Final List for the Matron of Ephesus 

Be able to decline: quaedam fortis manus or hoc grave vulnus

Verb Game on: sequor, sequi, secutus sum or cogō, cogere, coēgī, coactus

accidō, accidere, accidī (ad + cado) to happen; it happened that; to fall toward (accident)

aggredior, aggredī, aggressus sum - to approach, to attack (aggressive) 

cogō, cogere, coēgī, coactus - to compel, to drive together 

fleō, flēre - to cry

frangō, frangere, frēgī, fractus - to break (fragile, fracture) 

fulgeō, fulgēre, fulsī - to shine

fruor, fruī, fructus sum (+ abl.) to enjoy

hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum - to urge (exhortation) 

iaceō, iacēre, iacuī - to lie (James lies on the floor with the fox. He is always lying on the floor with the fox. Yesterday James lay on the floor with the fox and would not get up. Adriel has often lain with the same penguin on the floor. God Bless the fox, the penguin and the English language.

indignor (1) to be indignant 

licet licēre, licuit (+ dative) it is permitted 

mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus - to entrust, to send; to order  

moror, morārī, morātus sum - to delay (moratorium) 

morior, morī, mortuus sum - to die (mortuary) 

nitor, nitī, nisus sum (+ ablative) to rely on 

oportet, oportēre, oportuit (impers.) it is necessary, it is fitting + acc. + inf.  or ut/nē + subjunctive (noun clause) 

obliviscor, obliviscī oblitus sum - to forget, be forgetful of + genitive case (oblivion) 

orō (1) to plead, to pray, to beg (+ jussive noun clause or double accusative) 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to allow; to endure (passive, patient) 

potior, potīrī, potitus sum (+ genitive or ablative) - to gain possession of 

pateō, patēre, patuī - to be open, to be revealed, to lie open

persuādeō, persuādēre, persuāsī - to persuade + dative case + indirect command (ut/nē + subjuntive)

pereō, perīre (eo + ire) to perish

poscō, poscere, poposcī - to demand 

probō (1) to approve; to prove (probe, probation, probate, approve) 

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus - to burst, rupture, to break off (rupture) 

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus - to loosen, release, to free (solvent, solution, ablative absolute) 

sūmō, sūmere, sūmpsi, sūmptus - to take up, to take (assume, consume, resume) 

turbō, turbāre, turbāvī, turbātus - to disturb, to agitate (turbulent) 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

utor, utī, usus sum - to use, to employ + abl. 

 

miseret, miserere, miseruit - it makes the accusative pity the genitive

paenitet, paeniterem paenituit - it make s the accusative regret the genitive

pudet, pudere, puduit - it makes the accusative ashamed of the genitive

taedet, taedere, taeduit - it makes the accusative tired/bored of the genitive

 

ancilla, -ae (f) female servant/personal attendant 

arvum, arvī (n) cultivated field 

exemplum, ememplī (n) example (e.g. = exemplī gratiā) 

exitus, exitūs (m) exit, outcome, end (ex + eo, ire) 

facultās, facultātis (f) opportunity, capacity, means

grātia, -ae (f) favour, influence, charm; thanks

imāgō, imāginis (f) image, portrait mask or bust; ghost

iūdex, iūdicis (m) judge (judicial) 

lux, lūcis (f) light

lūmen, lūminis (n) light, eyes; lamp  

mānēs, mānium (m. pl.) spirits of the underworld (Dis Mānibus = D.M.) 

manus, manūs (f) hand; band

mēns, mēntis (f) mind (mens sana in corpore sano) 

mōs, mōris (m) custom (mos maiorum, mores) 

nūmen, nūminis (n) divine authority, divinity (numinous) 

onus, oneris (n) burden (onerous, onus, onus probandī

praesidium, praesidiī (n) guard, protection 

pondus, ponderis (n) weight (pound) 

pectus, pectoris (n) chest (pectoral) 

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, sentence (sentence) 

spīritus, -ūs (m) air; breath; spirit, soul (spiritus mundi) 

turba, turbae (f) crowd; whirlwind  

ūsus, ūsūs (m) use 

vīta, vītae (f) life (vital, curriculum vitae) 

vitium, vitiī (n) vice, fault, flaw (vice) 

vestigium, -iī (n) foot print; trace (vestiges) 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) - someone, something; anyone, anything 

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adjective) - some, a certain 

quisque, quaeque, quodque (indefinite pronoun) - each one, each thing 

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak

brevis, breve - short, brief (brevity) 

cupidus, a, um - desirous of + genitive 

gratus, a, um - pleasing + dative 

invītus, a, um - unwilling

ignotus, a, um - unknown, unfamiliar 

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

melior, melius (comp. adj,) better 

peior, peius (comp. adj,) worse

nōtus, a, um - known, familiar

ignotus, a, um - unfamiliar 

posterus, a, um - next, following (posterity) 

perītus, a, um - skilled at + genitive case

siccus, a, um - dry (desiccated) 

vērus, a, um - true (veracity) 

vīvus, a, um - alive, living 

vulgāris, vulgare - common (vulgar, vulgarian) 

 


autem (adv.) moreover 

at/ast (adversative conj.) but

diū (adv.) for a long time 

diūtius (adv.) for a longer time

diūtissimē (adv.) for a very long time

enim (post positive) for, in fact

igitur (post positive) therefore 

subinde (adv.) thereupon, promptly, constantly 

ūnā (adv.) together

aut…aut - either…or 

nōn tantum…sed etiam - not only but also 

nec…nec - neither… nor

neque…neque - neither… nor

quondam (adv.) once, formerly 

tot (indeclinable adjective) so many 

quot?  - how many

aliquot  some (some number)

vērō (post positive) indeed, in fact

vērum (adversative conj.) but

 

exemplī gratiā

post hoc ergo propter hoc 

onus probandī

modus vīvendī

modus operandī

mos maiorum

First List for the Matron of Ephesus

Be able to decline id melius opus or illud maius officium 

Expect a verb game on the back with either morior, mori or iacio, iacere

 

affīgō, affīgere, affīxī, affīxus (ad + figo)  - fasten upon, attach to (affix) 

confiteor, confitērī, confessus sum - to acknowledge (head verb) (confession)

conspiciō, conspicere, conspexī, conspectus - to catch sight of (conspicuous) 

dētrahō, dētrahere, dētraxī, dētractus - to pull/take down (detractor) 

fruor, fruī, fructus sum - to enjoy + ABLATIVE CASE (fructose) 

iaceō, iacēre, iacuī - to lie (adjacent) 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (eject) 

imperō (1) to command + dative + jussive noun clause (imperative) 

impendō, impendere - to hang on, to weight, place on the scales (impending) 

malō, malle, malui  - to prefer + comp. infinitive 

mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus - to entrust, to consign, to order (mandate) 

miror, mirārī, miratus sum - to wonder (at), be amazed (miracle) 

morior, morī, mortuus sum (F.A.P. = moritūrus, a, um) - to die (mortal)

obliviscor, obliviscī, oblitus sum - to forget + genitive case. (oblivion, oblivious) 

occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to cut down, to kill 

occidō, occidere, occidī, occasus - to fall, to set (occidental) sōl occidēns

oportet, oportēre, oportuit (impersonal verb) it is necessary + acc. + inf. or noun clause

orō, orāre - to pledge, to beg, to pray (+ ut + subjunctive or double acc.) 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow + acc. + infinitive (patient, passive) 

pateō, patēre, patuī - to lie open, to be revealed (intransitive) 

persuadeo, persuadēre, persuasī - to persuade + dative + jussive noun clause

pereo, perīre, periī, peritūrus, a, um (per + eo, ire) - to perish 

obeō, obīre, obiī, obitum -  go to meet; to meet death; to die (obituary) 

petō, petere, petivī, petitus - to seek (appetite, competition) 

potior, potīrī, potītus sum (+ gen. or abl.) gain possession/control of 

reor, rērī, ratus sum - to reckon; to think (rational, ratio) 

sinō, sinere - to allow + acc. + inf.  or ut + subjunctive (noun clause) 

spectō (1) to look upon, see, to watch 

tollō, tollere, subtulī, sublātus - to raise, lift 

vacō (1) to be empty (vacant) 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

Three highly defective verbs (they lack the whole present system so only make perfect tenses) 

odī, odisse - to hate (odium)

memini, meminisse - to remember (defective verb) + genitive case 

coepī, coepisse, coeptus - to begin 


auxilium, auxiliī (n) help (auxiliary) 

ars, artis (f) skill, art

copia, copiae (f) supply, abundance; opportunity 

facultās, facultātis (f) opportunity; capability, possibility, power, means, opportunity; skill, ability to do any thing easily (faculty) + genitive case 

funus, funeris (n) funeral; death 

gemitus, gemitūs (m) groan, sigh 

homo, hominis (m) man (homo sapiens, homo erectus, ad hominem) 

ingenium, ingeniī (n) genius, intelligence (ingenuity) 

lūmen, lūminis (n) light; eye (luminous) 

maritus, maritī (m) husband

mors, mortis (f) death (mortal, moribund)

mōs, mōris (m) custom (mores; mos maiorum - custom of ancestors)

nūmen, nūminis (n) divine power (numinous) 

ordō, ordinis (m) rank, social class, order (ordinal, order) 

officium, officiī (n) duty (official, officious) 

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face

os, ossis (n) bone

ōra, ōrae (f) shore 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labor (magnum opus) 

opera, operae (f) attention, effort

ops, opis (f) power, influence 

populus, populī (m) people (SPQR - Senatus Populusque Romanus) 

praesidium, praesidiī (n) protection (praesidiō = for protection = dative of purpose) 

plūs, plūris (n. subst.) more + partitive genitive

ratiō, rationis (f) reason  (rational) 

rūs, rūris (n) countryside (rural) 

sinus, sinūs (m) fold, indentation, lap, bosom, bay, bend (sinus, insinuate) 

supplicium, suppliciī (n) punishment (supplication) 

studium, studiī (n) eagerness 

quisque, quidque (indefinite pron.) each one, each thing

carus, a, um - dear + dative 

cupidus, a, um - desirous + genitive 

defunctus, a, um - dead, deceased (defunct) 

fatālis, fatāle - fated; death-bringing  

fessus, a, um - tired, exhausted (+ genitive case) 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same (is, ea, id + dem)

idoneus, -a, um -  fit, suitable, apt, capable

memor, memōris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

maior, maius (comp. adj.) great, bigger; older (major) 

melior, melius (comp. adj.) better (ameliorate) 

perītus, a, um - skilled at + genitive 

imperītus, a, um - unskilled at + genitive

plēnus, a, um - full of + genitive case 

posterus, a, um - next, following (posterity) 

pudicus, a, um - chaste, virtuous

prudēns, prudentis - wise, clever (prudenter = wisely) 

studiōsus, a, um - eager for or to + genitive 

 

adeo (adv.) to such an extent 

at (adversative conj.) but, on the contrary 

atque or ac (coordinating conj.) and

causā + proceeding genitive case = for the sake of 

gratiā + proceeding genitive case = for the sake of 

deinde - then, next 

ergo (post positive) - therefore 

igitur (post positive)- therefore

magnopere (adv.) greatly 

magis (comp. adv.) more, rather 

minus (adv. comparative) - less

nihil (nīl) nothing; in no way (adverbial) 

propter (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of

totiēns - so many times 

quotiēns (adv.) as often as, how may times? 

quasī (conj.) as if 

secundum (prep. + acc.) next to; in accordance with; following

sīc (adv.) in this way, thus 

sine (prep. + abl.) without 

ultimō (adv.) finally

exemplī gratiā (i.e.) for the sake of an example 

post hoc ergo propter hoc - after this therefore because of this

onus probandī - the burden of proving

modus vīvendī - method of living

modus operandī - method of operation

Getty Villa Peristyle  d.jpg

discimus docendō



Pliny the Younger on Vesuvius

Misenum, Misenī (n) Cape Misenum, where Rome’s fleet on the Tyrrhenian Sea was based

