prioris) earlier, before, previous (priority) 

suus, a, um - his own, her own, its own, their own 

tenuis, tenue - thin, fine, slender (tenuous) 

vicinus, a, um - close to, neighboring + dative (vicinity) 

 

aliō (adv.) to another place

(adv.) to that place

eōdem (adv.) to the same place

hīc (adv.) in this place, here

hinc (adv.) from this place

hūc (adv.) to this place

illīc (adv.) in that place

illinc (adv.) fro that place

Illīc (adv.) to that place

quod (subordinating conj.) because

quia (subordinating conj.) because 

utrimque (adv) on each side, in each direct 

ut (subordinating conj.) + indicative mood = as, just as; when

Apollo et Daphne List

crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus - to increase, to grow (crescendo) 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to do, to make (fact, faction, factor, etc.) 

fīgō, fīgere, fīxī, fixus - fashion; transfix, pierce 

fugitō, fugitāre, fugitāvī - to flee

fugō, fugāre - to put to flight 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (centrifugal) 

laudō, laudāre - to praise (summā cum laude) 

petō, petere, petīvī, petitus (competition, petition) 

superō, superāre, superāvī, superātus - to overcome, conquer

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possesses (tenacious) 

IRREGULAR VERBS: 

eō, īre, iī or ivi, itūrus, a, um - go (spanish ir

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to happen, to become (copulative verb)

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus, a, um - to bring, bear, endure (confer, transfer, translate, relate, refer, etc.) 

volō, velle, voluī - to want, to wish + complementary Infinitive (volition) 

malō, malle, maluī - to prefer (magis + volo) + complementary Infinitive (magis + volo)

nolō, nolle, noluī, - to not want (non + volo) + complementary Infinitive (non + volo)

nōlī (singular) = do not + complementary infinitive 

    Cornelī, nōlī currere - Cornelius, do not run 

nōlīte (plural) = do not + complementary infinitive

    Amīcī, nōlīte currere - friends, do not run

possum, posse, potuī - to be able + complementary Infinitive (potis + sum)

sum, esse fuī, futūrus, a, um - to be (copulative verb)

 

animal, animālis (n) animal, living being 

ars, artis (f) artium - i-stem - skill, art (Ars Gratia Artis) 

arcus, arcūs (m) bow (4th declension) 

amor, amoris (m) love (amatory, amorous) 

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason 

caput, capitis (n) head (decapitate, capital) 

dolor, dolōris (m) suffering, pain 

flūmen, flūminis (n) river

hostis, hostis (m) enemy (i-stem) 

īra, īrae (f) anger, wrath (irate) 

mare, maris (n) sea (maritime, marine) 

mons, montis (m) mountain (i-stem) 

osculum, osculī (n) kiss  (diminutive of os, oris - mouth)

pater, patris (m) father (paternal) 

rāmus, rāmī (m) branch 

sagitta, sagittae (f) arrow

sōl, sōlis (m) sun (solar)

urbs, urbis (f) city (i-stem) (urban, suburban, urbane) 

virgo, virginis (f) maiden (Virgo) 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound (vulnerable) 

 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, keen, sharp (acrid) 

acūtus, a, um - sharp (acute) 

alter, altera, alterum - the other; one…the other (alternative) 

audax, audacis (adj.) bold, daring 

duo, duae, duo - two (dual) 

obtusus, a, um - dull (obtuse) 

omnis, omne - all (omniscient, omnipotent) 

perpetuus, a, um - everlasting, continuous (perpetual) 

primus, a, um - first (primal) 

superbus, a, um - arrogant, proud

 

 

nōnne (introduces a questions expecting YES answer) 

num (introduces a questions expecting NO answer)

 

nōlī (singular) = do not + complementary infinitive 

    Cornelī, nōlī currere - Cornelius, do not run 

nōlīte (plural) = do not + complementary infinitive

    Amīcī, nōlīte currere - friends, do not run

hic, haec, hoc = this, these (demonstrative adjective) 

ille, illa, illud = that, those (demonstrative adjective)

quid? = what? or why? 

cur?  = Why? 

iterum (adv.) again, a second time 

ubi -  When;  Where 

 

Tarpeia Vocabulary

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus, a, um - to order + acc. + infinitive

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send 

       prōmittō, prōmittere, prōmīsī, prōmissus - to promise, set before 

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case 

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitus - to seek

specto (1) to look at, to watch

IRREGULAR VERBS: 

eō, īre, iī or ivi, itūrus, a, um - go (spanish ir

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to happen, to become (copulative verb)

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus, a, um - to bring, bear, endure (confer, transfer, translate, relate, refer, etc.) 

volō, velle, voluī - to want, to wish + complementary Infinitive

malō, malle, maluī - to prefer (magis + volo) + complementary Infinitive

nolō, nolle, noluī, - to not want (non + volo) + complementary Infinitive

possum, posse, potuī - to be able + complementary Infinitive 

sum, esse fuī, futūrus, a, um - to be (copulative verb)

 

aqua, aquae (f) water (aqueduct) 

arx, acris (f) citadel  

bracchium, bracchiī (n) arm, fore-arm 

collis, collis (m) hill 

cōpia, -ae (f) supply, abundance; in plural = troops 

dolus, dolī (m) trick, deception 

iniūria, -ae (f) injury, wrong 

mensis, mensis (m) month 

mons, montis (m) hill, mountain (i-stem) 

mulier, mulieris (f) woman 

ōrnāmentum, ōrnāmentī (n) ornament 

poena, -ae (f) punishment (sub poenā) 

proditio, proditionis (f) treachery 

scutum, scutī (n) shield 

via, -ae (f) road, path (Willy Via) 

vīta, vītae (f) life (vital) 

 

audax, audacis (adj.) bold (audacity) 

aureus, a, um - golden (AU)

certus, a, um - sure, certain, reliable  

dexter, dextera, dexterum - right 

miser, misera, miserum - wretched, poor, miserable 

laevus, a, um - left 

quot? (indecl. adj.) how many? 

tōtus, a, um (-ius paradigm) whole, entire

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

causā + preceding genitive = for the sake of

ob (prep. + acc.) on account of  

 

ADVERBS

crās - tomorrow (procrastinate)

heri - yesterday 

hodie - today

diū - for a long time 

mox - soon 

semper- always

saepe - often 

bene - well 

male - badly, poorly 

statim - immediately 

numquam- never

umquam - ever

iam - now; already

ibi - there 

tum - then

subito - immediately 

nunc - now 

longē - far

 

List for the Sabine Women

aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus - to open

cōnstituō, cōnstituere, cōnstituī, cōnstitutus - decide + complementary Infinitive 

capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take

do, dare, dedī, datus - to give 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to do, to make 

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to become, to happen, to be made (copulative)  

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus - to bear, to bring, to carry, to endure (refer, confer, infer, translate, relate, collate, etc) Irregular verb but essentially 3rd conjugation 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have 

inveniō, invenīre, invēnī, inventus (in + venio) - to find (inventor, to discover) 

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order 

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus - to carry on, to wage, to manage, to wear, to do, to perform

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose; to read (election, select, lector) 

misceō, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmission, omit, transmit) 

quaerō, quaerere - to seek 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper paratus

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case 

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize

servō (1) to save, preserve, to protect (preservation) 

serviō (4) to serve + dative case 

spectō, spectāre - to watch, to look at

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come 

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call 

 

ager, agrī (m) field 

bellum, belli (n) war (antebellum, bellicose) 

cīvitās, cīvitātis (f) city, citizen body 

consilium, -iī (n) plan 

cōpia, cōpiae (f) supply (in plural = troops, forces) 

dolus, dolī (m) trick 

donum, donī (n) gift 

līberī, līberōrum (m. pl.) children

liber, librī (m) book 

locus, locī (n) place

ludus, ludī (m) game

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier 

mulier, mulieris (f) woman (mujer) 

populus, populī (m) people 

ōra, ōrae (f) shoreline, shore 

os, ossis (n) bone

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face

urbs, urbis (f) city

uxor, uxoris (f) wife

 

aequus, a, um -equal, fair, just; level 

altus, a, um - deep; high

acer, acris, acre - fierce 

audāx, audācis - bold

cīvilis, cīvile - of a citizen, civil

fortis, forte - brave strong

fīnitimus, a, um - neighboring 

gravis, grave - heavy, serious; mighty; pregnant 

fessus, a, um - weary,  tired

levis, leve - light, floating;  trivial (levitation)

laetus, a, um - happy

līber, lībera, līberum - free

omnis, omne - all 

paucī, paucae, pauca - few 

publicus, a, um - of the people, public 

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful 

 

diū (adv.) for a long time 

hīc - in this place

hinc - from this place

hūc - to this place 

inter (prep. + acc.) between, among 

longē (adv.) far 

ob (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of

ōlim (adv.)  once, formerly 

quis?  Who? (interrogative pronoun) 

quid? What? (interrogative adjective) 

quō? (adv.) where? to where? 

quoque (adv.) also 

nōn sōlum…sed etiam - not only…but also

prope (prep. + acc.) near (propinquity) 

statim (adv.) immediately 

trāns (prep. + acc. ) across 

unde? - form where, whence (interrogative adv.) 

 

Aeneas Lavinium condit & De urbe Romana 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead, to drive, to spend, to pass (action, agenda, agent, actor, 

apellō, apellāre, apellāvī, appellātus - to call, to name (copulative when passive) 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, to slaughter 

capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go; to yield (procede, antecedent, procession, recession) 

condō, condere, condidī, conditus - to found, to establish (ab urbe conditā = AUC

discēdō, discēdere, discessī, discessus (dis + cedo) - to depart, to scatter 

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (aqueduct, duct, reduction, induction, produce)

capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coactus (co + ago)  - to compel, to drive together

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to make, to do 

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus, a, um - to bear, to bring, to carry; to endure (odiferous, refer, confer, infer, relate, collate, elate, translate, etc.) 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (centrifuge, fugitive, refuge) 

iactō, iactāre, iactāvī, iactātus - to toss

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw 

inveniō, invenīre, invēnī, inventus (in + venio) - to find (inventor, to discover) 

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order 

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus - to carry on, to wage, to manage, to wear, to do, to perform

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose; to read (election, select, lector) 

misceō, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmission, omit, transmit) 

orō, orāre - to beg, pledge, to pray + acc. of person and acc. of thing (oration, orator) 

pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positus - to put, to place

possum, posse, potuī - to be able

regō, regere, rexi, rectus - to rule; to guide (rector, rectum) 

relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus - to leave behind, abandon (relinquish)

respondeo, respondēre, respondī, responsus - to answer, to reply, to respond 

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to took at

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus - to known (science, omniscient) 

servō (1) to save, preserve, to protect (preservation) 

serviō (4) to serve + dative case 

timeō, temēre - to fear

terrō, terrēre, terruī, territus - to frighten, to terrify 

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see

vocō (1) to call (advocate, vocation, evoke) 

volō, velle, voluī - to wish, to want (irregular in present system)  

 

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

amor, amoris (m) love; love affair (amorous) 

animāl, animālis (n) animal, living being 

cōpiā, cōpiae (f) abundance, supply; in plural = troops, forces (copious, cornucopia) 

colōnus, colōnī, (m) a cultivator or tiller; a husbandman, freq.; settler, colonist,

genus, generis (n) race, class, kind, type (sui generis, genre, genus, generic) 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan, family (Gens Iūlia = Julian clan) 

flūmen, flūminis (n) river 

mare, maris (n) sea

mons, montis (m) mountain, hill 

nōmen, nōminis (n) name

nūmen, nūminis (n) divine power, divinity 

oppidum, oppidī (n) town

ōra, ōrae (f) shoreline, shore 

os, ossis (n) bone

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face

proelium, proeliī (n) battle 

sanguin, sanguinis (m) blood (sanguine) 

socius, sociī (m) ally (society, social) 

terra, terrae (f) land, earth (terra firma, terra incognita, terrestrial) 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife

 

aequus, a, um -equal, fair, just; level 

altus, a, um - deep; high

gravis, grave - heavy, serious; mighty; pregnant 

fessus, a, um - weary,  tired

levis, leve - light, floating;  trivial (levitation)

maximus, a, um - very great; the greatest

insignis, insigne - marked, distinguished 

tōtus, a, um - whole, entire, all (-ius paradigm) 

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

diū (adv.) for a long time 

hīc - in this place

hinc - from this place

hūc - to this place 

inter (prep. + acc.) between, among 

longē (adv.) far 

ōlim (adv.)  once, formerly 

quis?  Who? (interrogative pronoun) 

quid? What? (interrogative adjective) 

quō? (adv.) where? to where? 

quoque (adv.) also 

nōn sōlum…sed etiam - not only…but also

prope (prep. + acc.) near (propinquity) 

statim (adv.) immediately 

trāns (prep. + acc. ) across 

unde? - form where, whence (interrogative adv.)

