Instructions: Read pages 18-25 of Chapter One (The Ideal of Rome) in The World of Rome. Take notes and answer the following questions in detail. Be prepared to answer and discuss in class. This material will appear on quiz and test.
- Who defeated whom at the battle of Pydna in 168 BC? Who were the generals on each side? What happened to the Hellenistic Kingdom of Macedonia following this battle?
- By what means did the Romans maintain control over the city-states of Greece? Who was Polybius? What happened to him?
- What was the significance of King Attalus II’s statement that he could not declare war on anyone without first gaining Rome’s permission? What does this tell us about the nature of Roman imperium? Where was Attalus kingdon located? Place Pergamum on a map.
- How did Rome finally deal with Macedonia in 149 BC? What did Rome do to the Achaean League of Greek city-states?
- What events of 146 BC clearly showed Rome’s desire to stamp out any threats to its power? Find Corinth on a map of Greece.
Graecia capta…”Captured Greece…” (Horace, Epistles 2.1.225)
- What is the meaning and significance of the words of the Roman poet, Horace: Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit?
- How were Rome’s victorious generals treated in Greece? What great Macedonian general set this precedent for this standard practice in the Hellenistic world?
- Describe in detail the triumphal procession of a victorious Roman general? Where did their triumphal procession culminate? The triumphing general was honored almost as if he was ________________.
- Describe the impact on Rome itself and Roman society of conquest and the wealth that it generated? Give specific examples.
- Who was Appius Claudius Caecus and what did he do for Rome?
- What architectural ideas did the Romans bring back from the Hellenistic East? How did they apply them to their own needs? How was Roman changed physically in this period? Give specific examples. What was the relationship between new buildings in Rome and Roman political culture?
- Who was Plautus? Who was Q. Ennius? Who was Fabius Pictor? What did they achieve individually and collectively? What Greek authors influenced them?
- What is meant by the “Process of Hellenization of Rome”?
- Who was the Elder Cato (Cato Maior) and what was his reaction to the increasing Hellenization of Roman society? What political offices did he hold? What was his attitude toward Greek literature and Roman morality? What paradox do Cato’s attitudes reveal?
- Who was Scipio Aemilianus? What did he achieve for Rome?
- What is the significance of the remarks made by Scipio Aemilianus to Polybius following the final destruction of Carthage by Rome in 146 BC.
The Spoils of Empire
- Describe the dark side of Rome’s rise to power? How did the Romans treat their subject peoples? How was extortion a problem? Gives examples.
- What is the significance of Cicero’s words at end of paragraph 44 on page 25? How did competition for political offices and power at Rome impact the governance of Proviciae Romanae?