 

aptō (1) to equip 

adspiciō, adspicere, adspexī, adspectus - to look at, inspect, to examine 

appareō, apparēre - to appear 

arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitratus sum (HV) - to judge, to consider (arbitrate, arbiter bibendī)

crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus - to increase, to grow (crescent moon, crescendo)

complector, complectī, complexus sum   to embrace (complex) 

cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum - to try

cognosco, congnoscere, cognovī, cognitus - to recognize, to learn 

conspicio, conspicere - to see, to catch sight of 

cunctor, cunctārī, cunctātus sum - to delay, to hesitate      (Fabius Maximus Cunctator)

ēgredior, ēgredi, ēgressus sum (egress) - to go out, to exit, to depart; disembark 

expremō, expremere, expressī, repressus - to express

incohō (1) to begin (inchoate, inchoative) 

ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus - to bring, to bear

flectō, flectere, flexī, flectus - to bend, to turn (reflexive, reflect, flexible) 

for, fārī, fatus sum  - to speak (infant, fate) 

hauriō, haurīre, hausī, haustus - to drain, to drink down 

iuvō, iuvāe, iuvī, iutus - to help, to aid 

indicō (1) to indicate, to point out (head verb) 

immineō, imminēre, imminuī - to loom over, to threaten + dative (imminent) 

mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum - to wonder, to admire, to be amazed (miraculous) 

adnoscō, noscere, novī, notus - to become familiar with, to inquire into, to investigate (nosce sē ipsum)

nītor, nītī, nīsus sum (+ ablative) - to lean or rest upon, to strive, to rely on 

obeō, obīre (ob + eo) - to complete, to perish (obituary) 

obstō, obstāre, obstetī - to block (obstacle) 

pereō, perīre - to perish 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise (sol oriens) 

orō, orāre, orāvī- to beg, pray, pled (oration, orant) 

persuadeō, persuadēre, persuasī + dative - to persuade 

poscō, poscere, poposcī - to demand 

recubō (1) to recline 

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - to rule, to guide, to direct 

rogō (1) to ask 

sequor, sequī, secūtus sum (Sp. sequir) - to follow

solvō, solvere, solvī, solutus - to set free, to release (ablative absolute) 

surgō, surgere, surrexī, surrectus - to rise (surge, insurrection) 

vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn

versor (1) to be turned again and again; to be engaged in  

 

animus, animī (m) courage, spirit, mind (animate) 

arbor, arboris (f) tree (arboreal) 

classis, classis (f) fleet (classification) 

discrimen, discriminis (n) crisis, danger

hora, horae (f) hour

mensis, mensis (m) month 

gubernāculum, -ī (n) oar used to steer a ship 

gubernātor, gubernātōris (m) helmsman (governor, gubernatorial) 

fax, facis (f) touch (for light but symbol of love and marriage) 

fuga, fugae (f) flight 

imperium, imperiī (n) power, command 

lapis, lapidis (m) stone (lapis lazuli) 

locum, locī (n) place, point, location 

magnitūdō, magnitūdinis (f) great size, mass (magnitude) 

miraculum, miraculī (n) miraculous or unusual thing/event

mons, montis (m) mountain 

motus, -ūs (m) movement 

nubes, nubis (n) cloud 

ōra, ōrae (f) shore, shoreline 

pīnus, -ūs (f) Italian Umbrella pine tree - See picture below

sinus, sinūs (m) fold, indenation, lap, bosoom; bay (sinus, insinuate) 

speciēs, specieī (f) appearance (species) 

spiritus, -ūs (m) breath (Spiritus Mundī) 

 

alius, alia, aliud (-ius paradigm) another 

angustus, a, um - narrow 

eruditus, a, um - learned (erudite) 

exterritus, a, um - terrified 

defuntus, a, um (= mortuus) - dead 

fortis, forte -  brave, strong 

indutus, a, um - clothed, dressed 

opertus, a, um - covered

incertus, a, um - unclear, uncertain 

invalidus, a, um - unhealthy, not strong 

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam - a certain, some


quisque, quidque - each one, each thing

tam (adv.) so, such

tantus, a, um - so great, such a size

tot (indecl. adj.) so many 

tālis, tāte (adj.) such a sort/kind


quam (adv.) how, as, than  

quantus, a, um - what size, how great

quot (indecl. adj.) how many 

quālis, quāle (adj.) what sort, what kind


adeo (adv.) to such an extent

ferē (adv.) nearly, almost

forte (adv.) by chance (fors, fortis (f) chance)

postea (adv.) afterward

procul (adv.) at a distance 

magis (adv.) more 

plūs (adv.) more

nōn modo (adv.) not only 

nōn modo…sed etiam - not only but also

nōndum (adv.) not yet

semel (adv.) at once 

tantum (adv.) only 

 

alibī (adv.) (alius + ibi) = elsewhere 

illuc (adv.) to that place

huc (adv. ) to this place

hīc (adv.) in this place

illīc (adv.) in that place

hinc (adv.) from this place

illinc (adv.) from that place


Italy 2011 topographical map of bay of naples vesuvius.png

Pliny the Younger on Vesuvius

Misenum, Misenī (n) Cape Misenum, where Rome’s fleet on the Tyrrhenian Sea was based

 

aptō (1) to equip 

adspiciō, adspicere, adspexī, adspectus - to look at, inspect, to examine 

appareō, apparēre - to appear 

arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitratus sum (HV) - to judge, to consider (arbitrate, arbiter bibendī)

crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus - to increase, to grow (crescent moon, crescendo)

complector, complectī, complexus sum   to embrace (complex) 

cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum - to try

cognosco, congnoscere, cognovī, cognitus - to recognize, to learn 

conspicio, conspicere - to see, to catch sight of 

cunctor, cunctārī, cunctātus sum - to delay, to hesitate      (Fabius Maximus Cunctator)

ēgredior, ēgredi, ēgressus sum (egress) - to go out, to exit, to depart; disembark 

expremō, expremere, expressī, repressus - to express

incohō (1) to begin (inchoate, inchoative) 

ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus - to bring, to bear

flectō, flectere, flexī, flectus - to bend, to turn (reflexive, reflect, flexible) 

for, fārī, fatus sum  - to speak (infant, fate) 

hauriō, haurīre, hausī, haustus - to drain, to drink down 

iuvō, iuvāe, iuvī, iutus - to help, to aid 

indicō (1) to indicate, to point out (head verb) 

immineō, imminēre, imminuī - to loom over, to threaten + dative (imminent) 

mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum - to wonder, to admire, to be amazed (miraculous) 

adnoscō, noscere, novī, notus - to become familiar with, to inquire into, to investigate (nosce sē ipsum)

nītor, nītī, nīsus sum (+ ablative) - to lean or rest upon, to strive, to rely on 

obeō, obīre (ob + eo) - to complete, to perish (obituary) 

obstō, obstāre, obstetī - to block (obstacle) 

pereō, perīre - to perish 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise (sol oriens) 

orō, orāre, orāvī- to beg, pray, pled (oration, orant) 

persuadeō, persuadēre, persuasī + dative - to persuade 

poscō, poscere, poposcī - to demand 

recubō (1) to recline 

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - to rule, to guide, to direct 

rogō (1) to ask 

sequor, sequī, secūtus sum (Sp. sequir) - to follow

solvō, solvere, solvī, solutus - to set free, to release (ablative absolute) 

vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn

versor (1) to be engaged in 

 

animus, animī (m) courage, spirit, mind (animate) 

arbor, arboris (f) tree (arboreal) 

classis, classis (f) fleet (classification) 

discrimen, discriminis (n) crisis, danger

hora, horae (f) hour

mensis, mensis (m) month 

gubernāculum, -ī (n) oar used to steer a ship 

gubernātor, gubernātōris (m) helmsman (governor, gubernatorial) 

fax, facis (f) touch (for light but symbol of love and marriage) 

fuga, fugae (f) flight 

imperium, imperiī (n) power, command 

lapis, lapidis (m) stone (lapis lazuli) 

locum, locī (n) place, point, location 

magnitūdō, magnitūdinis (f) great size, mass (magnitude) 

miraculum, miraculī (n) miraculous or unusual thing/event

mons, montis (m) mountain 

motus, -ūs (m) movement 

nubes, nubis (n) cloud 

ōra, ōrae (f) shore, shoreline 

pinus, -ūs (f) Italian Umbrella pine tree - See picture below

sinus, sinūs (m) fold, indenation, lap, bosoom; bay (sinus, insinuate) 

speciēs, specieī (f) appearance (species) 

spiritus, -ūs (m) breath (Spiritus Mundī) 

 

alius, alia, aliud (-ius paradigm) another 

angustus, a, um - narrow 

eruditus, a, um - learned (erudite) 

exterritus, a, um - terrified 

defuntus, a, um (= mortuus) - dead 

fortis, forte -  brave, strong 

indutus, a, um - clothed, dressed 

opertus, a, um - covered

incertus, a, um - unclear, uncertain 

invalidus, a, um - unhealthy, not strong 

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam - a certain, some

 

quisque, quidque - each 

ferē (adv.) nearly, almost

forte (adv.) by chance (fors, fortis (f) chance)

postea (adv.) afterward

procul (adv.) at a distance 

magis (adv.) more 

nōn modo (adv.) not only 

nōn modo…sed etiam - not only but also

nōndum (adv.) not yet

semel (adv.) at once 

tantum (adv.) only 

 

alibī (adv.) alius + ibi = elsewhere 

illuc (adv.) to that place

huc (adv. ) to this place

hīc (adv.) in this place

illīc (adv.) in that place

hinc (adv.) from this place

illinc (adv.) from that place

Mostly Subjunctive Related Vocabulary

cogō, cogere, coēgī, coactus - to compel + acc. + inf. or ut + subjunctive
dēcernō, dēcernere, dēcrēvī, dēcrētus - to decide, determine, resolve

dubitō (1) to doubt, to be uncertain 

exhortor, exhortārī, exhortatus sum - to exhort

iubeō, iubere, iussi, iussus - to order + acc. + inf. or ut + subjunctive
imperō, imperāre, imperavī, imperātus  - to command, to order + dative + ut + subjunctive (imperative, imperium, imperator) 

hortor, hortārī, hortatus sum - to urge (hortatory) 

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise petō a(b) + ut/ne + subjunctive mood (admonition) 

persuadeō, persuadēre, persuasī - to persuade + dative + ut + subjunctive
peto, petere, petivi, petitus + a(b) + person = to seek from ___ or to ask ______. 

orō, orāre - to beg (orant, oration) + accusative of person and accusative of thing
quaerō, quaerere + a(b) + person + ut/nē + subjunctive mood - to seek from, to ask 

rogō, rogāre, rogāvī, rogātus - to ask (interrogate, abrogate, prerogative)
sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus - to know

          nēsciō, nēscīre, nēscīvī, nēscītus - to not know 



Impersonal Constructions with noun clauses:

accidit (ad + cado)  - it happens + ut + subjunctive
oportet, oportēre, oportui - it is necessary + acc. + inf. or ut + subjunctive

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - it happened + ut (that) 

lēx, lēgis (n) law

ius, iuris (n) law, right

testis, testis (m) witness

iussum, iussī (n) order

consilium, consiliī (n) plan, advice, strategy 

condicio, condicionis (f) condition 

foedus, foederis (n) treaty 


adeō (adv.) to such an extent

tālis, tāle - such

tot (indec.) so may 

tam (adv.) so, such  

tantus, a, um - so great, so large, such a size

tantum, tantī (n) such a great amount 

sīc - thus, in this way, in such a way

ita - thus, in this way, in such a way



forsitan (adv.) perhaps iuxta (adv) near by, close 

magis (com. adv.) more, rather

nec…nec = neither… nor 

nequiquam (adv.) in vain

protinus (adv.) immediately, straight away 

quā = where

quō (interrogative adverb) to where? 