List for Aeneas Profugus with "i" Stem Adjectives

Be able to decline:     ingens unda or saxum celere

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to lead, to drive, to do, to pass, to spend 

ducō, ducere, dūxī, ductus - to lead
capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, capture
condō, condere, condidī, conditus - to establish, to found 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to make; to do; to act 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (centrifugal, refugee)
gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus - to wage; to manage; to do; to accomplish; to wear 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw
inveniō, invenīre, invēnī, inventus - to find, to discover 

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send
noceō, nocēre, nocuī - to harm +  dative case
pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case
pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positus - to put, place
possum, posse, potuī - to be able + complementary infinitive
surgō, surgere, surrexī, surrectus - to rise
sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - to be
videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see 

volvō, volvere, volvī, volutus - to turn over, to revolve 

 

animal, animalis (n) animal 

annus, annī (m) year (annul; annus horribilis

auxilium, auxiliī (n) aid, help (auxiliary) 

bellum, bellī (n) war gerere bellum = to wage war

campus,campī  (m) plain, field
castrum, castrī (n) military camp (often plural for singular) 

consilium, consiliī (n) plan, advice 

corpus, corporis (n) - body deus, 

celeritas, celeritatis (f) speed 

ceteri/ae, a - the rest, the others 

deus, deī (m) god

dolus, dolī (m) deception, a trick 

 

 

dux, ducis (m) leader

equus, equī (m) horse 

fatum, fatī (n) fate 

fumus, fumī (m) smoke

ignis, ignis (m) fire (igneous, ignition) 

locum, locī (n) place (location) 

mare, maris (n) sea (“i” stem) (marine, maritime) 

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier (military, militia) 

mors, mortis (f) death (mortal) 

mora, morae (f) delay (moratorium) 

navis, navis (f) ship (“i” stem)

odium, odiī (n) hatred, hate (odious) 

oppidum, oppidī (n) town 

populus, populī (m) people (SPQR, vox populī)

regnum, regnī (n) kingdom; royal power 

sanguin, sanguinis (m) blood (sanguine) 

socius, sociī (m) - ally (social, society) 

sōl, sōlis (m) sun (solar) 

urbs, urbis (f) city (“i” stem) (urban, urbane) 

unda, undae (f) wave; water (undulate) 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife 

ventus, ventī (m) wind (spanish = viento

 

acer, acris, acre - harsh, fierce (arid) 

alius, alia, aliud - other; one…another

aequus, a, um - equal, level, fair, just (equal)

antiquus, a, um - ancient (antiquity) 

audāx, audācis - bold

brevis, breve - short, brief (brevity) 

celer, celeris, celere - fast, swift

fortis, forte - brave, strong

gravis, grave - heavy, serious

ingens, ingentis - huge

insignis, insigne - distinguished

mortuus, a, um - death (mortal) 

miser, misera, miserum - wretched, poor, miserable 

omnis, omne - all, every; entire (omniscient, omnipotent, omnibus) 

nobilis, nobile - noble

perīculōsus, a um - full of danger, dangerous 

pietās, pietātis (f) devotion/loyalty to family, country and gods 

potēns, potentis - powerful (potent, impotent, omnipotent)

tōtus, a, um - whole, entire (-ius paradigm) 

summus, a, um - the highest, the highest part of (summa cum laude; summit) 

vetus, veteris (1 term.) - old (veteran, inveterate)

 

itaque - and so 

autem (postpositive) however, moreover

statim (adv.)  - immediately 

postquam (subord. conj.) after 

passim (adv.) scattered here and there

Aeneas Kills Turnus

Aeneas Kills Turnus

 

Vocabulary for Trojan War Stories

aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus - to open (aperture, abierto in Spanish)

abdō, abdere, abdidī, abditus - to hide 

dēspērō, dēspērāre, dēspērāvī, dēspērātus - to give up hope, dispare (de+spero) 

discēdō, discēdere, discessī, discessus (dis + cēdō) - to depart, scatter, withdraw 

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (conduct, reduction, induct, produce, induce) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have, to possess 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to do, to make (fact, faction, factor) 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī (fugitive, centrifugal) 

interfciō, interficere, interfēcī, interfectus - to kill

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper paratus

pareō, parēre, paruī (+ dative case) - to obey 

possum, posse, potuī  -to be able + complementary infinitive 

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold (tenacious) 

timeō, timēre, timuī - to fear, be afraid of (timid) 

veniō, venīre, vēnī - to come (advent, convene, Spanish venir

 

aetās, aetātis (f) age; period of time

aqua, aquae (f) water

annus, annī (m) year

castra, castrōum (n. pl.) military camp

campus, campī (m) plain, open field 

celeritās, celeritātis (f) speed

cibus, cibī (m) food

socius, sociī (m) ally (social, society) 

dies, dieī (m) day (per diem, carpe diem)

dolus, dolī (m) trick 

dōnum, dōnī (n) gift

dux, ducis (m) leader 

equus, equī (m) horse (equestrian, equine) 

flūmen, flūminis (n) river

insula, -ae (f) island; apartment block 

genus, generis (n) race, class, kind (genus) 

hōra, -ae (f)   hour 

lītus, lītoris (n) shore

lux, lucis (f) light (lucifer) 

mensis, mensis (m) month

navigium, -iī (n) sailing, navigation 

nox, noctis (f) night (nocturnal) 

oppidum, oppidī (n) town, hill town 

porta, portae (f) gate

sapientia, sapientiae (f) cleverness, intelligence

signum, signī (n) sign 

silva, silvae (f) forest 

somnus, somnī (m) sleep

trēs, trium, tribus, trēs , tribus - three

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal, contemporary) 

victoria, -ae (f) victory 

 

acer, acris, acre (3 term. 3rd) fierce, harsh, sharp (acrid) 

ater, atra, atrum - dark 

audax, audacis (1 term. 3rd) bold, audacious

brevis, breve (2 term. 3rd. decl.) - short, brief 

celer, celeris, celere (3 term. 3rd) fast, quick

cēterī, cēterae,  cētera - the rest, the others (et cetera = etc.) 

fessus, fessa, fessum - weary, tired 

fortis, forte (2 term. 3rd. decl.) brave, strong

ingens, ingentis (1 term. 3rd. decl.) huge

gravis, grave (2 term. 3rd. decl.) heavy, serious

laetus, a, um - happy 

lentus, a, um - slow

multī, multae, multa - many 

omnis, omne (2 term. 3rd. decl.) all

paucī, paucae, pauca - a few, few (paucity) 

prīmus, a, um - first

secundus, a, um - second 

tertius, a, um - third 

tristis, triste (2 term. 3rd. decl.)

 

ante (prep. + acc.) before

diū (adv.) for a long time 

dum (subordinating conj.) while 

et (coordinating conj.)

longē (adv.) far

-que (enclitic) and 

quō (adv. interrogative) where? 

saepe (adv.) often

tandem (adv.) at last, finally

trans (prep. + acc. ) across

ubi (subordinating conj.) when; where

Vocabulary Quiz # 5: List of Mostly 3rd Declension Nouns

Be able to decline the following as part of the vocabulary quiz (not bonus):

tempestas magna or pēs līber or tempus bonum or bellum longum

apppropinquō, appropinquāre - to approach + DATIVE 

clamō, clamāre, clamāvī, clamātus - to shout (exclamation) 

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus - to run (current, curriculum, course) 

deleō, delēre, delēvī, delētus - to destroy (delete) 

desiderō, desiderāre - to desire 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus - to teach

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead 

noceō, nocēre, nocuī - to harm + DATIVE

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + DATIVE

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus - to carry (transport, to carry) 

possum, posse, potuī - to be able + infinitive 

regnō, regnāre - to reign 

temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus - to try + complementary infinitive

 

aetās, aetātis (f) age, time of life (eternity, eternal) 

aestās, aestātis (f) summer (estival) 

amor, amōris (m) love (amorous, amatory) 

carmen, carminis (n) song, poem (charm) 

celeritās, celeritātis (f) speed (celerity) 

cīvitās, cīvitātis (f) citizenship, city-state, nation 

cīvis, cīvis (m) citizen (this is an “i” stem 3rd decl. noun) 

consul, consulis (m) consul = chief elected magistrate of Roman Republic

corpus, corporis (n) body (corpus, corporal, corpse, corporation) 

dux, ducis (m) leader (duke, Doge) 

flumen, fluminis (n) river

frāter, frātris (m) brother (fratricide, fraternal, fraternity) 

fulmen, fulminis (n) lightening, thunderbolt (fulminate) 

funus, funeris (n) death, funeral 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan

genus, generis (n) kind (genus, sui generis

hostis, hostis (m) enemy (-i stem noun) 

homo, hominis (m) man, human begin (homo sapiens, ad hominem) 

imperātor, imperatōris (m) commander, general (emperor) 

legiō, legiōnis (f) legion (unit of Roman army,  3600-6000 milites)

labor, labōris (m) work, labor (laborious)  

lībertās, lībertātis (f) liberty, freedom 

lītus, lītoris (n) sea shore, beach (littoral) 

lumen, luminis (n) light; eyes

lux, lucis (f) light (fiat lux) 

mater, matris (f) mother (material, matriarch) 

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier (military, militant) 

mōlēs, mōlis (f) mass, burden, weight (mole) 

mōs, mōris (m) habit, custom (mores, morals, mos maiorum = custom of ancestors) 

mors, mortis (f) death 

mulier, mulieris (f) woman

nōmen, nōminis (n) name (noun, nomenclature) 

nūmen, nūminis (n) divinity, divine authority (numinous) 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labor (magnum opus) 

orbis, orbis (m) circle, disk, orb (orb, orbit, orbital) 

ōra, ōrae (f) a margin, border; coast, shore

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face (oral) 

os, ossis (n) bone (ossification) 

pastor, pastoris (m) shepherd 

pater, patris (m) father (paternal, patriarch, paterfamilias

pāx, pācis (f) peace (Pax Romana, pacify) 

pēs, pedis (m) foot (pedal, pedestrian, pedestal) 

pietās, piētātis (f) familial devotion, loyalty (piety) 

pons, pontis (m) bridge (Pontifex Maximus)

rēx, rēgis (m) king (Oedipus Rex) 

regnum, regnī (n) kindgom, royal power

tempestās, tempestātis (f) storm, season, weather (tempest) 

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal, temporary, temporize) 

uxor, uxōris (f) wife (uxorius) 

urbs, urbis (f) city (this is an “i” stem 3rd decl. noun) (urban, urbane, suburban) 

vōx, vōcis (f) voice (vociferous, vox populi) vēr, vēris (n) spring (vernal) 

vēritās, vēritātis (f) truth (veracity, in vino veritas) 

virgō, virginis (f) maiden (Virgo, virgin, virginal) 

virtūs, virtūtis (f) courage, valour, virtue  

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound (vulnerable)

IMG_5276.JPG

4th Quiz on Vocabulary for Minerva et Arachne & 2nd Declension Nouns

Bonus is to decline:  pirata saevus, vir magnus or signum bonum

First and Second Conjugation Verbs:

ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī, ambulātus - to walk (ambulatory) 

doceōdocēre, docuī, doctus - to teach (docent, doctor)

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have, to hold (habitual, Fr. avoir;  It. avere, Sp.  haber)

mōnstrō, mōnstrāre, mōnstrāvī, mōnstrātus - to show (demonstrate, domonstrative)

mordeō, mordēre, momordī, morsus - to bit (mordant, morsel) 

mūtō, mutāre, mutāvī, mutātus - to change (mutation, mutant)

necō, necāre, necāvī, necātus - to kill 

negō, negāre, negāvī, negātus - to deny, say no to (negate, negation) 

pendeō, pendēre, pependī, pensus - to hang (pendent, pendulum)

respondeō, respondēre, respondī, responsus - to respond

temptō,temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus - to attemp

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call (invoke, evocative, invocation, vocation)

simulō, simulāre, simulāvī, simulātus - to simulate

 

Nouns of the Second Declension"

ager, agrī (m) field, farmland (agriculture) 

magister, magistrī (m) master, teacher

liber, liberī (m) book (ex librīs) 

puer, puerī (m) boy (puerile) 

vir, virī (m) man; hero; husband (virile) 

 

amīcus, amīcī (m) friend (amicable) 

animus, animī (m) soul, mind, spirit 

campus, campī (m) plain 

cibus, cibī (m) food

dominus, dominī (m) master, lord ( dominus et deus) 

deus, deī (m) god (deus = vocative case) Deus ex Machinā

discipulus, discipulī (m) student (disciple) 

dolus, dolī (m) trick, deception 

equus, equī (m) horse (equine) 

fīlius, fīliī (m) son (filial) 

gladius, gladiī (m) sword (gladiator) 

hortus, hortī (n) garden (horticulture) 

inimīcus, inimīcī (m) personal enemy (inimical) 

iocus, iocī (m) joke (jocular) 

modus, modī (m) way, method; measure (modus operandi) 

mūrus, mūrī (n) wall (intramural, mural) 

nasus, nasī (m) nose (nasal) 

numerus, numerī (m) number (numerus) 

oculus, oculī (m) eye (ocular) 

populus, populī (m) people (SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus

servus, servī (m) slave, servant (servile) 

socius, sociī (m) ally (social, society) 

somnus, somnī (m) sleep (insomnia) 

 

humus, humī (Femininine) ground (exhume, inhumation) 

 

aurum, aurī (n) gold (AU) 

auxilium, auxiliī (n) help, aid (auxiliary) 

atrium, atriī (n) atrium, central room in a Roman domus

caelum, caelī (n) sky, heaven (ceiling) 

consilium, consiliī (n) plan, advice, strategy 

basium, basiī (n) kiss

dōnum, dōnī (n) gift (donation) 

bellum, bellī (n) war (bellicose, belligerent, antebellum) 

ferrum, ferrī (n) iron; sword (FE)

forum, forī (n) forum, public square

initium, initiī (n) beginning (initial, initiate) 

officium, officiī (n) duty (official, office, officious) 

odium, odiī (n) hatred (odium) 

oppidum, oppidī (n) town, hill town 

otium, otiī (n) leisure 

periculum, periculī (n) danger 

pomum, pomī (n) fruit, apple

proelium, proeliī (n) battle 

imperium, imperiī (n) power, command; empire (imperial, empire) 

regnum, regnī (n) kingdom; kingship; royal power

remedium, remediī (n) cure

saxum, saxī (n) rock 

signum, signī (n) sign, signal; battle standard 

studium, studiī (n) zeal, eagerness; study, pursuit 

tectum, tectī (n) roof; building 

templum, templī (n) sacred space, shrine; temple 

verbum, verbī (n) word (verb, verbal, verbose) 

vinculum, vinculī (n) chain, bond

 

First/Second Declension Adjectives:

altus, a, um - high, lofty, deep 

carus, a, um - dear

clārus, a, um - bright, famous, illustrius

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh

latus, a, um - wide

foedus, a, um - ugly, disgraceful

saevus, a, um - savage, cruel

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

dexter, dextera, dexterum - right

līber, lībera, līberum - free

miser, misera, miserum - poor, wretch, miserable 

noster, nostra, nostrum - our 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful

sinister, sinistra, sinstrum - left

List for 3rd Vocabulary Quiz. The List stops at Arachne. 

Feminine First Declension Words

amīcitia, amīcitiae (f) friendship

aquila, aquilae (f) eagle 

aqua, aquae (f) water 

amīca, amīcae (f) friend (female) 

audācia, audāciae (f) boldness, audacity

cauda, caudae (f) tail (of an animal)

causa, causae (f) cause, reason; trial 

copia, copiae (f) supply, abundance

cura, curae (f) care, worry, anxiety 

dea, deae (f) goddess 

domina, dominae (f) mistress of domus

fābula, fābulae (f) story 

fāma, fāmae (f) rumor, story, report

fēmina, fēminae (f) woman

forma, formae (f) sharp, beauty 

fortūna, fortūnae (f) luck, fortune 

fīlia, fīliae (f) daughter 

glōria, glōriae (f) glory, fame, renown 

grātia, grātiae (f) favour, influence, charm, thanks

hōra, hōrae (f) hour

insula, insulae (f) island; apartment building 

invidia, invidiae (f) jealousy, envy, spite 

iānua, iānuae (f) door

īra, īrae (f) anger 

laetitia, laetitiae (f) joy

lūna, lūnae (f) moon

mātrona, mātronae (f) lady

mensa, mensae (f) table

mora, morae (f) delay

nympha, nymphae (f) nymph

patria, patriae (f) fatherland 

pecūnia, pecūniae (f) money

potentia, potentiae (f) power

porta, portae (f) gate

prudentia, prudentiae (f) wisdom, prudence 

prōvincia, prōvinciae (f) province 

puella, puellae (f) girl 

rāna, rānae (f) frog

rēgīna, rēgīnae (f) queen 

rēgia, rēgiae (f) palace

rosa, rosae (f) rose

terra, terrae (f) land

sagitta, sagittae (f) arrow

silva, silvae (f) forest 

sīmia, sīmiae (f) monkey 

stella, stellae (f) star 

superbia, superbiae (f) arrogance 

umbra, umbrae (f) shadow, shade, ghost

ursa, ursae (f) bear

via, viae (f) road, path

vīta, vītae (f) life 

 

Masculine First Declension Worlds

auriga, aurigae (m) charioteer 

poēta, poētae (m) poet

pīrata, pīratae (m) pirate

incola, incolae (m) tenant, inhabitant 

agricola, agricolae (m) farmer

nauta, nautae (m) sailor 

 

First/Second Declension Adjectives 

aureus, a, um - golden

bonus, a, um - good 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh

ferus, a, um - wild

formōsus, a, um - beautify, shapely 

laetus, a, um - happy 

lentus, a, um - slow

līber, lībera, līberum - free

miser, misera, miserum - poor, wretched 

malus, a, um -bad

magnus, -a, um - great

multus, a, um - many 

parvus, a, um - small 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful 

saevus, a, um - savage

tardus, a, um - slow, late

 

Possessive Adjectives

meus, a, um - my

tuus, a, um - your (singular) 

noster, nostra, nostrum - our

vester, vestra, vestrum - your (plural)

 

Prepositions Governing Ablative Case:

Sub - under (place where)

In - in, on (place where) 

- down from, about, concerning

Sine - without (sinecure) 

Prō - on behalf of, instead of, in front of 

Ab (ā) - from, by 

Cum - with

Ex (ē) - from, out of 

 

Prepositions Governing the Accusative Case:

ad - to, toward

per - through, along

in - into

sub - under (going) 

trans - across

 

New 1st or 2nd Conjugation Verbs: 

ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī, amubātus - to walk (ambulatory) 

habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātus - to dwell, to live

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order + accusative case + infinitive 

maneō, manēre, mansī, mansus - to remain, to stay

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move 

narrō, narrāre, narrāvī, narrātus - to tell (narrate) 

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus (transport) 

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus - to fight

sedeō, sedēre, sedī - to sit (sedentary)

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to watch, to look at

stō, stāre, stetī, status - to stand (Spanish   estar)

arachne and minerva.jpg

Vocabulary List for The Reigns of Numa and Tullus

ago, agere, egi, actus- to do, to spend, to pass, to lead 

aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus - to open, to reveal 

capio, capere, cepi, captus - to take, to capter 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, to establish (A.U.C. = ab urbe condita

constituo, constituere - to decide + infinitive 

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought (+ complementary infinitive)  

facio, facere, feci, factus - to do, to make 

fio, fieri, factus sum-to be made, to happen, to become (fiat lux, ut fit) 

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to manage, wage; to wear

mitto, mittere, misi, missus - to send

lego, legere, legi, lectus - to choose, to pick; to read 

pugno (1) to fight 

pono, ponere, posui, positus - to put, to place

possum, posse, potui - to be able+ complementary infinitive 

reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditus - to give back, return 

servo (1) to save, preserve 

servio, servire - to serve + DATIVE CASE

sum, esse, fui, futurus - to be

supero (1) to suprass, to defeat

timeo, timere, timui - to fear

venio, venire, vēni, ventus - to come 

voco (1) to call 

 

 

arma, -orum (n. pl.) weapons, arms 

ara, arae (f) altar

bellum, belli (n) war

caedes, caedis (f) slaughter 

causa, -ae (f) reason, cause 

consilium, -ii (n) plan 

dies, diei (m) day (per diem, carpe diem, hodie)

filius, filii (m) son 

imperium, -ii (n) power 

laetus, a, um - happy

miles, militis (m) soldier 

porta, -ae (f) gates; doors 

praeda, -ae (f) booty, plunder 

proelium, -ii (n) battle

res, rei (f) matter, situation, event, etc. (in medias res, res publica, De Rerum Natura

 

Albanus, a, um - Alban 

audax, audacis (adj.) bold 

ceteri, ceterae, cetera - the other(et cetera) 

ferox, ferocis (adj.) fierce 

fessus, a, um - weary, exhausted 

geminus, a, um - twin 

integer, integra, integrum - unhurt, untouched, unharmed 

lectus, a, um - chosen

par, paris (adj.) equal 

pauci, paucae, pauca - few 

 

autem (postpositive) however

neque…neque (conj.) neither…nor 

numquam (adv.) never

umquam (adv.) ever

vel...vel = either...or 

Vocabulary List for Atalanta and Hippomenes, Part I

capio, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, capture (captive, caption, capture) 

crescō, crescere, crēvī, crētus - to grow (crescendo

culpō, culpāre, culpāvī, culpātus - to blame (culpable) 

damnō (1) to condem (damnatio memoriae, damnation

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus - to say (diction, dictionary) 

eō, īre, iī, itūrus - to go (irregular verb) (exit) 

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus - to bring, to carry, bear (coniferous, vociferous, legislature, confer, infer, refer, translation)   irregular verb but really 3rd conjugation. 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī, - to flee (centrifugal, refugee) 

fugō, fugāre, fugāvī, fugātus - to put to flight

ignoscō, ignoscere, ignōvī, ignōtus - to forgive + DATIVE CASE

iuvō, iuvāre - to help

laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus - to praise, to laud 

mīrōr, mīrārī, mīrātus sum (only has passive forms, but active meaning) - to wonder, to marvel 

moveō, moveō, mōvī, mōtus - to move (remote, motion, motive

petō, petere, petivī, petitus - to seek (competition, petition) 

optō, optāre, optāvī, optātus - to wish (opt, optional, optative) 

superō, superāre, superāvī, superātus - to surpass, to defeat 

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scitus - to know (+ complementary inf.  = to know how to verb)

sono (1) to sound (resonate) 

temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus - to try, to attempt

videor, vidērī, vīsus sum - to seem (copulative verb) 

vinco, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (vēnī, vīdī, vīcī) 

vīvō, vīvere vīxi - to live (vivacious) 