Subordinating Conjunctions

(indicative mood vs. subjunctive mood) 

quod (+ indicative) - because 

quia (+ indicative) - because

quod (relative) that which, what 

cum - when (temporal clause + indicative mood) 

cum - when (circumstantial clause + subjunctive mood) 

cum - since/because (causal clause + subjunctive mood)

cum - although (concessive clause + subjunctive mood)

cumtum (correlative conjunctions) both…and 

- if

nisi () - unless, if…not; except 

dum (+ indicative) while 

dum (+ subjunctive) until 

dum modo + subjunctive = provided that (proviso clause) 

ut + indicative mood = as, when 

   ut ante - as before 

   ut fit - as it happens, as usually  

   ut bene scis - as you know well 

   ut fama est - as the story is 

   ut traditur - as it is handed down

   ut Chloe solet - as Chloe is accustomed 

   ut mos est tuus - as you custom is 

   ut ante dictum est - as it has been said ealier 

ut + subjunctive = in order that (purpose clause) 

ut + subjunctive = that (substantive/noun clause or result clause) 

Interrogative Animals (pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs)

cūr? why? for what reason? 

quārē - why? 

quot? How many (number) 

quantus, a, um - how great? what size? (magnitude) 

qualis, quale (adj.) what sort? 

quando?  when? (time) 

quis? quid? (interrogative pronoun) who? what? 

quī, quae, quod?  (interrogative adjective)  what? which? 

quā? by what means? by what route? 

quō?  - to what place? where? wither? 

quam? How? 

quam ob rem?  = on account of what matter? why?  

quamdiu? - how long? 

quō modo? = in what way? 

quotiēns - how often? How many time? 

ubi?  Where? or When? 

unde? from where? whence?

uter, utra, utrum? (-ius paradigm) which (of two)? 


Indefinite Pronouns or Adjectives 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) - someone, something; anyone, anything 

(ali)quis, (ali)quid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, anything (becomes quis, quid after num, nē, sī, nisi

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adjective) - some, a certain 

quisque, quaeque, quodque (indefinite pronoun) - everyone, everything 


utrum…an = whether… or

-ne (enclitic) - signal a neutral questions

-ne (introducing an indirect question) - translate whether in an indirect questions  

nōnne - signals a question expected a positive response 

num - signals a question expected a negative response

num (introducing an indirect question) = whether 

Other Related Words. 

aliquantō - by some amount 

aliquot - some (number) 

aliquando (adv.) at some time, once, formerly 

ne…quidem = not even -  e.g. Ne Perisa quidem id bene fecit = “not even Perisa did it well”. 

neuter, neutra, neutrum - neither of two

undique (adv.) from all sides 

tam (adv.) so, such

tantus, a, um - so great

talis, tale (adj.) such 

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

totiēns - so many time, so often 

sīc (adv.) in such a way (sīc semper tyrannīs)

longē (adv.) far, by far

longius (adv.) farther, rather far

ibi (adv.) there, then  

inde (adv.) from the place, thence 

ita (adv.) in such a way

adeo (adv) to such an extent 

tam…quam (correlative conjunctions)  - as…..as 

ut (subordinating conj.) as, when + indicative mood

ut (subordinating conj.) that, in order that + subjunctive mood

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two

nullus, a, um - no 

ūllus, a, um - any

umquam (adv.) ever

numquam (adv.) never


peior, peius - worse

melior, melius - better

maior, maius - greater, bigger, older

minor, minus - smaller

plūs, plūris - more (quantity) + partitive genitive

plūrēs, plura = more (#) 


minus (adv.) less

plūs (adv.) more

magis (adv.) more 


New List with little but crucial words.

Verb game on the back with verb  iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus - to throw or morior, morī, mortuus sum (fut. act. participle = moriturus, a, um)

credo, credo, credidi, creditus - to believe, to trust + dative or indirect statement (credible) 

for, farī, fatus sum - speak (forum, fate, infant)

iaceo, iacēre, iacui - to lie (adjacent)

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (eject)

obiciō, obicere, obiēcī, obiectus - to throw against or towards; throw to, oppose, obiectus, a, um - thrown towards or against; opposite, projecting (objection)

imperō  (1) to command + dative + ut/nē + subjunctive mood (indirect command/jussive noun clause)

incendo, incendere, incendī, incensus - to burn, set on fire

lapso (1) to slip (frequentive of labor, labi)

morior, morī, mortuus sum (fut. act. participle = moriturus, a, um) - to die

moror, morārī, moratus sum - to delay (moratorium) 

prolabor, prolabī, prolapsus sum - to collapse, to fall or slip forward

parcō, parcere, pepercī + dative case - to spare

pendō, pendere, pependī, pensus - to hang, to weigh, to pay (pendent, pensive)

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum - to set out, to depart 

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - to repel, strike back (repulsive, repellent) 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum – to rise (orient, oriental) 

sedeō, sedēre, sedī, sessum - to sit (sedentary) 

ūtor, utī, ūsus sum - to use, to enjoy + ablative case (use, abuse) 

Interrogative Animals (pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs)

cūr? why? for what reason? 

quārē - why? 

quot? How many (number) 

quantus, a, um - how great? what size? (magnitude) 

qualis, quale (adj.) what sort? 

quando?  when? (time) 

quis? quid? (interrogative pronoun) who? what? 

quī, quae, quod?  (interrogative adjective)  what? which? 

quā? by what means? by what route? 

quō?  - to what place? where? wither? 

quam? How? 

quam ob rem?  = on account of what matter? why?  

quamdiu? - how long? 

quō modo? = in what way? 

quotiēns - how often? How many time? 

ubi?  Where? or When? 

unde? from where? whence?

uter, utra, utrum? (-ius paradigm) which (of two)? 

utrum…an = whether… or

-ne (enclitic) - signal a neutral questions 

nōnne - signals a question expected a positive response 

num - signals a question expected a negative response

num (introducing an indirect question) = whether 



Indefinite Pronouns or Adjectives 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) - someone, something; anyone, anything 

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adjective) - some, a certain 

quisque, quaeque, quodque (indefinite pronoun) - everyone, everything 

Other Related Words. 

autem (post postitive) moreover, however

aliquantō - by some amount 

aliquot - some (number) 

aliquando (adv.) at some time, once, formerly 

aliquō (adv.) to some place

aliō (adv.) to another place

ne…quidem = not even -  e.g. Ne Reona quidem id bene fecit = “not even Raina did it well”. 

neuter, neutra, neutrum - neither of two

undique (adv.) from all sides 

tam (adv.) so

tantus, a, um - so great

talis, tale (adj.) such 

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

totiēns - so many time, so often 

sīc (adv.) in such a way (sīc semper tyrannīs)

longē (adv.) far, by far

longius (adv.) farther, rather far

ibi (adv.) there, then  

inde (adv.) from the place, thence 

unde (adv.) from where 

(adv.) to that place, there

eōdem (adv.) to the same place

ita (adv.) in such a way

adeo (adv) to such an extent 

tam…quam (correlative conjunctions)  - as…..as 

ut (subordinating conj.) as, when + indicative mood

ut (subordinating conj.) that, in order that + subjunctive mood

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two

Aeolus drawing by claire jpeg copy.jpg












Deponent Verbs

arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitratus sum (HV)   to judge, to consider arbitrate 

cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum    to try           conation

for, fārī, fatus sum    to speak   Forum Romanum, infant, fate 

fūror, fūrārī, fūrātus sum                       to steal, to pilfer                        furtive 

iaculor, iaculārī, iaculatus sum     to hurl         ejaculate

hortor, hortārī, hortatus sum   to urge                   exhortation, exhort

cohortor, cohortārī, cohortātus sum            to encourage, to incite                 cohort 

comitor, comitārī, comitatus sum                to accompany                       

contemplor, contemplārī, contemplātus sum     to gaze at, survey, behold        contemplate

cunctor, cunctārī, cunctātus sum          to delay                             Fabius Maximus Cunctator

moror, morārī, moratus sum                 to delay           moratorium

minor, minārī, minātus sum                  to jut out, to tower, to threaten          menace 

mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum               to wonder, admire       miraculous, admire 

conspicor, -ārī, conspicātus sum                 to catch sight of 

suspicior, suspicārī, suspicātus sum          to suspect 

testor, testārī, testātus sum    to be witness, to give evidence        testify, testicle 

vagor, vagārī, vagātus sum                      to wander         vagrant 

versor, versārī, versātus sum                to be turned, to be engaged (in)     versatile 

vereor, verērī, vērītus sum to fear, be afraid

fateor, fatērī, fassus sum to confess, acknowledge confess

polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum    to promise

tueor, tuērī, tutus sum to look at, to watch over   tutor

reor, rērī, ratus sum to think, to reason                              rational, ratio 

amplector, amplectī amplexus sum           to coil around, embrace         amplexus 

complector, complectī, complexus sum   to embrace                              complex 

sequor, sequī, secūtus sum to follow sequence, nōn sequitur

labor, labī, lapsus sum to glide, to slip, to slide lapse, elapse 

loquor, loquī, locūtus sum to speak loquacious, eloquent

nitor, nitī, nisus sum + abl. to strive, rely on

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum  to set out, to depart

ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum  + ablative to use, to employ use, abuse 

fruor, fruī, fructus sum + ablative to enjoy, to delight in Fructus Corn Syrup 

frungor, frungī, functus sum +abl. to preform function

vescor, vescī + ablative to feed oneself, eat

ulciscor, ulciscī, ultus sum to avenge Mars Ultor

nascor, nascī, natus sum to be born natal

queror, quērī, questus sum to complain (about)

gradior, gradī, gressus sum to step, to walk              grade, gradual 

adgredior, adgredī, aggressus sum to go toward, to attack aggressive

ēgredior, ēgredī, ēgressus sum to go out; disembark egress

ingredior, ingredī, ingressus sum to enter, to step into ingress

regredior, regredī, regressus sum to go back regression 

progredior, progredī, progressus sum to advance                          progress, progression 

patior, patī, passus sum to suffer, endure, allow      patience, patient, passive

morior, morī, mortuus sum to die mortuary 




mōlior, mōlīrī, mōlītus sum to pile up; build, erect, construct, to struggle, to toil 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum   to rise             orient, oriental 

ordior, ordīrī, orsus sum   to begin (to speak) exordium 

expērīor, experīrī, expertus sum to test, to try experiment, expert


Semi-deponents (they are only deponent in the perfect system):

audeō, audēre, ausus sum + inf. to dare audacious

gaudeō, gaudēre, gavīsus sum to rejoice

soleō, solēre, solitus sum + inf. to be accustomed to (Spanish soler)

fīdō, fīdere, fīsus sum to trust 

confīdō, confīdere, confīsus sum + dative  to trust have trust in   confident 

diffīdo, diffīdere,  diffīsus sum (dis- + fido) + dative  - to distrust, be diffident, be distrustful, despair  (diffident, diffidence) 