 

aetās, aetātis (f) age, time of life, youth 

audacia, audiciae (f) boldness (audacity) 

avus, avī (m) grandfather, ancestor 

avis, avis (f) bird (aviary)

coniunx, coniugis (m. or f.) wife, spouse, husband (conjugal) 

cornū, cornūs (n) horn; moon, bow (corn, unicorn, cornucopia) 

culpa, culpae (f) fault (mea cupla

cursus, cursūs (m) race, race course, course (cursus honōrum - course of political office)  

currus, currūs (m) chariot 

certamen, certaminis (n) contest 

diēs, dieī (m) day (per diem, carpe diem, quotidian

fīnis, fīnis (m. or. f.) end, limit, boundary (Imperium sine fine, infinite, el fin

genū, genūs (n) knee (genuflect) 

genus, generis (n) class, kind; race (suī generis

gens, gentis (f) race, clan

homō, hominis (m) human begin, man (homo sapiens, homo erectus

ignis, ignis, -ium (m) fire (i-stem noun) (ignition, igneous, ignite) 

lēx, lēgis (f) law (legislature) 

manus, manūs (f) hand; band of men

mors, mortis (f) death (mortal

rēs, reī (f) thing, matter (in mediās rēs, Rēs Publica

rūmor, rūmōris (m) rumor 

orāculum, orāculī (n) oracle, response (oracular) 

pes, pedis (m) foot (pedestrian, pedestal, pedal) 

praemium, -ii (n) reward, price (premium) 

turba, turbae (f) crowd, mob (disturbance) 

virgo, virginis (f) maiden, virgin (Virgo, Vestales Virgines) 

verbum, verbī (m) word (verbose, verbosity, verbal, verbiage

 

celer, celeris, celere - fast (celerity) 

clārus, a, um - bright, clear, famous 

dēterritus, a, um - deterred

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh (durable) 

ipse, ipsa, ipsum (intensive adj.) himself, herself, itself, themselves, very (ipsō factō, rēs ipsa loquitur) 

iste, ista, istud - (demosntrative adj.) that of yours 

memor, memoris (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) mindful + Genitive case

tardus, a, um - slow (tardy, retarded) 

tantus, a, um - so great

quī, quae, quod - who, who, which

 

an - whether...or

enim (postpositive) for, indeed, in fact 

forsitan (adv.) perhaps

magis (adv.) more

nisi - unless, if…not, expect 

nōndum (adv.) not yet 

prius (adv.) earlier, before

quoque (adv.) and also 

tam (adv.) so 

tardē (adv.) slowly

tardius (adv.) more slowly 

tardissimē (adv.) very slowly

Vocabulary for Famous Roman Women

Etruscī, -ōrum (m. pl.) people of western central Italy 

Vestātēs Virginēs = vestal virgins who protect Roman sacred hearth/fire 

 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead, to spend, etc. (action, actor, agent) 

    cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coactus - to bring together, to compel 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go, to yield 

    concēdō, concēdere, concessī, concessus - to go with, to yield, to concede            

           prōcēdō, prōcēdere, prōcessī, prōcessus - to proceed (procession) 

clamō, clamāre, clamāvī, clamātus - to shout (exclamatory) 

expectō, expectāre, expectāvī, expectātus - to wait for 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to do, to make (manufacture) 

              afficiō, afficere, affēcī, affectus (ad + facio) - to influence 

    efficiō, efficere, effēcī, effectus - accomplish, to make happen, bring about 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (fugitive, centrifugal) 

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order + acc. + infinitive (jussive) 

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose; to read (lector, lecture) 

maneō, manēre, mansī, mansus - to remain, to stay 

mereō, merēre, meruī, meritus - to deserve  

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise 

moveō, movēre, movī, mōtus - to move 

         prōmoveō, prōmovēre, prōmovī, prōmōtus - to move throughly, to disturb (terramota

mūniō, mūnīre, mūnīvī, mūnītus - to build, construct, fortify 

occupō, occupāre - to occupy, to seize 

pareō, parēre, paruī (intransitive) to obey + dative case

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper paratus

petō, petere, petivī, petitus - to seek (competition, petition) 

pōnō, ponere, posuī, positus - to put, to place 

    prōpōnō, prōponere, prōposuī, prōpositus - to out forward, to propose 

rogō, rogāre, rogāvī, rogātus - to ask (interrogative, interrogate, prerogative, abrogate) 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to save, protect, keep (preserve)

serviō, servīre - to serve, be a slave + DATIVE CASE (serve, service) 

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (event, advent, invent) 

 

auctoritās, auctoritātis (f) authority, personal power 

auxilium, auxiliī (n) help, aid (auxiliary) 

causa, causae (f) cause, reason; case 

cīvitās, cīvitātis (f) citizenship, state, nation, city-state 

factum, factī (n) deed (fact)

lūdus, lūdī (m) school, game, games 

lēx, lēgis (f) law (legislation, legislature, legal) 

mulier, mulieris (f) woman (spanish mujer

officium, offciī (n) duty, service (officious) 

oratiō, orationis (f) speech, oration 

pecunia, pecuniae (f) money (pecuniary) 

soror, sororis (f) sister (sorority, sororal, sororicide)

 

clārus, a, um - bright, famous, distinguished 

cīvīlis, cīvīle - civil, of a citizen, of the state 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh (durable) 

ēgregius, a, um (ex + grex) -outstanding (egregious) 

facilis, facile (3rd) easy (facile) 

grātus, a, um - pleasing + dative case

grātior, grātius -  (3rd declension) more pleasing 

nullus, a, um (-ius paradigm) - no

sacer, sacra, sacrum - sacred, holy 

tōtus, a, um (-ius paradigm) - whole, entire

vērus, a, um - true (veracity) 

 

alius, alia, aliud - another, other (-ius paradigm) 

nihil (indecl. noun or adv.) nothing, in no way (ex nihilō, nihilism) 

nōnne - expects answer yes (ita vero, rectē)

num - expect the answer no (minimē

nunc (adv.) now 

numquam (adv.) never

semper (adv.) always (sīc semper tyrannīs) 

saepe (adv.) often 

vērō (postpositive) indeed, in fact

vērum (adversative) but  

memoriā tenēre - to hold by memory = to remember

 

New Vocabulary List for Phoebus Et Daphne

crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus - to increase, to grow (crescendo) 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to do, to make (fact, faction, factor, etc.) 

fīgō, fīgere, fīxī, fixus - fashion; transfix, pierce 

fugitō, fugitāre, fugitāvī - to flee

fugō, fugāre - to put to flight 

laudō, laudāre - to praise (summā cum laude) 

petō, petere, petīvī, petitus (competition, petition) 

superō, superāre, superāvī, superātus - to overcome, conquer

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possesses (tenacious) 

 

animal, animālis (n) animal 

ars, artis (f) artium - i-stem - skill, art (Ars Gratia Artis) 

arcus, arcūs (m) bow

amor, amoris (m) love (amatory, amorous) 

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason 

caput, capitis (n) head (decapitate, capital) 

dolor, dolōris (m) suffering, pain 

flūmen, flūminis (n) river

hostis, hostis (m) enemy (i-stem) 

īra, īrae (f) anger, wrath (irate) 

mare, maris (n) sea (maritime, marine) 

mons, montis (m) mountain (i-stem) 

osculum, osculī (n) kill 

pater, patris (m) father  

rāmus, rāmī (m) branch 

sagitta, sagittae (f) arrow

sōl, sōlis (m) sun (solar)

urbs, urbis (f) city (i-stem) (urban, suburban, urbane) 

virgo, virginis (f) maiden (Virgo) 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound (vulnerable) 

 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, keen, sharp 

acūtus, a, um - sharp (acute) 

alter, altera, alterum - the other; one…the other (alternative) 

audax, audacis (adj.) bold, daring 

duo, duae, duo- two (dual) 

obtusus, a, um - dull (obtuse) 

omnis, omne - all (omniscient, omnipotent) 

perpetuus, a, um - everlasting, continuous 

primus, a, um - first (primal) 

superbus, a, um - arrogant, proud

 

hic, haec, hoc = this, these (demonstrative adjective) 

ille, illa, illud = that, those (demonstrative adjective)

quid? = what? or why? 

cur?  = Why? 

iterum (adv.) again, a second time 

ubi -  When;  Where 

Interrogative adverbs, adjectives, pronouns

cur?  = why? 

quid? = what? why? 

quis? = who? 

Quō? = where? to what place? 

 

Adverbs

diu (adv.) for a long time 

mox (adv.) soon 

 

Prepositions

ā or ab + ablative = by (ablative of personal agent) 

circum (prep+ acc.) around

ob (prep.+ acc.) on account of, because of 

prope (prep+ acc.) near

propter (prep. + acc.) on account of 

post (prep. + acc.) before 

 

Subordinating Conjunctions

dum - while 

postquam (subordinating conj.) afterward

quod - because 

ubi - when, where 

 

Coordinating Conjunctions

aut...aut -  either ..or 

nec...nec  - neither...nor

neque...neque - neither...nor

-que (enclitic) and 

-ve (enclitic) or

atque or ac = and, and also 

et - and 

 

Adversative Conjunctions

at, ast - but 

sed - but 

vērum - but

 

Tarpeia Vocabulary

 

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus, a, um - to order + acc. + infinitive

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send 

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative case 

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitus - to seek

specto (1) to look at, to watch

Irregular Verbs: 

eō, īre, iī or ivi, itūrus, a, um - go (spanish ir

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to happen, to become (copulative verb)

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus, a, um - to bring, bear, endure

malō, malle, maluī - to prefer

nolō, nolle, noluī, - to not want

possum, posse, potuī - to be able + complementary Infinitive 

sum, esse fuī, futūrus, a, um - to be (copulative verb)

volō, velle, voluī - to want, to wish + complementary Infinitive

 

arx, acris (f) citadel 

collis, collis (m) hill 

cōpia, -ae (f) supply, abundance; in plural = troops 

dolus, dolī (m) trick, deception 

iniūria, -ae (f) injury, wrong 

mensis, mensis (m) month 

mons, montis (m) hill, mountain (i-stem) 

mulier, mulieris (f) woman 

poena, -ae (f) punishment (sub poenā) 

proditio, proditionis (f) treachery 

scutum, scutī (n) shield 

via, -ae (f) road, path 

vīta, vītae (f) life (vital) 

 

audax, audacis (adj.) bold (audacity) 

aureus, a, um - golden (AU)

certus, a, um - sure, certain, reliable  

dexter, dextera, dexterum - right 

miser, misera, miserum - wretched, poor, miserable 

laevus, a, um - left 

tōtus, a, um (ius paradigm) whole, entire

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

causā + preceding genitive = for the sake of

ob (prep. + acc.) on account of  

 

Vocabulary for Ab Urbe Condita/Romulus et Remus

Aeneas, Aeneae (m) profugus Troianus/conditor gentis Romanae

Ascanius/Iulus- filius Aeneae

Lavinia, -ae (f) Filia regis, Latinī et Secunda uxor Aeneae

Lavinium, -iī (n) oppidum conditum ab Aeneā in Latiō

Alba Longa, Albae, Longae (f) - city founded by Ascanius/Iulus south of Rome

Mars, Martis (m) deus belli et pater Romuli Remique

Rhea Silvia, Rheae, Silviae (f) filia Numitor/Virgo Vestalis/mater Romuli Remique/

Mons Palatinus - Palatine Hill 

Numitor, Numitoris (m) bonus rex Albae Longae

Amulius, Amuliī (m) malus rex Albae Longae, scelestus frater Numitoris

 

apellō, apellāre, apellāvī, apellātus - to name, to call (appellation) 

constituo, constituere, constitui, constitūtum - to decide + complementary Infinitive 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, to establish (ab urbe conditā)

curo, curare - to look after, care for 

duco, ducere, duxi, ductus - to lead (aqueduct, conduct, conductor) 

expello, expellere, expulī, expulsus - to drive out, exile (expel, expulsion) 

facio, facere, feci, factus - to make, to do; to act (Spanish hacer)  

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to become, to happen, to be made (fiat lux

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus - to throw (eject)

invenio, invenīre, invēnī, inventus - to find, to discover (in + venio) (invent, inventor) 

interfecio, interficere, interfeci, interfectus - to kill 

iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussus - to order (jussive) + accusative + infinitive 

muniō, munīre, munīvī, munītus - to build, to fortify 

possum, posse, potuī (potis + sum, esse) - to be able + complementary infintive

portō, portāre, portavi, portatus - to carry (transportation) 

reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditus - to give back (re + do, dare) 

relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictus - to abandon, leave behind (relinquish

transilio, transilire, transilui - to jump across 

 

animal, animālis (n) animal 

frater, fratris (m) bother (fratricide, fraternal

flumen, fluminis (n) river 

fulmen, fulminis (n) lightening bolt (fulminate

geminus, -i (m) twin (gemini

iniuria, -ae (f) injury, wrong (injury) 

lupa, -ae (f) she-wolf (lupine

mons, montis (m) moutain (i-stem gen. pl. montium

mūrus, mūrī (m) wall (intramural, mural) 

oppidum, oppidī (n) town 

pastor, pastoris (m) shepherd 

posterī, -posterōrum (m. pl) descendants (posterity) 

proelium, proeliī (n) battle 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife 

 

audax, audacis - bold (audacious) 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, harsh (acrid

bonus, a, um - good (bonafide, prō bonō

iratus, a, um - angry 

malus, a, um - bad (malediction, malefactor) 

omnis, omne - all (omnipotent, omniscient) 

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful (potent, impotent, omnipotent) 

 

Interrogative adverbs, adjectives, pronouns

cur?  = why? 

quid? = what? why? 

quis? = who? 

Quō? = where? to what place? 

 

Adverbs

diu (adv.) for a long time 

mox (adv.) soon 

 

Prepositions

ā or ab + ablative = by (ablative of personal agent) 

circum (prep+ acc.) around

ob (prep.+ acc.) on account of, because of 

prope (prep+ acc.) near

propter (prep. + acc.) on account of 

post (prep. + acc.) before 

 

Subordinating Conjunctions

dum - while 

postquam (subordinating conj.) afterward

quod - because 

ubi - when, where 

 

Coordinating Conjunctions

aut...aut -  either ..or

nec...nec  - neither...nor

neque...neque - neither...nor

-que (enclitic) and 

-ve (enclitic) or

atque or ac = and, and also 

et - and 

 

Adversative Conjunctions

at, ast - but 

sed - but 

vērum - but

Vocabulary List for Lesson 15 & 16 - Troy and Aeneas

aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus - to open (aperture, abierto in Spanish)

apellō, apellāre, appellāvī, appellātus - to call, to name 

abdō, abdere, abdidī, abditus - to hide 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear (audition, audio) 

capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture 

condō, condere, condidī, conditus - to found, to establish (ab urbe conditā = AUC

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coactus - to compel, to drive together

dēspērō, dēspērāre, dēspērāvī, dēspērātus - to give up hope, dispare (de+spero) 

discēdō, discēdere, discessī, discessus (dis + cēdō) - to depart, scatter, withdraw 

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (conduct, reduction, induct, produce, induce) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have, to possess 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to do, to make (fact, faction, factor) 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī (fugitive, centrifugal) 

interfciō, interficere, interfēcī, interfectus - to kill

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper paratus

pareō, parēre, paruī (+ dative case) - to obey 

possum, posse, potuī  -to be able + complementary infinitive (irregular verb) 

quaerō, quaerere - to seek, to ask 

respondeō, repondēre, respondī, respōnsum - to respond 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to save, to keep 

spectō, spectāre -to watch 

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold (tenacious) 

timeō, timēre, timuī - to fear, be afraid of (timid) 

veniō, venīre, vēnī - to come (advent, convene, Spanish venir

 

aetās, aetātis (f) age; period of time

aqua, aquae (f) water

annus, annī (m) year

castra, castrōum (n. pl.) military camp

campus, campī (m) plain, open field 

celeritās, celeritātis (f) speed

cibus, cibī (m) food

copia, copiae (f) abundance; in plural: troops forces

socius, sociī (m) ally (social, society) 

dies, dieī (m) day (per diem, carpe diem)

dolus, dolī (m) trick 

dōnum, dōnī (n) gift

dux, ducis (m) leader 

equus, equī (m) horse (equestrian, equine) 

flūmen, flūminis (n) river

insula, -ae (f) island; apartment block 

genus, generis (n) race, class, kind (genus) 

hōra, -ae (f)   hour 

lītus, lītoris (n) shore

lux, lucis (f) light (lucifer) 

mensis, mensis (m) month

navigium, -iī (n) sailing, navigation 

nox, noctis (f) night (nocturnal) 

oppidum, oppidī (n) town, hill town 

periculum, periculī (n) danger

porta, portae (f) gate

sapientia, sapientiae (f) cleverness, intelligence

signum, signī (n) sign, signal  

silva, silvae (f) forest 

somnus, somnī (m) sleep

trēs, trium, tribus, trēs , tribus - three

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal, contemporary) 

terra, terrae (f) land 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife 

victoria, -ae (f) victory 

 

acer, acris, acre (3 term. 3rd) fierce, harsh, sharp (acrid) 

ater, atra, atrum - dark 

audax, audacis (1 term. 3rd) bold, audacious

brevis, breve (2 term. 3rd. decl.) - short, brief 

celer, celeris, celere (3 term. 3rd) fast, quick

cēterī, cēterae,  cētera - the rest, the others (et cetera = etc.) 

dulcis, dulce (2 term. 3rd. decl.) - short, brief

fessus, fessa, fessum - weary, tired 

fortis, forte (2 term. 3rd. decl.) brave, strong

ingens, ingentis (1 term. 3rd. decl.) huge

gravis, grave (2 term. 3rd. decl.) heavy, serious

laetus, a, um - happy 

lentus, a, um - slow

multī, multae, multa - many 

omnis, omne (2 term. 3rd. decl.) all

paucī, paucae, pauca - a few, few (paucity) 

prīmus, a, um - first

secundus, a, um - second 

tertius, a, um - third 

tristis, triste (2 term. 3rd. decl.)

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

ante (prep. + acc.) before

diū (adv.) for a long time 

dum (subordinating conj.) while 

longē (adv.) far

-que (enclitic) and (coordinating conjunction) 

quō (adv. interrogative) where? 

saepe (adv.) often

tandem (adv.) at last, finally

trans (prep. + acc. ) across

ubi (subordinating conj.) when; where

unde (adv.) from where, whence 

 

List of 3rd Conjugation Verbs 

alō, alere, aluī, altus - to nourish, to support, to cherish 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead, to drive, to spend, to pass (action, agenda, agent, actor, 

carpō, carpere, carpsī, carptus - to seize, to pick, to pluck (carpe diem)

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus (intransitive verb) - to fall (cadence, occasion, occidental) 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, to slaughter 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go; to yield (procede, antecedent, procession, recession) 

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - to cultivate, to worship (horticulture, culture, cult, occult) 

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coactus - to compel, to drive together

condō, condere, condidī, conditus - to found, to establish (ab urbe conditā = AUC

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus - to run (current, cursive, incursion, course, curriculum) 

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus - to say (diction, dictionary, dictation) 

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (aqueduct, duct, reduction, induction, produce) 

discō, discere, didicī - to learn 

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus - to bring, to bear, to carry (odiferous, translation, relation, refer, confer) 

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus - to carry on, to wage, to manage, to wear, to do, to perform

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose; to read (election, select, lector) 

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmission, omit, transmit) 

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentus - to show (ostensible, ostentatious) 

parcō, parcere, pepercī (+ dative case) - to spare

pello, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive, to strike (repel, expel, repulsive, expulsion) 

petō, petere, petīvī, petītus - to seek (petition, competition) 

premō, premere, pressī, pressus - to control, to press, to pursue (pressure, oppression) 

ponō, pōnere, posuī, positus - to put, to place (position, apposition, opposition, exponent) 

regō, regere, rēxī, rēctus - to rule, to guide, to direct

relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus - to leave behind, abandon (relinquish) 

scribō, scribere, scripsī, scriptus - to write (manuscript, scribe, inscription, proscription)

solvō, solvere, solvī, solutus - to set free (absolve, absolution, solvent, solve) 

sumō, sumere, sumpsī, sumptus - to take up, to assume, to consume (consumption, assumption, assume) 

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tangible, tactile) 

tegō, tegere, tēxī, tectus - to cover (protect) 

tendō, tendere, tetendī, tentus/tēnsus - to expend, to stretch (extension, tendent) 

trādō, trādere, tradidī, trāditus - to hand over, surrender (tradition) 

trahō, trahere, traxī, tractus - to pull, to drag (tractor, attraction, detractor) 

vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn (revert, intravert, extravert, convert, revert, reverse, reversion) 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (victor, invincible, vēnī, vīdī, vīcī

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī, vīctus - to live (vivacious, vital

Vocabulary List of  3nd Declension Consonant Stem Nouns & a Few Verbs. 

clamō, clamāre, clamāvī, clamātus - to shout (exclamation) 

deleō, delēre, delēvī, delētus - to destroy (delete) 

desiderō, desiderāre - to desire 

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus - to carry (transport, to carry) 

regnō, regnāre - to reign 

temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus - to try (temptation) 

 

aetās, aetātis (f) age, time of life (eternity, eternal) 

amor, amōris (m) love (amorous, amatory) 

carmen, carminis (n) song, poem (charm) 

celeritās, celeritātis (f) speed (celerity) 

cīvitās, cīvitātis (f) citizenship, city-state, nation 

cīvis, cīvis (m) citizen (this is an “i” stem 3rd decl. noun) 

consul, consulis (m) consul = chief elected magistrate of Roman Republic

corpus, corporis (n) body (corpus, corporal, corpse, corporation) 

dux, ducis (m) leader (duke, Doge) 

flumen, fluminis (n) river

frāter, frātris (m) brother (fratricide, fraternal, fraternity) 

fulmen, fulminis (n) lightening, thunderbolt (fulminate) 

funus, funeris (n) death, funeral 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan

genus, generis (n) kind (genus, sui generis

homo, hominis (m) man, human begin (homo sapiens, ad hominem) 

imperātor, imperatōris (m) commander, general (emperor) 

legiō, legiōnis (f) legion (unit of Roman army,  3600-6000 milites)

labor, labōris (m) work, labor) 

lībertās, lībertātis (f) liberty, freedom 

lītus, lītoris (n) shore (littoral) 

mater, matris (f) mother (material, matriarch) 

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier (military, militant) 

mōlēs, mōlis (f) mass, burden, weight (mole) 

mōs, mōris (m) habit, custom (mores, morals, mos maiorum

mors, mortis (f) death 

mulier, mulieris (f) woman

nōmen, nōminis (n) name (noun, nomenclature) 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labor (magnum opus) 

orbis, orbis (m) circle, disk, orb (orb, orbit, orbital) 

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face

pastor, pastoris (m) shepherd 

pater, patris (m) father (paternal, patriarch, paterfamilias

pāx, pācis (f) peace (Pax Romana, pacify) 

pēs, pedis (m) foot (pedal, pedestrian, pedestal) 

pietās, piētātis (f) familial devotion, loyalty (piety) 

pons, pontis (m) bridge (Pontifex Maximus)

rēx, rēgis (m) king (Oedipus Rex) 

tempestās, tempestātis (f) storm, season, weather (tempest) 

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal, temporary, 

uxor, uxōris (f) wife (uxorius) 

urbs, urbis (f) city (this is an “i” stem 3rd decl. noun) 

vōx, vōcis (f) voice (vociferous, vox populi

vēritās, vēritātis (f) truth (veracity, in vino veritas) 

virgō, virginis (f) maiden (Virgo, virgin, virginal) 

virtūs, virtūtis (f) courage, valour, virtus) 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound (vulnerable)

Vocabulary for Minerva et Arachne & 2nd Declension Nouns

First and Second Conjugation Verbs:

ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī, ambulātus - to walk (ambulatory) 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus - to teach (docent, doctor)

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have, to hold (habitual, Fr. avoir;  It. avere, Sp.  haber)

mōnstrō, mōnstrāre, mōnstrāvī, mōnstrātus - to show (demonstrate, domonstrative)

mordeō, mordēre, momordī, morsus - to bit (mordant, morsel) 

mūtō, mutāre, mutāvī, mutātus - to change (mutation, mutant)

necō, necāre, necāvī, necātus - to kill 

negō, negāre, negāvī, negātus - to deny, say no to (negate, negation) 

pendeō, pendēre, pependī, pensus - to hang (pendent, pendulum)

respondeō, respondēre, respondī, responsus - to respond

temptō,temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus - to attemp

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call (invoke, evocative, invocation, vocation)

simulō, simulāre, simulāvī, simulātus - to simulate

 

Nouns of the Second Declension"

ager, agrī (m) field, farmland (agriculture) 

magister, magistrī (m) master, teacher

liber, liberī (m) book (ex librīs) 

puer, puerī (m) boy (puerile) 

vir, virī (m) man; hero; husband (virile) 

 

amīcus, amīcī (m) friend (amicable) 

animus, animī (m) soul, mind, spirit 

campus, campī (m) plain 

cibus, cibī (m) food

dominus, dominī (m) master, lord ( dominus et deus) 

deus, deī (m) god (deus = vocative case) Deus ex Machinā

discipulus, discipulī (m) student (disciple) 

dolus, dolī (m) trick, deception 

equus, equī (m) horse (equine) 

fīlius, fīliī (m) son (filial) 

gladius, gladiī (m) sword (gladiator) 

hortus, hortī (n) garden (horticulture) 

inimīcus, inimīcī (m) personal enemy (inimical) 

iocus, iocī (m) joke (jocular) 

modus, modī (m) way, method; measure 

mūrus, mūrī (n) wall (intramural, mural) 

nasus, nasī (m) nose (nasal) 

numerus, numerī (m) number (numerus) 

oculus, oculī (m) eye (ocular) 

populus, populī (m) people (SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus

servus, servī (m) slave, servant (servile) 

socius, sociī (m) ally (social, society) 

somnus, somnī (m) sleep (insomnia) 

 

humus, humī (Femininine) ground (exhume, inhumation) 

 

aurum, aurī (n) gold (AU) 

auxilium, auxiliī (n) help, aid (auxiliary) 

atrium, atriī (n) atrium, central room in a Roman domus

caelum, caelī (n) sky, heaven (ceiling) 

consilium, consiliī (n) plan, advice, strategy 

basium, basiī (n) kiss

dōnum, dōnī (n) gift (donation) 

bellum, bellī (n) war (bellicose, belligerent, antebellum) 

ferrum, ferrī (n) iron; sword (FE)

forum, forī (n) forum, public square

initium, initiī (n) beginning (initial, initiate) 

officium, officiī (n) duty (official, office, officious) 

odium, odiī (n) hatred (odium) 

oppidum, oppidī (n) town, hill town 

otium, otiī (n) leisure 

periculum, periculī (n) danger 

pomum, pomī (n) fruit, apple

proelium, proeliī (n) battle 

imperium, imperiī (n) power, command; empire (imperial, empire) 

regnum, regnī (n) kingdom; kingship; royal power

remedium, remediī (n) cure

saxum, saxī (n) rock 

signum, signī (n) sign, signal; battle standard 

studium, studiī (n) zeal, eagerness; study, pursuit 

tectum, tectī (n) roof; building 

templum, templī (n) sacred space, shrine; temple 

verbum, verbī (n) word (verb, verbal, verbose) 

vinculum, vinculī (n) chain, bond

 

First/Second Declension Adjectives:

altus, a, um - high, lofty, deep 

carus, a, um - dear

clārus, a, um - bright, famous, illustrius

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh

latus, a, um - wide

foedus, a, um - ugly, disgraceful

saevus, a, um - savage, cruel

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

dexter, dextera, dexterum - right

līber, lībera, līberum - free

miser, misera, miserum - poor, wretch, miserable 

noster, nostra, nostrum - our 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful

sinister, sinistra, sinstrum - left

 


List of 1st Declension Nouns & Other Words. The list stops at the mosaic of Europa. 