Deponent Verbs that Govern the Ablative Case as Direct Objective

ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum  + ablative - to use, to employ, to enjoy (use)

abutor, abuti, abusus sum - to abuse 

fruor, fruī, fructus sum - to enjoy                   

fungor, fungī, functus sum - to perform                     (function) 

potior, potīrī, potītus sum - to gain possession of + ablative or genitive case 

nītor, nītī, nīsus sum -  to lean or rest upon, to strive, to rely on 

vescor, vescī - to feed on 

Aeolus List

Verb Game on iungō, iungere, iunxī, iunctus and be able to declension istud maius vulnus

cado, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (intransitive) 

caedo, caedere  cecīdī, caesus - to slaughter (transitive)

dīcō, dīcare (1) to declare 

exigō, exigere - to spend, to consume (ex + ago, agere)

flammō (1) to inflame

furo, furere – to rage
pōno, pōnere, posuī, positus – to place, to put (deposit, proponent)
indignor, indignārī, indignātus sum – to be angry, to be indignant  (indignant) 

iungō, iungere, iunxī, iunctus - to join (conjunction, subjunctive)
iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussum – to order + acc. + infinitive (jussive)

luctor, luctārī, luctātus sum – wrestle, struggle 

metuō, metuere, metuī - to fear (metus, ūs = fear)

molliō, mollīre – to soften, sooth (mollify)

banana.jpg

nāvīgō (1) to sail
portō (1) to carry

premō, premere, pressī, pressus– to control, restrain, to press
sciō, scīre (4) to know (+ complementary infinitive = “to know how to verb”) or (+ acc.subject and infinitive)
e.g. 1) Ea scit interficere lepores = She knows (how) to kill rabbits.
2) Ea scit me interficere lepores = She knows that I kill rabbits (indirect statement).
temperō (1) to temper, subdue, to moderate
tollō, tollere, sustulī, sublātus - to raise, lift; destroy

trahō, trahere, traxī, tractus - to pull, to drag

videor, vidērī, visus sum - to seem (copulative verb) + dative of reference 

ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum (looks passive, but has active meaning) + ablative case – to use, employ, enjoy
volutō (1) – to turn over and over and over

animus, animī (m) spirit, courage; mind

antrum, antrī (n) cave
arx, arcis (f) citadel
aura, -ae (f) air, breeze

auris, auris (f) ear

aurum, aurī (n) gold
caelum, caelī (n) sky, heaven
carcer, carceris (m) prison, inclosure (incarcerate)
claustrum, -ī (n) blot, latch (claustrophobia)
cor, cordis (n) heart (discord, concord)

conubium, -iī (n) marriage
homo, hominis (m) man (homo erectus, homo novus, ad homimem)
foedus, foederis (n) contract, treaty (federal, federation)
imperium, -iī(n) power, command, dominion (imperial)
locum, -locī (n) place (locative, location)
meritum, -meriti (n) service, reward, favour (merit)
mōlēs, mōlis (f) mass, weight. burden
mons, montis (m) mountain
nimbus, nimbī (m) storm cloud
nympha, nymphae (f) nymph
patria, patriae (f) fatherland

pontus, pontī (m) sea (Pontus Euxinus = Black Sea )
pons, pontis (m) bridge 

proles, prolis (f) offspring
tempestās, tempestātis (f) – storm (tempest)
terra, terrae (f) land (terra firma, terra incognita, terrestrial, orbis terrārum)
ventus, ventī (m) wind (ventilation)
vinculum, vinculī (n) bond, chain
vōx, vōcis (f) voice (vociferous, vox populi)

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound 



ater, atra, atrum – black (atrocity, atrocious )
celsus, a, um – high, lofty
certus, a, um – sure, certain
diversus, a, um - scattered
fētus, a, um – teeming, full of, pregnant with + ablative case (like gravis, Willy)

laxus, a, um – set free, loosened (relax, laxative)
longus, a, um - long (longē = far)

maestus, a, um - sad, grieving 

maior, maius (comp. adj.) bigger, greater (major) 

maximus, a, um - the greatest, the biggest

melior, melius (comp. adj.) better (ameliorate)

moribundus, a, um - dying (moribund) 

mollis, molle (2 term. 3rd. adj.) soft (mollify) 

omnipotēns, omnipotentis (adj.) all powerful 

peior, peius (adv) worse

praestāns, praestantis (adj.) outstanding

profundus, a, um – deep, high, vast

proprius, a, um - one’s own (property) 

rapidus, a, um – swirling around 

sonōrus,, a, um – roaring, howling (sonorous) 

stabilis, stabilie - stable

talis, tale (adj.) such (talia = such things) 

bis (adv.) twice

aliquantō - by some amount 

aliquot - some (number) 

aliquando (adv.) at some time, once, formerly 

magnopere (adv.) greatly

magis (adv.) more

peior, peius (comp. adv.) worse

melior, melius (comp. adv.) better

minor, minus (comp. adv.) small

ne…quidem = not even -  e.g. Ne Raina quidem id bene fecit = “not even Raina did it well”. 

neuter, neutra, neutrum - neither of two

sexiēns - six times 

circum (adverb or prep. + acc.) around 

hīc (adv) in this place, here

hinc (adv.) from this place 

hūc (adv.) to this place 

undique (adv.) from all sides 

tam (adv.) so

tantus, a, um - so great

talis, tale (adj.) such 

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

totiēns - so many time, so often 

sīc (adv.) in such a way (sīc semper tyrannīs)

longē (adv.) far, by far

ibi (adv.) there, then  

inde (adv.) from the place, thence 

ita (adv.) in such a way

adeo (adv) to such an extent 

tam…quam (correlative conjunctions)  - as…..as 

ut (subordinating conj.+ indicative mood) as, when 

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two






Minerva & Ajax Vocabulary List

Verb game on the back with either caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus or servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus


adōrō, adōrāre, adōrāvī, adōrātus - worship, adore (Adoration of the Magi) 

avertō, avertere, avertī, aversus - to avert, to turn away (ab + verto) (avert, aversion) 

carpō, carpere, carpsī, carptus - to pluck, to seize (carpe diem

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, to kill 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (occasion, cause, accident, incident) 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go; to yield (procession, procede) 

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - to cultivate, inhabit, worship (culture, cult)

corripiō, corripere, corripuī, correptus - to seize (con + rapio) 

 concēdō, concēdere, concessī, concessus - to yield, to grant (concession, concessive)

conficiō, conficere, confēcī, confectus - to complete, to finish off

infero, inferre, intulī, inlātus - to inflict acc. upon dat. 

disieciō, disiecere - to throw apart, to scatter, to destroy (dis + iacio, iacere)

desistō, desistere - to stand down; to give up; to cease (desist) 

expirō, expirāre - to breath out (expire)

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - pour, scatter (effusive) 

gerō, gerēre, gessī, gestus, a, um – to conduct, wage, to wear, to manage 

impōnō, impōnere, imposuī, impositus - to place ACC. upon DAT. (imposition)

incēdō, incēdere, incēssī, incessus  – to stride, go forth 

iaculor, iaculārī, iaculātus sum (looks passive, has active meaning)– to throw, to hurl 

infīgō, infīgere, infīxī, infīxus, a, um  – to impale, to fix upon (infix)  

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive off, to repulse (expel, repel, repulsive)

possum. posse, potuī - to be able + complementary infinitive (potis + sum, esse)

premō, premere, pressī, pressus - to control, to press, to pursue (pressure, oppression) 

ponō, pōnere, posuī, positus - to put, to place (position, apposition, opposition, exponent)

ruō, ruere, ruī - to fall, crash down, rush down  (ruin, ruination)

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus-  break, rupture (eruption) 

relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus - to leave behind (relinquish)

rogō (1) to ask (interrogative, interrogation, prerogative, abrogate)

subiciō, subicere, subiēcī, subiectus - to cast, throw under; to subdue (subject)

superō (1) to conquer, to defeat

scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptus -  write (scribe, inscription)

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus -  release, to set free, set sail (absolution, absolve, solvent, solution, solve) 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to perserve, to keep

submergõ, submergere – to sink, submerge,

transfīgō, transfīgere, transfīxī, transfixus, a, um – pierce, transfix

vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn (invert, extravert)

vetō, vetāre - to forbid, to prevent (veto) 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (victor, invincible, vēnī, vīdī, vīcī

 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

āēr, āēris (m) air

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, surface of the sea

āra, ārae (f) an altar

altum, altī (n) the deep, the see = mare, maris (n) 

annus, annī (m) year (annual, perennial) 

bellum, bellī (n) war (antebellum, bellicose)

classis, classis (f) fleet (of ships) 

conspectus, conspectūs (m) sight (conspicuous) 

coniunx, coniugis (f) spouse, wife (con+iungo, iungere)

fātum, fātī (n) fate

flamma, flammae (f) flame

furia, furiae (f) rage, madness

honor or honos, honōris (m) honour; political office (cursus honorum

inceptum, inceptī (m) undertaking, tast, project

ignis, ignis (m) fire (igneous) 

gens, gentis (f) race, clan 

genus, generis (n) class, kind, type (generic, genus, sui generis)

maiores, maiorum (masc. pl.) ancestors (mos maiorum = custom/way of ancestors) 

nubes, nubis (f) cloud

nūmen, nūminis (n) divine power or authority (numinous) 

pectus, pectoris (n) chest, breast 

plus, pluris (n) more + partitive genitive 

pontus, pontī (m) sea (Pontus Euxinus) 

pons, pontis (m) bridge

sāl, salis (m) salt (salad) 

scopulus, scopulī (m) rock, cliff  

soror, sororis (f) sister (sorority) 

tellus, tellūris (f) earth, land; mother earth 

turbo, turbinis (f) whirlwind 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound

velum, velī (n) sail 

ventus, ventī (m) wind

ūnus, a, um - one (-ius paradigm) 

duo, duae, duo - two

tres, tria - three


acūtus, a, um - sharp

aeternus, a, um - eternal, everlasting (eternity) 

laetus, a, um - happy 

tristis, triste - sad

maior, maius (comp. adj.) greater, bigger; older 

minor, minus (comp. adj.) smaller; younger 

durus, a, um - hard, harsh

mollis, molle - soft (mollify) 

rapidus, a, um - swirling 

tot (indeclinable adjective) so many 

aliquanto (indefinite) by somewhat, by some amount 

ast or at  (strong adversative conjunction) = but, and 

atque (coordinating conj.) and, and also

magnopere (adv.) greatly 

magis (comp. adv.) more 

ob (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of

nihil (adv.) in no way 

quippe (adv.) surely, certainly, really  

praetereā (adv.) besides, moreover; then too; hereafter

vix (adv.) hardly, barely

paulo = by a little

paulum = a little (distance) 

plus (adv.) more 

nihilo - by nothing 

minus (adv.) less

minus quam = less than 

plus quam = more than 

secus quam = otherwise than

potius quam = rather than 

magis quam = rather than


IMG_4827.jpg

Sensory Verbs that Generate Indirect Statement

arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitrātus sum - to judge (arbiter bibendī) 

animadvertō, animadvertere, animadvertī, animadversus - to notice 

credō, credere, credidī, creditus- to believe (creed, credit, credible) 

dīco, dīcere, dīxī, dictus - to say (dictum, dictionary) 

existĭmo, existĭmāre, existĭmāvi, existĭmātus - to judge, consider, suppose, think, esteem

sciō, scīre (4) - to know (science, omniscient)
nesciō, nescīre (4) - to not know 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear (audition)
videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see (vision)
sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus - to sense, to perceive (sensory, sentient)

putō, putāre, putāvī, putātus - to think (computer, putative, dispute, repute)
sperō, sperāre, sperāvī, sperātus - to hope, to expect (despair, desperate)  

intellegō, intellegere, intellexī, intellectus -to discern, understand, to perceive
negō, negāre, negāvī, negātus - to deny, to say...that not (negate)
nuntiō (1) - to announce (pronounce)
narrō (1) - to tell (narrator, narrative)
probō, probāre, probāvī, probātus - to prove; show to be credible; to try, put to proof; approve; permit, allow (approve, probation)

reor, rērī, ratus sum - to reason, to reckon; to think (ratio, rational, reason) 

scribō, scribere, scripsī, scriptus - to write (script, scriptorium)
doceo, docere, docui, doctus - to teach, to instruct (docent, doctor) 

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostensus - to show (ostentatious)

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise (admonition, money, monetary) 

cogitō (1) - to think (cognitive)
cernō, cernere, crēvī, cretus - to discern 

discō, discere, didicī - to learn (discāmus) 