Feminine First Declension Words:

amīcitia, amīcitiae (f) friendship

aquila, aquilae (f) eagle 

aqua, aquae (f) water 

amīca, amīcae (f) friend (female) 

audācia, audāciae (f) boldness, audacity

cauda, caudae (f) tail (of an animal)

causa, causae (f) cause, reason; trial 

copia, copiae (f) supply, abundance

cura, curae (f) care, worry, anxiety 

dea, deae (f) goddess 

domina, dominae (f) mistress of domus

fābula, fābulae (f) story 

fāma, fāmae (f) rumor, story, report

fēmina, fēminae (f) woman

forma, formae (f) sharp, beauty 

fortūna, fortūnae (f) luck, fortune 

fīlia, fīliae (f) daughter 

glōria, glōriae (f) glory, fame, renown 

grātia, grātiae (f) favour, influence, charm, thanks

hōra, hōrae (f) hour

insula, insulae (f) island; apartment building 

invidia, invidiae (f) jealousy, envy, spite 

iānua, iānuae (f) door

īra, īrae (f) anger 

laetitia, laetitiae (f) joy

lūna, lūnae (f) moon

mātrona, mātronae (f) lady

mensa, mensae (f) table

mora, morae (f) delay

nympha, nymphae (f) nymph

patria, patriae (f) fatherland 

pecūnia, pecūniae (f) money

potentia, potentiae (f) power

porta, portae (f) gate

prudentia, prudentiae (f) wisdom, prudence 

prōvincia, prōvinciae (f) province 

puella, puellae (f) girl 

rāna, rānae (f) frog

rēgīna, rēgīnae (f) queen 

rēgia, rēgiae (f) palace

rosa, rosae (f) rose

terra, terrae (f) land

sagitta, sagittae (f) arrow

silva, silvae (f) forest 

sīmia, sīmiae (f) monkey 

stella, stellae (f) star 

superbia, superbiae (f) arrogance 

umbra, umbrae (f) shadow, shade, ghost

ursa, ursae (f) bear

via, viae (f) road, path

vīta, vītae (f) life 

 

Masculine First Declension Words:

auriga, aurigae (m) charioteer 

poēta, poētae (m) poet

pīrata, pīratae (m) pirate

incola, incolae (m) tenant, inhabitant 

agricola, agricolae (m) farmer

nauta, nautae (m) sailor

 

First/Second Declension Adjectives: 

aureus, a, um - golden

bonus, a, um - good 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh

ferus, a, um - wild

formōsus, a, um - beautify, shapely 

laetus, a, um - happy 

lentus, a, um - slow

līber, lībera, līberum - free

miser, misera, miserum - poor, wretched 

malus, a, um -bad

magnus, -a, um - great

multus, a, um - many 

parvus, a, um - small 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful 

saevus, a, um - savage

tardus, a, um - slow, late

 

 

Possessive Adjectives

meus, a, um - my

tuus, a, um - your (singular) 

noster, nostra, nostrum - our

vester, vestra, vestrum - your (plural)

 

Prepositions Governing Ablative Case:

Sub - under (place where)

In - in, on (place where) 

- down from, about, concerning

Sine - without (sinecure) 

Prō - on behalf of, instead of, in front of 

Ab (ā) - from, by 

Cum - with

Ex (ē) - from, out of 

 

 

Prepositions Governing the Accusative Case:

ad - to, toward

per - through, along

in - into

sub - under (going) 

trans - across

 

New 1st or 2nd Conjugation Verbs: 

ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāvī, amubātus - to walk (ambulatory) 

habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātus - to dwell, to live

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order + accusative case + infinitive 

maneō, manēre, mansī, mansus - to remain, to stay

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move 

narrō, narrāre, narrāvī, narrātus - to tell (narrate) 

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus (transport) 

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus - to fight

sedeō, sedēre, sedī - to sit (sedentary)

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to watch, to look at

stō, stāre, stetī, status - to stand (Spanish   estar) 

STOP HERE FOR SEMESTER EXAM 2016-7


Vocabulary List for The Reigns of Numa and Tullus

ago, agere, egi, actus- to do, to spend, to pass, to lead

aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus - to open, to reveal 

capio, capere, cepi, captus - to take, to capter 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, to establish 

constituo, constituere - to decide + infinitive 

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe 

facio, facere, feci, factus - to do, to make 

fio, fieri, factus sum-to be made, to happen, to become 

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to manage, wage; to wear

mitto, mittere, misi, missus - to send

lego, legere, legi, lectus - to choose, to pick; to read 

pugno (1) to fight 

pono, ponere, posui, positus - to put, to place

possum, posse, potui - to be able+ complementary infinitive 

reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditus - to give back, return 

servo (1) to save, preserve 

sum, esse, fui, futurus - to be

supero (1) to suprass, to defeat

timeo, timere, timui - to fear

venio, venire, vēni, ventus - to come 

voco (1) to call 

 

arma, -orum (n. pl.) weapons, arms 

bellum, belli (n) war

caedes, caedis (f) slaughter 

causa, -ae (f) reason, cause 

consilium, -ii (n) plan 

filius, filii (m) son 

imperium, -ii (n) power 

laetus, a, um - happy

miles, militis (m) soldier 

porta, -ae (f) gates; doors 

praeda, -ae (f) booty, plunder 

proelium, -ii (n) battle 

 

Albanus, a, um - Albans 

audax, audacis (adj.) bold 

ceteri, ceterae, cetera - the other(et cetera) 

ferox, ferocis (adj.) fierce 

fessus, a, um - weary, exhausted 

geminus, a, um - twin 

integer, integra, integrum - unhurt, untouched, unharmed 

lectus, a, um - chosen

par, paris (adj.) equal 

pauci, paucae, pauca - few 

 

neque…neque (conj.) neither…nor 

numquam (adv.) never

Vocabulary List for Civitas Romana

adduco, adducere, adduxi, adductus (ad + duco) to entice, to influence, to led 

augeo, augere, auxi, auctus - to increase 

consulo, consulere - discuss, to deliberate 

conservo (1) to save, preserve 

facio, facere, feci, factus - to make, to do 

munio, munire, munivi, munitus - to build, to fortify 

pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsus - to drive out

propero (1) to hasten, to rush 

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - to guide, to rule

remitto, remittere, remisi, remissus (re+mitto) to give up, to relax

removeo, removere, removi, remotus - to remove

spero (1) to hope for, to expect

spiro, spirare - to breath, to relax

supero (1) to surpass, to defeat

terreo, terrere, terrui, territus - to frighten

timeo, timere - to fear

valeo, valere - to be healthy, to be sound

 

animus, animi (m) mind

arma, armōrum (n. pl.) weapons

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) authority

auxilium, -ii (n) help

consilium, consilii (n) plan, advice

cor, cordis (n) heart

cura, -ae (f) worry, concern (sinecure) 

cupiditas, cupiditatis (f) desire

dominus, -i (m) master

fuga, -ae (f) flight

hiems, hiemis (f) winter

imperium, -ii (n) power, command

ius, iuris (n) law, right

lex, legis (f) law

libertas, libertatis (f) liberty, freedom

modus, modī (m) a way, method, means

pars, partis (f) part, side, direction

pecunia, -ae (f) money

periculum, -i (n) danger

praeda, -ae (f) booty, plunder

proelium, -ii (n) battle

pugna, -ae (f) fight 

virtus, virtutis (f) courage

 

aequus a, um - equal, just, fair 

communis, commune - common 

duo, duae, duo - two 

firmus, a, um - strong, solid, healthy 

finitimus, a, um - neighboring 

incertus, a, um - uncertain 

pauci, paucae, pauca  - few 

perpetuus, a, um - everlasting, continous 

superbus, a, um - proud, arrogant 

tertius, a, um - third 

ultimus, a, um - last, farthest 

verus, a, um - true 

 

aequē (adv.) justly, equally

itaque (adv.) and so 

non iam (adv.) no longer 

nunc (adv.) now

ob (prep. + acc.) on account of 

tum (adv.)  then

 

Vocabulary for Sāturnus et Iuppiter

Be able to decline as part of the quiz.   

 mare altum & mons durus & proelium longum

cogo, cogere, coegī, coactus (co + ago)- tocompel 

devoro, devorāre - to devour 

expello, expellere, expuli, expulsus - to drive out

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to wage; to manage; to wear

mitto, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send 

moneo, monēre, monui, monitus - to advise, to warn (admonish, admonition) 

permitto, permittere, permisi, permissus - to permit (per + mitto) 

pono, ponere, posui, positus - to place, to put 

(deposit, apposition, exponent, opponent)

reddo, reddere - to give back 

servo, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to save 

specto, spectāre - to look at, to watch 

supero, superāre, superāvi, superātus - to surpass, defeat

terreo, terrēre, terrui, territus - to frighten 

 

aetās, aetātis (f) age; period of time 

aestās, aestātis (f) summer

auctōritās, auctōritātis (f) personal authority; personal power

auctor, auctoris (m) creator, agent; doer 

īnsula, -ae (f) island, city block, apartment block (insular, peninsula) 

mare, maris (n) sea (marine, ab marī usque ad mare

mons, montis (m) mountain 

ordo, ordinis (m) rank, class, order  

pars, partis (f) part, side, direct (+ partitive genitive/pars nostrum = “part of us”) 

poena, -ae (f) punishment (sub poenā) 

proelium, proelii (n) battle 

regia, -ae (f) palace 

regnum, regnī (n) kingdom; royal power, kingship 

verbum, verbī (n) words (verb, verbiage, verbose)

 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh (durable) 

fortis, fortis, forte - brave, strong

inferus, a, um - below (infernal) 

praeceps, praeciptis (adj.) headlong, headfirst 

relinqui, -ae, a - the remain, the left over 

 

ex quō = from which, from whom  

posteā (adv.) afterwards

quem (acc. masc.) whom, which 

 

Decline:    

 mare altum & mons durus & proelium longum

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vocabulary for A New Kinsman

accedo, accedere, accessi, accessus (ad + cedo) - to approach, go toward (access) 

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to worship; cultivate (cult, culture)

cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitus - to desire, to want (cupidity, Cupid) 

curro, currere, cucurri, cursus - to run (curriculum)

discedo, discedere, discessi, discessus (dis + cedo)- to depart, go away

dīco, dīcere, dīxī, dictus - to say (dictionary) 

fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bring, bear, carry (transfer, translate)

gero, gerere, gessi, gestus - to wear; to wage; to manage 

līberō, līberāre - to free (liberate)

procedo, procedere, processi, procession (pro + cedo) to advance, proceed (procession) 

propero, properare - to hasten, to rush 

rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatus - to ask (interrogate, interrogative) 

scio, scire, scivi, scitus - to know (science, omniscient) 

servo, servare, servavi, servatus - to preserve, to save

servio, servīre (+ dative) to serve (servile) 

venio, venīre, vēnī, venturus - to come (advent, convention) 

 

aedificium, -ii (n) building (edifice) 

condicio, condicionis (f) condition 

dux, ducis (m) leader, general (duke)

lux, lucis (f) light (fiat lux; prima luce)

nomen, nominis (n) name (nomenclature) 

salūs, salūtis (f) heath, safety; greetings 

pecunia, pecuniae (f) money (pecuniary) 

potestas, potestatis (f) power

praetor, praetoris (m) praetor, an annual elected magistrate who runs the law courts 

tempus, temporis (n) time (brevī tempore; eō ipsō tempore) 

 

brevis, -is, -e  - brief, short

clarus, a, um - clear, bright; famous 

creber, crebra, crebrum - frequent, close together, crowded 

gratus, a, um - pleasing to + DATIVE CASE

humilis, -is, -e- low to the ground; humble 

minimus, a, um - smallest, youngest 

novus, a, um - new, strange, novel 

patrius, a, um - of a father, fatherly 

plures, plura (plural) more

 

inter (prep. + acc.) between; among 

nunc (adv.) now 

iam (adv.) now already

nōn iam (adv.) no longer 

nonne (expects answer “yes”)

num (expects answer “no”)

Gratiās tibi ago - I give thanks to you

Vocabulary List for A Roman Family: At Home

adsum, adesse, adfui - to be present apello (1) to name, to call (appellation)

colo, colere, colui, cultus - to cultivate, worship, look after (cult, culture)
cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitus - to desire (cupid, cupidity)

doceo, docēre, docuī, doctus - to teach (+ acc. of person and acc. of thing) (doctor, docent)
gero, gerere, gessī, gestus - to manage, to do, to wage; to wear

habeo, habēre, habui, habitus - to have, to possess (avoir)
lego, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to choose; to read (legible, election, select)

nosco, noscere, novi, notus - to recognize, be familiar with; to know
obtineo, obtinere, obtinui, obtentus - to obtain

puto, putare, putavi, putatus - to think (computer)

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - to rule, guide, direct (regent, rectify)
teneo, tenere, tenui, tentus - to hold (tenacious)

volvo, volvere - to turn over, revolve (revolution)

aedificium, aedificiī (n) building (edifice) auctōritās, auctōritātis (f) reputation, personal authority
annus, annī (m) year (annual)

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason, case
causā + preceding genitive = for the sake of cīvitās, cīvitātis (f) state, citizen body, citizenship; city
factum, -ī (n) deed, act
familia, -ae (f) family
homo, hominis (m) man, human being (homo sapiens, homo erectus)
iūs, iūris (n) law (justive
labor, laboris (m) work, labour
līber, līberī (m) child
liber, librī (m) book (ex librīs, library)
mens, mentis (f) mind (mens sana in corpore sano)

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier (military)

officium, officiī (n) duty (office, official, officious)
pax, pacis (f) peace (pax vobiscum)

populus, -ī (m) people (SPQR = Senatus Populusque Romanus)

potestās, potestātis (f) power (Patria Potestas = fatherly power)
princeps, principis (m) first-head, chief, princeps (prince, principate)

somnus, -i (m) sleep (insomnia)
schola, -ae (f) school (scholar, scholarship)

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal, temporary, temporize)
verbum, verbī (n) word (verbose, verbal, verbiage)
vīta, -ae (f) life (CV = curriculum vitae)

acer, acris, acre - keen, fierce (acrid) aequus, a, um - equal
doctus, a, um - learned, educated facilis, facile - easy (facile)

levis, leve - light (in weight) (levitate)
maior, maioris (adj.) - great, larger (major, majority)
minor, minoris (adj.) smaller, younger (minor, minority)
nobilis, nobile - noble
paucī, paucae, pauca - few (paucity) publicus, a, um - public
tres, trium - three
tōtus, a, um (-ius variation) - whole, entire (total, todo bene, tutto bene)
tūtus, a, um - safe

alii...alii = some...other
de quo? About what?
iam (adv.) now, already
nōn iam = no longer
quod (pronoun) = which, that
quod (subordinating conj.) because quam ob causam = for what reason

 

Tarpeiabeing crushed by scuta

Tarpeiabeing crushed by scuta

 

Tarpeia Vocabulary 

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus, a, um - to order + acc. + infinitive

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send 

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey

quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitus - to seek

specto (1) to look at 

Irregular Verbs: 

eō, īre, iī or ivi, itūrus, a, um 

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to happen, to become (copulative verb)

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus, a, um - to bring, bear, endure

malō, malle, maluī - to prefer

nolō, nolle, noluī, - to not want

possum, posse, potuī - to be able 

sum, esse fuī, futūrus, a, um 

volō, velle, voluī - to want, to wish 

 

arx, acris (f) citadel 

cōpia, -ae (f) supply, abundance; in plural = troops 

dolus, dolī (m) trick, deception 

iniūria, -ae (f) injury, wrong 

mulier, mulieris (f) woman 

poena, -ae (f) punishment (sub poenā) 

proditio, proditionis (f) treachery 

scutum, scutī (n) shield 

via, -ae (f) road, path 

 

audax, audacis (adj.) bold 

aureus, a, um - golden (AU)

certus, a, um - sure, certain 

miser, misera, miserum - wretched, poor, miserable 

laevus, a, um - left 

tōtus, a, um (ius paradigm) whole, entire

tūtus, a, um - safe

 

causā + preceding genitive = for the sake of

 


Vocabulary for De Urbe Condita/Romulus et Remus. 

Aeneas, Aeneae (m) profugus Troianus/conditor gentis Romanae

Ascanius/Iulus- filius Aeneae

Lavinia, -ae (f) Filia regis, Latinī et Secunda uxor Aeneae

Lavinium, -ii (n) oppidum conditum ab Aeneā in Latiō

Alba Longa, Albae, Longae (f) - city founded by Ascanius/Iulus south of Rome

Mars, Martis (m) deus belli et pater Romuli Remique

Rhea Silvia, Rheae, Silviae (f) filia Numitor/Virgo Vestalis/mater Romuli Remique/

Mons Palatinus - Palatine Hill 

Numitor, Numitoris (m) bonus rex Albae Longae

Amulius, Amulii (m) malus rex Albae Longae, scelestus frater Numitoris 

 

apello, apellare, apellavi, apellatus - to name, to call 

constituo, constituere, constitui, constitūtum - to decide + complementary Infintive 

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, to establish (ab urbe condita)

curo, curare - to look after, care for 

duco, ducere, duxi, ductus - to lead (aqueduct, conduct, conductor) 

expello, expellere, expuli, expulsus - to drive out, exile (expel, expulsion) 

facio, facere, feci, factus - to make, to do 

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus - to throw (eject)

invenio, invenire, inveni, inventus - to find, to discover (in + venio) (invent, inventor) 

interfecio, interficere, interfeci, interfectus - to kill 

iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussus - to order (jussive) 

munio, munire, munivi, munitus - to build, to fortify 

porto, portare, portavi, portatus - to carry 

reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditus - to give back (re + do, dare) 

relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictus - to abandon, leave behind

transilio, transilire, transilui - to jump across 

 

 

frater, fratris (m) bother (fratricide, fraternal) 

flumen, fluminis (n) river 

geminus, -i (m) twin (gemini) 

iniuria, -ae (f) injury, wrong 

lupa, -ae (f) she-wolf (lupine) 

mons, montis (m) moutain (i-stem gen. pl. montium) 

mūrus, mūrī (m) wall (intramural, mural) 

oppidum, oppidī (n) town 

pastor, pastoris (m) shepherd 

posteri, -orum (m. pl) descendants (posterity) 

proelium, -ii (n) battle 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife 

 

audax, audacis - bold 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, harsh 

bonus, a, um - good

iratus, a, um - angry 

malus, a, um - bad

omnis, omne - all 

potens, potentis (adj.) powerful 

 

ā or ab + ablative = by (ablative of personal agent) 

diu (adv.) for a long time 

mox (adv.) soon 

prope (prep+ acc.) near

propter (prep. + acc.) on account of 

post (prep. + acc.) before 

postquam (subordinating conj.) afterward

Vocabulary List for Pyramus et Thisbe (Pars Prima) 

bibō, bibere, bibī, bibitum - to drink (arbiter bibendī) 

fugiō, fugiere, fūgī - to flee (refugee) 

relinquō, relinquere, reliquī, relictus - to leave behind, abandon (relinquish) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus - to feel, to sense, perceive 

trahō, trahere, traxī, tractus - to pull, to drag

vinco, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer 

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (advent, venture) 

 

aestās, aestātis (f) summer (aestival) 

consilium, -iī (n) plan, advise 

corpus, corporis (n) body

iter, itineris (n) journey (itinerary) 

fissum, fissī (n) crack (fissure) 

mors, mortis (f) death (ium in gen. pl.) 

ōra, ōrae (f) shore

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face 

parens, parentis (m/f) parent (parental) 

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporary) 

vox, vocis (f) voice

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound 

 

 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, harsh 

acūtus, a, um - sharp 

albus, a, um - white 

brevis, breve - short, brief (brevity)

dignus, a, um - worthy of + ablative case

omnis, omne - all 

vīcīnus, a, um - neighboring, close to (vicinity) + dative case

tōtus, a, um (ius paradigm) whole, entire (totally) 

 

at (adversative conj.) but

crās (adv.) tomorrow

hodiē (adv.) today

māne (adv.) in the morning

cur? (interrogative adv.) why? 

quot? (interrogative adj.) how may? 

quis?  who?

quid? what? why? 

ut = as, just as; when 

quia (subordinating conj.) because

quod (subordinating conj.) because

procul (adv.) from a distance 

hinc - from here, on this side

hūc - to this place

hīc - here, in this place

illinc - from there, on that side  

utrimque - on each side, from each side

New Vocabulary List for Phoebus Et Daphne

crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus - to increase, to grow (crescendo) 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to do, to make (fact, faction, factor, etc.) 

fīgō, fīgere, fīxī, fixus - fashion; transfix, pierce 

fugitō, fugitāre, fugitāvī - to flee

fugō, fugāre - to put to flight 

laudō, laudāre - to praise (summā cum laude) 

petō, petere, petīvī, petitus (competition, petition) 

superō, superāre, superāvī, superātus - to overcome, conquer

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possesses (tenacious) 

 

animal, animālis (n) animal 

ars, artis (f) artium - i-stem - skill, art (Ars Gratia Artis) 

arcus, arcūs (m) bow

amor, amoris (m) love (amatory, amorous) 

causa, -ae (f) cause, reason 

caput, capitis (n) head (decapitate, capital) 

dolor, dolōris (m) suffering, pain 

flūmen, flūminis (n) river

hostis, hostis (m) enemy (i-stem) 

īra, īrae (f) anger, wrath (irate) 

mare, maris (n) sea (maritime, marine) 

mons, montis (m) mountain (i-stem) 

osculum, osculī (n) kill 

pater, patris (m) father  

rāmus, rāmī (m) branch 

sagitta, sagittae (f) arrow

sōl, sōlis (m) sun (solar)

urbs, urbis (f) city (i-stem) (urban, suburban, urbane) 

virgo, virginis (f) maiden (Virgo) 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound (vulnerable) 

 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, keen, sharp 

acūtus, a, um - sharp (acute) 

alter, altera, alterum - the other; one…the other (alternative) 

audax, audacis (adj.) bold, daring 

duo, duae, duo- two (dual) 

obtusus, a, um - dull (obtuse) 

omnis, omne - all (omniscient, omnipotent) 

perpetuus, a, um - everlasting, continuous 

primus, a, um - first (primal) 

superbus, a, um - arrogant, proud

 

hic, haec, hoc = this, these (demonstrative adjective) 

ille, illa, illud = that, those (demonstrative adjective)

quid? = what? or why? 

cur?  = Why? 

iterum (adv.) again, a second time 

ubi -  When;  Where 




abdo, abdere, abdidī, abditus - to hide 

dēspērō, dēspērāre, dēspērāvī, dēspērātus - to give up hope, dispare (de+spero) 

discēdō, discēdere, discessī, discessus - to depart, scatter, withdraw (dis + cēdō) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have, to possess 

facio, facere, fēcī, factus - to do, to make (fact, faction, factor) 

fugio, fugere, fūgī (fugitive, centrifugal) 