IDIOMS: 

tenēre memoriā - to hold in mind

fiērī certior - to be become or be made more certain that (fio, fieri, factus sum)

facere aliquem certiorem - to make some more certain that

Narcissus Vocabulary List for Quiz


adspiciō, adspicere aspexī, spectus, - to look at; to behold, see (aspect)

agitō (1) to put in motion; drive; drive away; drive, pursue; stir up, arouse

alō, alere, aluī - to nourish (alumnus) 

ardeō, ardēre, arsī, arsus - to be on fire, inflamed (ardent, arson) 

bibō, bibere - to drink (bibulous) 

crescō, crescere, crēvī, crētus - to increase, to grow (crescendo) 

cingō, cingere - to surround, to encircle (cinch)

cōnsulō, cōnsulere, cōnsuluī, cōnsultus - to consult; advise (consultation)

corripio, corripere, corripuī, correptus - to seize (con + rapio, rapere

contingō, contingere, contigī, contāctus - to touch; take hold of; strike; attain, arrive at, reach (con + tangere) (contagion, contact)

cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītus - to desire (cupidity) 

dēprēndō, dēprēndere dēprēndī, dēprēnsus -  to catch, surprise, overtake (comprehend, apprehend)

discō, discere, didicī - to learn (discāmus)

discēdō, discēdere, discessī, discessus - to depart, to go away 

fallō, fallere, fefellī, falsus - to deceive (fallacious, false) 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - pour, scatter (effusive, confound, confuse) 

haereō, haerēre - to cling, be fixed, sit fast, remain close (intrans.) (inherent) often + dative or ablative

incitō incitāre - to stir, to incite 

loquor, loquī,  locūtus sum - to speak (eloquent, loquacious, elocution) 

labor, labī, lapsus sum - to slip, glide, to fall (lapse, elapse, relapse)  

maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsus - to remain (permanent)

mergō, mergere, mersī, mersus -  to dip, immerse, plunge (submerge) 

mīsceō, mīscēre, mīscuī, mīxtus -  mix

nesciō, nescīre - to not know (ne + scire

nōscō, nōscere,  nōvī, nōtus - to get knowledge of, become acquainted with; recognize; to know

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer; to allow (patient, patience, passive)

probō, probāre, probāvī, probātus - to try, put to proof; approve; permit, allow (probate, probation, probe, probability) 

rīdeō, rīdēre, rīsī, rīsus -  to laugh or smile (risible, ridiculous) 

secō, secāre, secuī, sectus - to cut (section, secant, dissect, bisect) 

sedō, sedāre - to quench, to slake 

specto (1) to look at 

tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus - to touch (tangent, tactile, contact) 

tendō, tendere, tetendī, tentus or tēnsus - to stretch; stretch forth or out, strain, lift, raise (tend, tendency, extent, extend)

turbō (1) to disturb 

ūrō, ūrere - to burn (often with love)

aestus, aestūs (m) heat, boiling; tides 

auris, auris (f) ears (aural) 

augur, auguris (m) prophet who observes signs (augury)

bracchium, bracchiī (n) arm (brachiale artery, sp. braso)

candōr, candōris (m) brightness (candor) 

capella, capellae (f) she-goats (love them for they have fur)

collum, collī (n) neck (collar bone) 

cervus, cervī (m) stage

corpus, corporis (n) body (corporeal, corpse) 

cōpia, cōpae (f) complete supply; abundance, plenty, force, numbers, ability, power, means (cornucopia) 

cura, curae (f) care, anxiety, worry (sinecure)

decus, decoris (n) beauty (decorum) 

exitus, -ūs (m) outcome; end; death (exit) ex + eo, ire

error, erroris (m) wandering, error (erroneous)

faciēs, facieī (f) face; appearance (facade, face, primā faciē)

fax, facis (f) torch 

fons. fontis (m) spring; source (font, fountain) 

forma, formae (f) shape, form; beauty 

gena, genae (f) cheek 

imāgō, imāginis (m) imagine

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) youth (juvenile) 

lētum, lētī (n) death, destruction

lūmen, lūminis (n) light; eyes  (illuminate) 

mōtus, mōtūs (m) movement 

nūtus, nūtūs (m) nod 

oculus, oculī (n) eye (ocular) 

osculum, osculī (n) kiss

pastor, pastōris (m) shepherd 

pecus, pecoris (n) flock (of sheep) (pecorino cheese) 

plangōr, plangōris (m) a beating (in mourning) 

quiēs, quiētis (f) rest, quiet, tranquility  

rāmus, rāmī (m) branch 

sēdes, sēdis (f) seat, place (Holy See = Vatican) 

sīdus sīderis (n) star

signum, signī (n) sign, signal; image; battle standard (signal, hōc signō vincēs

spēs, speī (f) hope; expectation 

sitis, sitis - thirst   note acc. sing. = sitim

simulacrum, simulacrī (n) likeness, image 

sōl, sōlis (m) sun (solar, solstice) 

sonitus, -ūs (m) sound

studium, studiī (n) eagerness; zeal; pursuit (study, studious)

unda, undae (f) water; wave (undulation, undulate) 

umbra, umbrae (f) shade, shadow; ghost; reflection (umbrella, umbrage) 

ūmor, ūmoris (m) liquid, water

uterus, uterī (m) womb (in utero vs. in vitro)

vātēs, vātis (m) prophet; divinely inspired poet

volucris, -is (f) bird 

vultus, vultūs (m) face; expression; countence 



cūnctus, a, um - all together, the whole, all, entire (from con +  iūnctus, a, um

dignus, a, um - worthy of, deserving of + ablative case (dignity) 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh 

geminus , a, um - twin, twofold; double, twin (gemini)

lassus, a, um - tired (lassitude) 

liquidus, a, um - clear, flowing 

mendāx, mendācis - false, lying (mendacity, mendacious) (1 term. adj.) 

mirabilis, mirabile - miraculous

nitidus, a, um - shinning 

niveus, a, um - snow white 

opācus, a, um -  shady,; obscure, darkened (opaque)

prior, prius (comparative adj.) before, earlier, prior

proximus, a, um - nearby, very close to (+ dative) 

trepidus , a, um - agitated, uneasy, disturbed, trembling, affrighted (trepidation) 

vānus, a, um - empty, useless; unfulfilled (in vain) 

viridis, viride - green (colours for Willy) 


circā (adv.) around 

diū (adv.) for a long time

diūtius (adv.) for a longer time

diūtissimē (adv.) for a very long/longest time

frustrā (adv.) in vain 

neque…neque - neither…nor 

neque = et…nōn - nor, and…not

pariter (adv.) equally 

paulum (adv.) a little distance, a little  

quotiēns (adv.) how many times!? 

tam (adv.) so 

ut (sub. conj.) as, just as; when 

Narcissus and Echo

Narcissus and Echo


List for Review of Latin Verbs - Beginning Latin II 

amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus - to love (amatory, amorous) 

do, dare, dedī, datus - to give (data) 

habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātus - to dwell, to live (inhabit) 

laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus-to praise (laud, summa cum laude

narrō, narrāre, narrāvī, narrātus - to tell (narrative, narrator) 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus - to carry (transport) 

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus - to fight (pugnacious) 

regnō, regnāre, regnāvī, regnātus - to reign; to rule 

secō, secāre, secuī, sectus - to cut (section) 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to save (preservation) 

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to watch (spectator, inspection) 

stō, stāre, stetī, status (estoy; substantive, status quo) 

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call (advocate, evoke, convocation, vocation) 

 

audeō, audēre, ausus sum - to dare (audacity)

dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus - owe; ought + complementary infinitive 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus  -to teach (docent, doctor, indoctrinate) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus- to have (avoir, avere, haber

iaceō iacēre iacuī - lie (adjacent)
iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order

maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsus - to remain 

mīsceō, mīscēre, mīscuī, mīxtus -  mix

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise (admonition, admonish, monitor) 

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move (movable, motion) 

noceō, nocēre, nocuī + dative - to harm 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative

studeo, studēre, studuī - to be eager for; to support + dative

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possess (tenacious) 

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see (video, vision) 

 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead (agent, agenda, action) 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to kill 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (occasion, cause) 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go, to yield (procession, procede) 

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - to cultivate, inhabit, worship (culture, cult) 

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus - to complete, bring together 

credō, credere, credidī, creditus - to trust, to believe + dative (credit) 

crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus - to grow, increase 

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus - to run (current, curriculum; correr

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus   - to say (dictation, dictionary)

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (duct, aqueduct, conduct, produce) 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - pour, scatter

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus -wear, do, conduct, manage 

laedō, laedere, laesī, laesus -  injure by striking, hurt

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to chose; to read (lecture, election, selection) 

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmit, mission) 

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentus - to show 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus -  strike, beat, push, drive

petō, petere, petivī, petitus - to seek (competition, 

pōnō, ponere, posuī, positus - to put, to place (exponent, position) 

regō, regere, rēxī, rēctus - guide, rule

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus-  break, rupture 

scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptus -  write 

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus -  release, set sail

trahō, trahere, traxī, tractus - to pull, to drag (tractor, attraction)

 vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (invincible, veni, vidi, vici)

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live (vivacious) 

 

capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture (captive, capture, caption) 

    recipiō -cipere -cēpi -ceptus - take back, 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus  - to do, to make (fact, manufacture) 

         conficiō -ficere -fēcī -fectus - complete, 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (refugee, fugitive, centrifuge) 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (reject, object)                                

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize (rapacious, rapture, rapine, raptor) 

    ēripiō -ripere -ripuī -reptus - snatch away

 

aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus - to open (aperture; abierto, abrir)                 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear (audio, audible, audit, audition) 

muniō, munīre, munīvī, munītus - to fortify 

saliō, salīre, saluī, saltus - to leap, to jump (salient) 

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus - to know (omniscient, science) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus (sensitive, sentient) 

serviō, servīre - to serve, be a slave + DATIVE CASE (serve, service)

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (venir; advent, adventure; veni, vidi, vici)                        inveniō -venīre -vēnī -ventus - to find, to discover (invention, inventor) 

                     

Irregular Verbs          

possum, posse, potuī - to be able (potis + sum) + complementary infinitive            

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - to be (ser in Spanish; future) (copulative verb)

volō velle voluī - to wish, be willing + complementary infinitive 

mālō mālle māluī - to prefer + complementary infinitive
nōlō nōlle nōluī -  be unwilling + complementary infinitive

ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus -  bear, carry, endure (odiferous) 

eō, īre, iī/īvī, itūrus - to go (perish, spanish ir

fīō, fierī, factus sum - to become, happen, be done (fiat lux) (copulative verb)

Fasti Triumphales Romulus F martis CIL 1(2) 1, p. 43 (I).jpg



Final List for the Matron of Ephesus 

accidō, accidere, accidī (ad + cado) to happen; to fall toward (accident)

aggredior, aggredī, aggressus sum - to approach, to attack 

cogō, cogere, coēgī, coactus - to compel, to drive together 

fleō, flēre - to cry

frangō, frangere, frēgī, fractus - to break (fragile, fracture) 

fulgeō, fulgēre, fulsī - to shine

fruor, fruī, fructus sum (+ abl.) to enjoy

hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum - to urge (exhortation) 

licet licēre, licuit (+ dative) it is permitted 

mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus - to entrust, to send 

moror, morārī, morātus sum - to delay (moratorium) 

morior, morī, mortuus sum - to die

oportet, oportēre, oportuit (impers.) it is necessary, it is fitting + acc. + inf.  or ut/ne + subjunctive (noun clause) 

obliviscor, obliviscī oblitus sum - to forget, be forgetful of + genitive case 

orō (1) to plead, to pray, to beg

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to allow; to endure

pateō, patēre, patuī - to be open, to be revealed, to lie open

persuādeō, persuādēre, persuāsī - to persuade + dative case and indirect command (ut/ne + subjuntive)

pereō, perīre (eo + ire) to perish

poscō, poscere, poposcī - to demand 

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus - to burst, rupture, break (rupture) 

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus - to loosen, release, to free (solvent, solution, ablative absolute) 

sūmō, sūmere, sūmpsi, sūmptus - to take up, to take (assume, consume, resume) 

Narcissus and Echo - Roman Fresco

Narcissus and Echo - Roman Fresco

turbō, turbāre, turbāvī, turbātus - to disturb, to agitate 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

utor, utī, usus sum - to use, to employ + abl. 