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus- to hold (tenacious) 

timeō, timēre, timuī - to fear, be afraid of (timid) 

veniō, venīre, vēnī - to come (advent, convene, Spanish venir


aetās, aetātis (f) age; period of time

aqua, aquae (f) water

annus, annī (m) year

celeritās, celeritātis (f) speed

cibus, cibī (m) food

dies, dieī (m) day

dolus, dolī (m) trick 

dōnum, dōnī (n) gift

equus, equī (m) horse (equestrian, equine) 

flūmen, flūminis (n) river

genus, generis (n) race, class, kind (genus) 

hōra, -ae (f)   hour 

lux, lucis (f) light (lucifer) 

mensis, mensis (m) month

nox, noctis (f) night (nocturnal) 

porta, portae (f) gate

sapientia, sapientiae (f) cleverness, intelligence

signum, signī (n) sign 

silva, silvae (f) forest 

somnus, somnī (m) sleep

trēs, trium, tribus, trēs , tribus - three

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal, contemporary) 



ater, atra, atrum - dark 

fessus, fessa, fessum - weary, tired 

laetus, a, um - happy 

lentus, a, um - slow

multī, multae, multa - many 

paucī, paucae, pauca - a few, few (paucity) 

tertius, a, um - third 


ante (prep. + acc.) before

diū (adv.) for a long time 

longē (adv.) far

tandem (adv.) at last, finally

trans (prep. + acc. ) across

ubi (subordinating conjunction) when; where


appropinquō, appropinquāre,  appropinquāvi, appropinquātus - to approach (special verb + dative)    Ego oppidō appropinquō = I am approaching the town

debeō, debēre, debuī, debitus - to owe; ought + complementary infinitive 

cūro, cūrāre, cūrāvī - to care for 

interficiō, inferficere, interfēcī, interfectus - to kill 

nāvigō, nāvigāre, nāvigāvī - to sail 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper parātus

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey (special verb + dative case)  Nos deae parēbimus = we will obey the goddess. 

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize 

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (advent) 


castra, castrōrum (n. plural) military camp (Manchester) 

consilium, consiliī (n) plan, advice 

corpus, corporis (n) body

cōpia, -ae (f) abundance; in the plural = resources, troops (cornucopia

dux, ducis (m) leader

flūmen, fluminis (f) river

frāter, frātris (m) brother (fraternal

genus, generis (f) kind, race (genus

imperātor, imperātoris (m) commander, general 

iniūria, iniūriae (f) injury, wrong 

lītus, lītoris (n) shore (littoral

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier 

nāvis, nāvis (f) ship 

nāvigātio, nāvigātionis (f) a sailing, navigation 

nōmen, nōminis (n) name 

rēx, rēgis (m) king

proelium, proeliī (n) battle 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound


aequus, a, um - equal 

amīcus, a, um - friendly + dative case

grātus, a, um - pleasing + dative case

inimīcus, a, um - unfriendly, hostile + dative case

cārus, a, um - dear + dative case

parvus, a, um - small 


diū (adv.) for a long time 

ob (prep. + acc. ) on account of 

quod (subordinating conjunction) because

quoque - also, and also

saepe (adv.) often

semper (adv.) always (Spanish siempre) sīc semper tyrannīs


Vocabulary List for Niobe and Pan et Syringa

Words for Etymological Posters

  1. potentia, -ae;  possum, posse, potui (TOM) 

  2. via, -ae (f) (KNAIDE) 

  3. moneo (CAYCE) 

  4. teen (SAMANTHA) 

  5. ultimus (HARRY) 

  6. verus - veracity (MICHAEL) 

  7. līber - free- liberty (ASHLEY) 

  8. animus (QUINNNNNN) 

  9. ago (LAUREN W.) 

  10. sentio (SAM)

  11. maneo (RYAN) 

  12. culpa (LYDIA, REGION IN ASIA MINOR) 

  13. liber - book (RACHEL) 

  14. audio (LAUREN M.)

  15. Regina (REONA) 

  16. duco (ALEX) 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, lead, drive, give 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear, to listen (Lauren M.) 

capio, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, capture

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus - to say 

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have, to hold 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to do; to make (hacer) 

maneō, manēre, mansī, mansus - to remain (intransitive) 

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, advise 

possum, posse, potuī - to be able + complementary infinitive 

putō, putāre, putāvī, putātus - to think 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus - to sense, perceive 

stō, stāre, stetī, statum - to stand

superō, superāre, superāvī, superātus - to be above, surpass, defeat

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - hold, keep, possess, have

 

ager, agrī (m) field 

animus, animī (m) soul, spirit, mind (in plural = courage) 

āra, ārae (f) altar 

auxilium, auxiliī (n) help 

bracchium, bracchiī (n) arm

caelum caelī (n) sky 

causa, causae (f) cause, reason 

culpa, culpae (f) fault, blame (Lydia) 

dōnum dōnī (n) gift 

fīlius, fīliī (m) son 

forum, forī (n) forum 

liber, librī (m) book 

templum, templī (n) sacred area; temple 

officium, officiī (n) duty (official 

oppidum oppidī (n) town 

potentia, potentiae (f) power

rāmus, rāmī (m) branch 

rēgia, rēgiae (f) palace

rēgīna, rēgīnae (f) queen (Reona) 

rīpa, rīpae (f) bank (of a river) 

umbra, umbrae (f) shadow, shade; ghost 

unda, undae (f) 

via, viae (f) road, street (Knaide) 

vir, virī (m) man 

 

bonus, -a, -um - good 

clārus, -a, -um - famous, clear, bright, illustrious 

cēterus, -a, -um - other, the rest of (etc. = et cetera= and the other things)

formōsus, a, um - shapely, beautiful 

līber, lībera, līberum - free (līberī, līberōrum = children) 

malus, -a, -um - bad

miser, misera, miserum - wretched, unhappy, miserable 

plēnus, -a, -um - full of (+genitive case) 

umbrōsus, -a, -um shady 

ūltimus, -a, -um - the last

vērus, -a, -um - true (veracity) 

 

ad (prep. + acc. ) to, toward, 

trans (prep. + acc. ) across

per (prep. + acc. ) through 

prope (prep. + acc. ) near, close to 

propter (prep. + acc. ) on account of 

 

Words for Etymological Posters

  1. potentia, -ae;  possum, posse, potui (TOM) 

  2. via, -ae (f) (KNAIDE) 

  3. moneo (CAYCE) 

  4. teen (SAMANTHA) 

  5. ultimus (HARRY) 

  6. verus - veracity (MICHAEL) 

  7. līber - free- liberty (ASHLEY) 

  8. animus (QUINNNNNN) 

  9. ago (LAUREN W.) 

  10. sentio (SAM)

  11. maneo (RYAN) 

  12. culpa (LYDIA, REGION IN ASIA MINOR) 

  13. liber - book (RACHEL) 

  14. audio (LAUREN M.)

  15. Regina (REONA) 

  16. duco (ALEX) 


Fourth Vocabulary List - Arachne and Minerva, Parts I, II, III

Verbs

dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus - to own or ought + complementary infinitive

do, dare, dedī, datus - to give 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus - to teach (doctor, doctrine, docent) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus - to have, to hold (Spanish: haber 

mōnstrō, mōnstrāre, mōnstrāvī, mōnstrātus (demonstration) 

mūtō, mūtāre, mūtāvī, mūtātus - to change (mutation, mutate) 

necō, necāre, necāvī, necātus - to kill 

negō, negāre, negāvī, negātus - to deny 

pendeō, pendēre, pependī, pensus - to hang; to weight (pensive, pendulum, pendent) 

possum, posse, potuī - to be able + complementary infinitive 

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - to be 

temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus - to attempt, to try + complementary infinitive

video, vidēre, vīdī, visus - to see 


Nouns

arānea, arāneae (f) spider 

dea, deae (f) goddess

deus, deī (m) god

domina, dominae (f) lady, mistress of the household 

dominus, dominī (m) master, lord

factum, factī (n) deed

fēmina, fēminae (f) woman

forma, formae (f) form, shape; beautify 

oculus, oculī (m) eye

oppidum, oppidī (n) town 

perīculum, perīculī (n) danger

rapīna, rapīnae (f) a plundering, robbing; carrying off 

silva, silvae (f) forest 

vīta, vītae (f) life 


Adjectives

bonus, a, um - good (bonā fidē) 

formosus, a, um - beautiful 

īratus, a, um - angry 

longus, a, um - long

malus, a, um - bad

meus, a, um - my 

noster, nostra, nostrum - our 

optimus, a, um - very good, excellent; best 

perīculōsus, a, um - dangerous (lit. full of danger) 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful 

tuus, a, um - your

vester, vestra, vestrum - your (plural) 


Adverbs

diū - for a long time 

maximē - especially, exceedingly, very 

minimē - least; not in the least; not at all

nunc - now

prīmo or prīmum - at first, first 


Subordinating Conjunctions

dum + present indicative = while 

quod + indicative mood = because 


Coordinating Conjunctions

et - and 

neque- and not 

-que (enclitic)  - and   

sed - but

List for 3rd Vocabulary Quiz

ager, agrī (m) field 

aurum, aurī (n) gold

dea, deae (f) goddess

basium, basiī (n) kiss (sp. beso

bellum, bellī (n) war (bellicose, antebellum)

caelum, caelī (n) sky (ceiling, sp. cielo) 

consilium, consiliī (n) plan, judgment

deus, deī (m) god (deus ex machinā, deity) 

flius, filiī (m) son (filial, sp. hizo

īnsula, īnsulae (f) island; apartment building (insular) 

liber, libri (m) book (library) 

lupa, lupae (f) she-wolf (lupine) 

nauta, nautae (m) sailor (astronaut) 

patria, patriae (f) father land

perīculum, perīculī (n) danger 

poēta, poētae (m) poet

puer, puerī (m) boy (puerile) 

rāmus, rāmī (m) branch

saxum, saxī (n) rock 

taurus, taurī (m) bull (sp. toro) 

vir, virī (m) man (virile) 


do, dare, dedi, datus - to give (data)

errō, errāre, errāvī, errātus - to wander

fugitō, fugitāre, fugitāvī - to flee (fugitive) 

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus -to warn, advise (admonition, admonish, money) 

narrō, narrāre, narrāvī, narrātus - to tell (narrate) 

navigō, navigāre, navigāvī, navigātus - to sail 

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus - to carry (porter) 

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus (pugnacious, repugnant) 

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to look at, to watch

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus (vision, provision) 


molestus, a, um troublesome, annoying 

novus, a, um - strange, new (novelty) 

īnfirmus, a, um - weak (infirm) 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful, handsome (pulchritude) 

timidus, a, um - timid, afraid


ad (prep. + acc.) to, toward, at, against

cum (prep. + ablative) with (ablative of accompaniment) 

dē (prep. + ablative) down from, about, concerning 

dum (subordinating conj.) while


diū (adv.) for a long time 

nunc (adv.) now

ōlim (adv.) once, once upon a time 

trans (prep. + acc.) across



Ecce Romani, Chapter 1-3 Vocabulary/Dictionary Entries 

Verbs

ambulo, ambulāre, ambulāvī, ambulātus - to walk 

clamō, clamāre, clamāvī, clamātus - to shout

habito, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātus - to dwell

labōro, labōrāre, labōrāvī, labōrātus - to work 

sedeō, sedēre, sedī - to sit 

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - to be (irregular verb or suī generis) 


Nouns

aestās, aestātis (f) summer

ager, agrī (m) field 

amīcus, amīcī (m) friend 

amīca, amīcae (f) friend 

arbor, arboris (f) tree

hortus, hortī (m) garden

nomen, nominis (n) name

puella, puellae (f) girl 

puer, puerī (m) boy

pictūra, pictūrae (f) picture

servus, servī (m) servant, slave 

villa, -ae (f) country house/farm house 

vir, virī (m) man


Adjectives

dēfessus, dēfessa, dēfessum - tired 

īratus, īrata, īratum - angry 

lentus, lenta, lentum - slow

laetus, laeta, laetum  - happy 

multus, a, um  - many 

vīcīnus, vīcīna, vīcīnum - neighboring 


Adverbs

etiam (et) - also, even 

iam - now, already 

lentē - slowly 

hodiē - today 

subitō - suddenly 


Coordinating Conjunctions

sed - but 

et - and 


Subordinating Conjunctions

ubi - where

dum - while

quod - because