 

miseret, miserere, miseruit - it makes the accusative pity the genitive

paenitet, paeniterem paenituit - it make s the accusative regret the genitive

pudet, pudere, puduit - it makes the accusative ashamed of the genitive

taedet, taedere, taeduit - it makes the accusative tired/bored of the genitive

 

arvum, arvī (n) cultivated field 

exemplum, ememplī (n) example (e.g. = exemplī gratiā) 

exitus, exitūs (m) exit, outcome, end (ex + eo, ire) 

facultās, facultātis (f) opportunity, capacity, means

grātia, -ae (f) favour, influence, charm; thanks

imāgō, imāginis (f) image, portrait mask or bust; ghost

iūdex, iūdicis (m) judge (judicial) 

lūmen, lūminis (n) light, eyes 

mānēs, mānium (m. pl.) spirits of the underworld (Dis Mānibus = D.M.) 

manus, manūs (f) hand; band

mēns, mēntis (f) mind (mens sana in corpore sano) 

mōs, mōris (m) custom (mos maiorum, mores) 

nūmen, nūminis (n) divine authority, divinity (numinous) 

onus, oneris (n) burden (onerous, onus) 

pondus, ponderis (n) weight

pectus, pectoris (n) chest

sententia, -ae (f) opinion, sentence

spīritus, -ūs (m) air; breath; spirit, soul 

vīta, vītae (f) life (vital, curriculum vitae) 

vitium, vitiī (n) vice

vestigium, -iī (n) foot print; trace (vestiges) 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) - someone, something; anyone, anything 

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adjective) - some, a certain 

quisque, quaeque, quodque (indefinite pronoun) - everyone, everything 

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak

brevis, breve - short, brief (brevity) 

posterus, a, um - next, following (posterity) 

invītus, a, um - unwilling

ignotus, a, um - unknown

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

nōtus, a, um - known, familiar

perītus, a, um - skilled at + genitive case

siccus, a, um - dry (desiccated) 

vērus, a, um - true (veracity) 

vulgāris, vulgare - common (vulgar, vulgarian) 

 

at/ast (adversative conj.) but

diū (adv.) for a long time 

diūtius (adv.) for a longer time

diūtissimē (adv.) for a very long time

enim (post positive) for, in fact

igitur (post positive) therefore 

subinde (adv.) thereupon, promptly, constantly 

ūnā (adv.) together

 

aut…aut - either…or 

nōn tantum…sed etiam - not only but also 

nec…nec - neither… nor

neque…neque - neither… nor

vērō (post positive) indeed, in fact

vērum (adversative conj.) but

 

exemplī gratiā

post hoc ergo propter hoc

onus probandī

modus vīvendī

modus operandī

 

First List for the Matron of Ephesus

Be able to decline id melius opus or illud maius officium 

Expect a verb game on the back with either morior, mori or iacio, iacere

 

affigo, affigere, affixi, affixus (ad + figo)  - fasten upon, attach to (affix) 

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to acknowledge (head verb) (confession)

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to catch sight of (conspicuous) 

detraho, detrahere, detraxi, detractus - to pull/take down (detractor) 

fruor, fruī, fructus sum - to enjoy + ABLATIVE CASE (fructose) 

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie (adjacent) 

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus - to throw (eject) 

impero (1) to command + dative + jussive noun clause (imperative) 

impendo, impendere - to hang on, to weight, place on the scales (impending) 

malo, malle, malui - to prefer + comp. infinitive 

mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus - to entrust, to consign, to order (mandate) 

miror, mirārī, miratus sum - to wonder (at), be amazed (miracle) 

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die (mortal)

obliviscor, obliviscī, oblitus sum - to forget + genitive case. (oblivion, oblivious) 

occīdo, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to cut down, to kill 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow + acc. + infinitive (patient, passive) 

persuadeo, persuadēre, persuasī - to persuade + dative + jussive noun clause

pereo, perīre, periī, peritūrus, a, um (per + eo, ire) - to perish 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek (appetite) 

reor, reri, ratus sum - to think (head verb)

sino, sinere - to allow + acc. + inf. 

specto (1) to look upon, see, to watch 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - to raise, lift 

vaco (1) to be empty (vacant) 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

 

auxilium, -ii (n) help (auxiliary) 

funus, funeris (n) funeral; death 

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, sigh 

homo, hominis (m) man (homo sapiens, homo erectus, ad hominem

ingenium, -ii (n) genius, intelligence (ingenuity) 

lumen, luminis (n) light; eye

maritus, -i (m) husband

mors, mortis (f) death 

mōs, mōris (m) custom (mores; mos maiorum - custom of ancestors)

numen, numinis (n) divine power (numinous) 

ordo, ordinis (m) rank, social class, order (ordinal) 

officium, -ii (n) duty (official, officious) 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labor (magnum opus

opera, -ae (f) attention, effort

ops, opis (f) power, influence 

populus, -i (m) people (SPQR - Senatus Populusque Romanus

praesidium, -ii (n) protection 

ratio, rationis (f) reason  (rational) 

rus, ruris (n) countryside (rural) 

supplicium, -ii (n) punishment (supplication) 

 

carus, a, um - dear + dative

defunctus, a, um - dead, deceased (defunct) 

fatalis, fatale - fated 

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

maior, maius (comp. adj.) great, bigger; older (major) 

melior, melius (comp. adj.) better (ameliorate) 

plenus, a, um - full of + genitive case 

posterus, a, um - next, following (posterity) 

pudicus, a, um - chaste, virtuous (of a female)

prudens, prudentis - wise, clever

 

atque or ac (coordinating conj.) and

causā + proceeding genitive case = for the sake of 

gratiā + proceeding genitive case = for the sake of 

deinde - then, next 

ergo (post positive) - therefore 

igitur (post positive)- therefore

magis (comp. adv.) more, rather 

minus (adv. comparative) - less

propter (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of

totiens - so many times 

quotiens (adv.) as often as

quasi (conj.) as if 

rus (acc.) to the countryside

ruri (locative) in the countryside

rure (ablative) from the countryside

secundum (prep. + acc.) next to; in accordance with; following

sīc (adv.) in this way, thus 

sine (prep. + abl.) without 

ultimō (adv.) finally

List of Ilioupersis, Result Clauses and Indirect Questions 

Verb game on the back with verb  iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus - to throw

credo, credo, credidi, creditus - to believe, to trust + dative or indirect statement (credible) 

for, farī, fatus sum - speak (forum)
iaceo, iacēre, iacui - to lie (adjacent)
iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus - to throw (eject) 

imperoō  (1) to command + dative + ut/ne + subjunctive mood (indirect command/jussive noun clause)

incendo, incendere, incendī, incensus - to burn, set on fire
lapso (1) to slip (frequentive of labor, labi)
morior, morī, mortuus sum (fut. act. participle = moriturus, a, um) - to die
moror, morārī, moratus sum - to delay (moratorium) 
prolabor, prolabī, prolapsus sum - to collapse, to fall or slip forward
parco, parcere, pepercī + dative case = to spare
pendo, pendere, pependi, pensus - to hang, to weigh, to pay (pendent, pensive)

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum - to set out, to depart 

repello, repellere, repuli, repulsus - to repel, strike back (repulsive, repellent) 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum – to rise (orient, oriental) 

sedeo, sedēre, sedi - to sit (sedentary) 

ūtor, utī, ūsus sum - to use, to enjoy + ablative case (use, abuse) 

 

aes, aeris (n) bronze
āēr, āēris (m) air

clipeus, clipei (m) shield
exitus, -ūs (m) exit, end
fīnis, fīnis (m or f.) end, limit (el fin, final, finite, imperium sine fine) 

ferrum, ferrī (n) iron; sword (FE)
fatum, fatī (n) fate
genitor, genitoris (m) father 

hasta, -hastae (f) spear

ictus, -ūs (m) blow, a strike
latus, lateris (n) side (lateral motion)
litus, litoris (n) shore
laurus, laurī (f) laurel tree (note gender)
līmen, līminis (n) threshold
mens, mentis (f) mind (mens sana in corpore sano)
nuntius, nuntiī (m) messenger; message

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face
os, ossis (n) bones (ossify) 

ōra, ōrae (f) shoreline, beach; border  

parens, parentis (m/f) parent
sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood (sanguine)
sedes, sedis (f) seat, place (Holy See) 
simalcrum, simalcrī (n) image; likeness
sors, sortis (f) lot, chance; fate

tectum, -i (n) roof, building (tego, tegere, texi, tectus - to cover)



laevus, a, um - left; awkward, silly, foolish
melior, melius (comparative of bonus, a, um) - better

minor, minus (comparative of parvus, a, um) smaller; younger
plures, plura (pl. comparative of multus, a, um) more (#) (e pluribus unum)

raucus, a, um - noisy (raucous rabbit) 

tristis, triste - sad quot? (adjective indeclinable) - how many?
tantus, a, um - so great
talis, tale - such 

tot (adjective indeclinable) so many

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, anything (“ali” is dropped after sī, nisi, nē)
aliquantō - by some amount 

aliquot - some (number) 

aliquando (adv.) at some time, once, formerly

 

cūr? why? for what reason? 

quārē - why? 

quot? How many (number) 

quantus, a, um - how great? what size? (magnitude) 

qualis, quale (adj.) what sort? 

quando?  when? (time) 

quis? quid? (interrogative pronoun) who? what? 

quī, quae, quod?  (interrogative adjective)  what? which? 

quā? by what means? by what route? 

quō?  - to what place? where? wither? 

quam? How? 

quam ob rem?  = on account of what matter? why?  

quamdiu? - how long? 

quō modo? = in what way? 

quotiēns - how often? How many time? 

ubi?  Where? or When? 

unde? from where? whence?

uter, utra, utrum? (-ius paradigm) which (of two)? 

utrum…an = whether… or

 

adeo (adv.) to such an extent
autem (post positive) however, moreover 

ergo (adv.) therefore, and so 

magnopere (adv.) greatly, much 

magis (adv. comparative) more, rather 

ne…quidem = not even -  e.g. Ne Raina quidem id bene fecit = “not even Raina did it well”. 

neuter, neutra, neutrum - neither of two

undique (adv.) from all sides 

quondam - once, previously 

 

sīc (adv.) thus, in such a way (most commonly used with verbs) (sīc semper tyrannīs)
ita (adv.) thus, in such a way (used with verbs, advs. adjs.)
adeo (adv.) to such an extent
tam (adv.) so (used with advs. and adjs.) tam celeriter - so quickly, tam formosus, so sexy tantum, -i (n) so much + partitive genitive 

tot (indeclinable adjective) so many (number)
tantus, a, um (adj.) so great, so large (size/magnitude) 

tālis, tāle (decl. like fortis, forte) - such (quality, sort)

 

Vocabulary for Subjunctive Syntax & Indirect Command/Nouns Clauses

cogō, cogere, coēgī, coactus - to compel + acc. + inf. or ut + subjunctive (jussive noun clause)
rogō, rogare, rogavi, rogatus - to ask + indirect command or indirect question
persuadeō, persuadēre, persuasī - to persuade + dative + ut + subjunctive (indirect command)
iubeō, iubere, iussi, iussus - to order + acc. + inf. or ut + subjunctive
imperō, imperāre, imperavī, imperātus - to command, to order + dative + ut + subjunctive (indirect command)

hortor, hortārī, hortatus sum - to urge + ut + subjunctive (indirect command)

exhortor, exhortārī, exhortatus sum + ut + subjunctive (indirect command)
orō, orāre - to beg + ut + subjunctive (indirect command)
moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise  + ut + subjunctive (indirect command)

petō a(b) - to seek from + ut/ne + subjunctive mood (indirect command) peto, petere, petivi, petitus
quaerō, quaerere + a(b) + ut/ne + subjunctive mood 

moror, morārī, moratus sum - to delay

morior, morī, mortuus sum  - to die (mortuary)

nitor, nitī, nisus sum + abl. - to strive, rely on        

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise, to arise (oriental) 

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum - to set out, to depart

sequor, sequī, secūtus sum - to follow (sequencial) 

Impersonal Constructions with noun clauses:

accidit - it happens + ut + subjunctive (noun clause)
oportet, oportēre, oportuit - it is necessary + acc. + inf. or ut + subjunctive (noun clause) 

 

Subordinating Conjunctions

(indicative mood vs. subjunctive mood) 

quod (+ indicative) - because 

quia (+ indicative) - because

quoad + subjunctive - as long as

cum - when (temporal clause + indicative mood) 

cum - when (circumstantial clause + subjunctive mood) 

cum - since/because (causal clause + subjunctive mood)

cum - although (concessive clause + subjunctive mood)

- if

nisi - unless, if…not; except

dum (+ indicative) while 

dum (+ subjunctive) until

ut + indicative mood = as, when 

   ut ante - as before 

   ut fit - as it happens, as usually

   ut factum est - as it happened 

   ut bene scis - as you know well 

   ut fama est - as the story is 

   ut traditur - as it is handed down

   ut traditum est - as it has been handed down 

   ut soleō - as I am accustomed 

   ut solēbat - as he was accustomed

ut + subjunctive = in order that (purpose clause) 

ut + subjunctive = that (substantive/noun clause or result clause)

Vocabulary List for Ilioupersis/Death of Priam and Subjunctive Mood

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)
compleo, complēre - to fill (complementary)
credo, credo, credidi, creditus - to believe, to trust + dative or indirect statement (credible) 

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus (compound verb: de +facio) fail, be lacking (defective) 

ferio, ferire - to strike, to hit
fero, ferre, tuli, latus, a, um - to bear, carry, endure (suffer, translate)
figo, figere, fixī, fictus - to fashion, fix, attach (fix, fiction, transfix, crucifixion, suffix, infix)
fio, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to happen (fiat lux)  (copulative verb)
for, farī, fatus sum - speak (forum)

impero (1) to command + dative of person

labor, labī, lapsus sum - to slip, to slide, to glide (lapse, elapse, relapse)

loquor, loquī, locūtus sum - to speak (loquacious, eloquent)

morior, morī, mortuus sum  - to die (mortuary)

nitor, nitī, nisus sum + abl. - to strive, rely on        

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise, to arise (oriental) 

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum - to set out, to depart

sequor, sequī, secūtus sum - to follow (sequencial) 

ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum + abl.  - to use, to employ (use, abuse) 

 

aes, aeris (n) bronze
āēr, āēris (m) air

clipeus, clipei (m) shield 

caedes, caedis (f) slaughter
casus, -casūs (m) fall, destruction, misfortune
coniunx, coniugis (m or f) spouse (here “husband”)

exitus, -ūs (m) exit, end
fīnis, fīnis (m or f.) end, limit (el fin, final, finite, imperium sine fine) 

ferrum, ferrī (n) sword
fatum, fatī (n) fate
genitor, genitoris (m) father 

ictus, -ūs (m) blow, a strike

hasta, hastae (f) spear
laurus, laurī (f) laurel tree (note gender)
līmen, līminis (n) threshold
mens, mentis (f) mind (mens sana in corpore sano)
ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face (oral, orifice)
ōra, ōrae (f) shoreline, beach; border  

parens, parentis (m/f) parent
sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood (sanguine)
sedes, sedis (f) seat, place (Holy See, sedimentary)
tectum, -i (n) roof, building 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) anyone, anything (becomes quis, quid after nē, sī, nisi)

 

adeō (adv.) to such an extent

talis, tale - such

tot (indec.) so may 

tam (adv.) so 

tantus, a, um - so great, so large, such a size

sīc - thus, in this way, in such a way

ita - thus, in this way, in such a way

 

forsitan (adv.) perhaps iuxta (adv) near by, close 

magis (com. adv.) more, rather

nec…nec = neither… nor 

nequiquam (adv.) in vain

protinus (adv.) immediately, straight away 

quā = where

 

Subordinating Conjunctions

(indicative mood vs. subjunctive mood) 

quod (+ indicative) - because 

quia (+ indicative) - because

cum - when (temporal clause + indicative mood) 

cum - when (circumstantial clause + subjunctive mood) 

cum - since/because (causal clause + subjunctive mood)

cum - although (concessive clause + subjunctive mood)

- if

nisi - unless, if…not; except

dum (+ indicative) while 

dum (+ subjunctive) until

ut + indicative mood = as, when 

    ut ante - as before 

    ut fit - as it happens, as usually

    ut factum est - as it happened 

   ut bene scis - as you know well 

   ut fama est - as the story is 

   ut traditur - as it is handed down

   ut solebat - as he was accustomed

ut + subjunctive = in order that (purpose clause) 

ut + subjunctive = that (substantive/noun clause or result clause)

Deponent Verbs for Transvestite Bunnies

arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitratus sum (HV)       to judge, to consider        arbitrate 

cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum            to try                          conation

for, fārī, fatus sum                    to speak                 Forum Romanum, fate

iaculor, iaculārī, iaculatus sum            to throw                     ejaculate

hortor, hortārī, hortatus sum           to urge                          exhortation, exhort

cohortor, cohortārī, cohortātus sum            to encourage, to incite                 cohort 

comitor, comitārī, comitatus sum                    to accompany                       

contemplor, contemplārī, contemplātus sum     to gaze at, survey, behold        contemplate

cunctor, cunctārī, cunctātus sum              to delay                             Fabius Maximus Cunctator

moror, morārī, moratus sum                     to delay                       moratorium

minor, minārī, minātus sum                     to jut out, to tower, to threaten          menace 

mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum                       to wonder, admire              miraculous, admire 

conspicor, -ārī, conspicātus sum                 to catch sight of         

suspicior, suspicārī, suspicātus sum         to suspect 

testor, testārī, testātus sum            to be witness, to give evidence        testify, testicle 

vagor, vagārī, vagātus sum                         to wander                     vagrant 

versor, versārī, versātus sum                    to be turned, to be engaged (in)     versatile 

 

vereor, verērī, vērītus sum            to fear, be afraid

fateor, fatērī, fassus sum             to confess, acknowledge        confess

polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum        to promise

tueor, tuērī, tutus sum             to look at, to watch over          tutor

reor, rērī, ratus sum                 to think, to reason                              rational, ratio 

 

amplector, amplectī amplexus sum           to coil around, embrace         amplexus 

complector, complectī, complexus sum   to embrace                              complex 

sequor, sequī, secūtus sum        to follow            sequence, nōn sequitur

labor, labī, lapsus sum             to glide, to slip, to slide    lapse, elapse 

loquor, loquī, locūtus sum            to speak            loquacious, eloquent

nitor, nitī, nisus sum + abl.             to strive, rely on        

proficiscor, proficiscī, profectus sum      to set out, to depart

ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum  + ablative        to use, to employ        use, abuse 

fruor, fruī, fructus sum + ablative        to enjoy, to delight in         Fructus Corn Syrup 

frungor, frungī, functus sum +abl.        to preform             function

vescor, vescī + ablative            to feed oneself, eat

ulciscor, ulciscī, ultus sum            to avenge            Mars Ultor

nascor, nascī, natus sum             to be born            natal

queror, quērī, questus sum         to complain (about)            

 

gradior, gradī, gressus sum         to step, to walk, to move                  grade, gradual     

adgredior, adgredī, aggressus sum    to go toward, to attack    aggressive

ēgredior, ēgredī, ēgressus sum         to go out; disembark         egress

ingredior, ingredī, ingressus sum         to enter, to step into        ingress

regredior, regredī, regressus sum     to go back            regression 

progredior, progredī, progressus sum     to advance                          progress, progression 

patior, patī, passus sum             to suffer, endure, allow      patience, patient, passive

morior, morī, mortuus sum  (FAP = moriturus, a, um)       to die                mortuary 

 

mōlior, mōlīrī, mōlītus sum        to pile up; build, erect, construct, to struggle, to toil 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum               to rise                        orient, oriental 

ordior, ordīrī, orsus sum              to begin (to speak)        exordium 

expērīor, experīrī, expertus sum         to test, to try            experiment, expert

 

Semi-deponents (they are only deponent in the perfect system):

audeō, audēre, ausus sum + inf.        to dare                audacious

gaudeō, gaudēre, gavīsus sum        to rejoice

soleō, solēre, solitus sum + inf.        to be accustomed to         (Spanish soler)

fīdō, fīdere, fīsus sum             to trust 

confīdō, confīdere, confīsus sum + dative  to trust have trust in       confident 

diffīdo, diffīdere,  diffīsus sum (dis- + fido) + dative  - to distrust, be diffident, be distrustful, despair  (diffident, diffidence) 

 

Special Deponent Verbs that Govern the Ablative Case as Direct Objective

ūtor, ūtī, ūsus sum  + ablative - to use, to employ, to enjoy (use)

abutor, abuti, abusus sum - to abuse 

fruor, fruī, fructus sum - to enjoy                   

fungor, fungī, functus sum - to perform                     (function) 

potior, potīrī, potītus sum - to gain possession of + ablative or genitive case 

nītor, nītī, nīsus sum -  to lean or rest upon, to strive, to rely on 

vescor, vescī - to feed on 

 

List for Interrogatives, Indefinite animals, etc. 

audeo, audēre, ausus sum - to dare

iaculor, iaculārī, iaculātus sum   – to throw, to hurl 

vereor, verērī, vērītus sum – to fear

loquor, loquī, locūtus sum –to speak

patior, patī, passus sum – to suffer, to endure; to allow

orior, orīrī, ortus sum – to rise

ūtor, utī, ūsus sum - to use, to enjoy + ablative case

pateō, patēre, patuī (intransitive) - to lie open, to be open, to spread out

genus, generis (n) kind, class, race (genus, sui generis, generic, genre)

gens, gentis (f) race, clan

genu, genūs (n) knee (genuflect) 

Interrogative Animals (pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs)

cūr? why? for what reason? 

quārē - why? 

quot? How many (number) 

quantus, a, um - how great? what size? (magnitude) 

qualis, quale (adj.) what sort? 

quando?  when? (time) 

quis? quid? (interrogative pronoun) who? what? 

quī, quae, quod?  (interrogative adjective)  what? which? 

quā? by what means? by what route? 

quō?  - to what place? where? wither? 

quam? How? 

quam ob rem?  = on account of what matter? why?  

quamdiu? - how long? 

quō modo? = in what way? 

quotiēns - how often? How many time? 

ubi?  Where? or When? 

unde? from where? whence?

uter, utra, utrum? (-ius paradigm) which (of two)? 

utrum…an = whether… or

-ne (enclitic) - signal a neutral questions 

nōnne - signals a question expected a positive response 

num - signals a question expected a negative response

num (introducing an indirect question) = whether 

 

Indefinite Pronouns or Adjectives

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pronoun) - someone, something; anyone, anything 

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adjective) - some, a certain 

quisque, quaeque, quodque (indefinite pronoun) - everyone, everything 

 

Other Related Words. 

 

aliquantō - by some amount 

aliquot - some (number) 

aliquando (adv.) at some time, once, formerly 

magnopere (adv.) greatly

magis (adv.) more

peior, peius (comp. adv.) worse

melior, melius (comp. adv.) better

minor, minus (comp. adv.) small

ne…quidem = not even -  e.g. Ne Raina quidem id bene fecit = “not even Raina did it well”. 

neuter, neutra, neutrum - neither of two

undique (adv.) from all sides 

tam (adv.) so

tantus, a, um - so great

talis, tale (adj.) such 

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

totiēns - so many time, so often 

sīc (adv.) in such a way (sīc semper tyrannīs)

longē (adv.) far, by far

ibi (adv.) there, then  

inde (adv.) from the place, thence 

ita (adv.) in such a way

adeo (adv) to such an extent 

tam…quam (correlative conjunctions)  - as…..as 

ut (subordinating conj.+ indicative mood) as, when 

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each of two

Vocabulary List for Lucretia

Quiz will include: a) Verb game on ardeō, ardēre, arsī, arsus or fero, ferre, tuli, latus

b) Be able to decline:        nullum melius cor or haec maior fides

absolvō, absolvere, absolvī, absolūtus - to free, to release (absolve, absolute, absolution) 

āmittō, āmittere, āmīsī, āmissus - to lose

ardeō, ardēre, arsī, arsus - to burn (ardent, arson) 

armō (1) to arm 

auferō, auferre, abstulī, ablātus- to remove, to steal, to take away 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, to kill 

cēdō, cēdere, cessi, cessus - to yield, to go, to proceed (procede, procession) 

claudō, claudere, clausī, clausus - to close, to shut (claustrophobia) 

coepī, coepisse, coeptus - to begin (defective verb - no present system)

condō, condere, condidī, conditus - to found (ab urbe conditā = 753 BC)

conveniō, convenīre, convēnī, conventus - to meet, to come together (convene, convent)

dēfīgō, defīgere, defīxī, defīxus - to pierce, to stab in a downward direct

dormiō (4) to sleep (dormitory, dormant) 

expellō, expellere, expuli, expulsus - to drive out, expel (expel, expulsion) 

fateor, fatērī, fessus sum - to confess, to acknowledge

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus - to bring, to carry, to bear (refer, confer, collate, relate,melliferous) 

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to become, to happen (copulative verb) 

iaculor, iaculārī, iaculātus sum – to throw, to hurl (ejaculate) 

inclinō (1) to bend, to sway (inclined, inclination) 

inveniō, invenīre, invēnī, inventus - to find, to come upon (invent, inventive, inventor) 

iugulō (1) to strangle (jugular) 

iurō (1) to swear 

lībĕro, lībĕrāre, lībĕrāvi, lībĕrātum - to free +acc. +ablative of separation

misceō, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix 

morior, morī, mortuus sum - to die

muniō, munīre, munīvī, munitus - to build, to fortify

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to endure; to allow (patient, passive) + acc. + infinitive

peccō (1) to sin (peccadillo

occīdo, occīdere, occīdi, occīsus - to kill (ob + caedo) 

occidō, occidere, occidī, occasus - to fall (sol occiens, occasus solis, occident, occidental)

opprimō, opprimere, oppressī, oppressus - to press against, to overwhelm

oppugnō (1) to attack 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise (sol oriens, orient, oriental) 

pecco (1) to sin (impeccable, peccadillo)

pugnō (1) to fight (pugnacious) 

sequor, sequī, secutus sum - to follow

stringō, stringere, strinxī, strictus - to draw (strict) 

stŭpeo, stŭpēre, stŭpui - to be amazed 

taceō, tacēre, tacuī - to be quiet (intransitive verb) (tacit, taciturn) 

versō (1) to turn over (versatile) 

tradō, tradere, tradidī, traditus - to hand over (tradition, trade) 

vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer

videor, vidērī, vīsus sum - to seem + dative of reference 

vīvo, vīvere, vīxī, vīctus - to live

 

quis, quid?  Who? What? (interrogative pronoun)

qui? quae? quod? (interrogative adjective) what? Which? 

 

adventus, adventūs (m) arrival (advent) 

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, level surface of the sea (mare, maris) 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

āēr, āēris (m) air

civitās, civitātis (f) state, nation; city-state

comes, comitis (m) companion, comrade (comity) 

consultum, consultī (n) advice, decree 

consilium, consiliī (n) plan

conspectus, conspectūs (m) sight 

cor, cordis (n) heart (discord, concord) 

cruor, cruoris (f) blood, gore 

exemplum, exemplī (n) example (e.g. = exempli gratia)

exercitus, -ūs (m) army 

facinus, facinoris (n) crime, bad deed

ferrum, -ī (n) iron; sword  

fīdes, fideī (f) faith, trust, loyalty  

gens, gentis (f) race, tribe, clan, family 

genus, generis (n) class, kind

hospĕs, hospĭtis (m) guest

ignis, ignis (m) fire (igneous)

impetus, -ūs (m) attack (impetuous) 

mare, maris (n) sea

metus, metūs (m) fear

nuntius, nuntiī (m) messenger; message 

opera, operae (f) effort, attention 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour

ops, opis (f) help, power, aid, influence 

ordō, ordinis (m) order; rank 

passus, passūs (m) step, a foot (measurement) 

pars, partis (f) direct, side, part, faction 

pāx, pācis (f) peace (pax vobiscum

pectus, pectoris (n) chest, breast

pontus, pontī (m) sea

sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood, lineage 

tellūs, tellūris (f) earth, land

vestigium, -iī (n) footprint, traces (vestiges

vestis, vestis (f) clothing, garment 

ventus, ventī (m) wind

vox, vocis (f) voice (vox populī) 

vultus, -ūs (m) face, expression, countenance 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound 

 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, sharp, harsh

acutus, a, um – sharp 

alienus, a, um - foreign, strange 

brevis, breve - short, brief

celer, celeris, celere - swift, fast 

dexter, dextera, dexterum - right 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh; unyielding 

īdem, eadem, idem - the same (-ius paradigm)

inscius, a, um - not-knowing, unaware

ignarus, a, um - ignorant, unaware + genitive 

laetus, a, um - happy

latus, a, um - wide

lentus, a, um - slow

longus, a, um - long 

maestus, a, um - sad, grieving 

maior, maius (comp. adj.) bigger, greater (major) 

maximus, a, um - the greatest, the biggest

melior, melius (comp. adj.) better (ameliorate)

moribundus, a, um - dying (moribund) 

mollis, molle (2 term. 3rd. adj.) soft (mollify) 

obtūsus, a, um - dull

pavidus, a, um - trembling, frightened 

peior, peius - worse, rather bad

pessimus, a, um - very bad, the worst (superlative form of malus, a, um) 

prior, prius - earlier (priority) 

sinister, sinistra, sinistrum - left

sordidus, a, um - dirty, wicked 

sōlus, a, um - alone (-ius paradigm)

tantus, a, um - so great, such a great 

tardus, a, um - slow, late 

trists, triste - sad

tōtus, a, um (ius paradigm) - whole, entire

tūtus, a, um - safe

ultimus, a, um - last, final 

 

at, ast (adversative conjunction) but, and 

deinde (adv.) then, next

circum (prep. + acc.) around 

circa (adv.) around, about 

enim (postpositive) for, indeed, in fact

hinc (adv.) from this place

hīc (adv.) in this place, here

hūc (adv.) to this place

forte (adv.) by chance 

magnopere (adv.) greatly

magis (comp. adv.) more, rather

maximē (adv.) especially, very much

ne…quidem - not even

prae (prep. + abl.) before, in front of 

prope (prep. + acc.) near

prope (adv.) near

post (prep. + acc.) after

postquam (subordinating conj.) after 

plūs, plūris (substantive + partitive gen.) - more (e pluribus unum)

quam (adv.) than 

satis or sat (adv.) enough 

statim (adv.) immediately 

tantum (adv.) only

tum (adv.) then, at that time 

unde (relative or interrogative adv.) from where, whence

ut + indicative mood = as, when

 

brutus and lucretia.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

List of “Head Verbs” and Impersonal Verbs

As part of the quiz expect a verb game dico, dicere or audio, audire and be able to decline: 

                 idem melior dies or  illud melius tempus

anim-advertō, advertere, advertī, adversus - to notice

arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitrātus sum - to judge (arbitration, arbiter) 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear (audition) 

cernō, cernere, crevī, cretus - to discern, to perceive  

crēdō, crēdere, crēdidī, crēditus - to believe + dative or indirect statement (incredible, credit, incredulous) 

cognoscō, cognoscere, cognōvī, cognitus - to become acquainted with, learn, recognize, know (cognitive, cognition, metacognition) 

cōgĭtō (1) - to think (cogito ergo sum) 

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus - to say (interdiction, diction) 

discō, discere, didicī - to learn

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus - to teach, to instruct (doctrine, indoctrinate) 

existĭmō, existĭmāre, existĭmāvi, existĭmātus - to judge, consider, suppose, think (estimate

intellegō, intellegere, intellexī, intellectus - to perceive, understand, discern, comprehend

iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order + acc. + infinitive (jussive) 

liceō, licēre, licuī - it is permitted (impersonal verb + dative + infinitive) 

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn (admonition, admonish) 

negō, negāre, negāvī, negātus - to deny, to say that…not 

nesciō, nescīre, nescīvī, nescitus - to not know

nuntiō, nuntiāre (1st conjugation) - to announce (renounce) 

narrō, narrāre - to tell (narrative, narration)     

putō, putāre, putāvī, putātus - to think (computer, putative, repute, reputation) 

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostensus - to show  

oportet, oportēre, oportuit (impersonal verb) it is fitting or necessary + accusative + infinitive

placet, placēre, placuit (impersonal verb + dative case) it is pleasing, it is

referō, referre, rettulī, relātus - to answer, to reply, to report, to relate, to announce (reference, relate) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus - to sense, to perceive (sentient, sensory, consensual) 

sperō, sperāre, sperāvi, sperātus - to hope (desperate)

scrībō, scrībere, scrīpsī, scrīptus - to write (manuscript) 

sciō, scīre, scīvi, scītus - to know (science, omniscient) 

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see

Vocabulary List for Aeolus, Juno and Aeneas

As part of the quiz expect a verb game caedo, caedere  cecīdī, caesus and be able to decline: 

                     hic altus mons and illa atra tempestas

cado, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (intransitive) 

caedo, caedere  cecīdī, caesus - to slaughter (transitive)

flammo (1) to inflame

furo, furere – to rage
pono, ponere, posui, positus – to place, to put (deposit, proponent)
indignor, indignari, indignatus sum – to be angry (indignant) 

iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus - to join (conjunction, subjunctive)
iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum – to order + acc. + infinitive
luctor, luctari, luctatus sum – wrestle, struggle 

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear (metus, ūs = fear)

mollio, mollire – to soften, sooth (mollify)
mulceo, mulcere, mulsi, mulsum - soothe, charm navigo (1) to sail
porto (1) to carry
premo, premere, pressi, pressum – to press, control
sciō, scīre (4) to know (+ complementary infinitive = “to know how to verb”) or (+ acc.subject and infinitive 1) Ea scit interficere lepores = She knows (how) to kill rabbits.
2) Ea scit Rainam interficere lepores = She knows that Rainam kills rabbits (indirect statement).
tempero (1) to  subdue
tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - to raise, lift; destroy

traho, trahere, traxi, tractus - to pull, to drag

videor, vidērī, visus sum - to seem (copulative verb) + dative of reference 

utor, uti, usus sum (looks passive, but has active meaning) + ablative case – to use, employ, enjoy
voluto (1) – to turn over and over and over

animus, -i (m) spirit, courage; mind

antrum, -i (n) cave
arx, arcis (f) citadel
aura, -ae (f) air, breeze
caelum, -i (n) sky, heaven
carcer, carceris (m) prison, inclosure (incarcerate)
claustrum, -i (n) blot, latch (claustrophobia)
cor, cordis (n) heart (discord, concord)
conubium, -ii (n) marriage
homo, hominis (m) man (homo erectus, homo novus, ad homimem)
foedus, foederis (n) contract, treaty (federal, federation)
imperium, -ii (n) power, command, dominion (imperial)
locum, -loci (n) place (locative, location)
meritum, -meriti (n) service, reward, favour (merit)
moles, molis (f) mass, weight. burden
mons, montis (m) mountain
nimbus, nimbi (m) storm cloud
nympha, nymphae (f) nymph
patria, patriae (f) fatherland

Penates, Penatium (m. pl.) household or family gods 

pontus, pontī (m) sea (Pontus Euxinus)
proles, prolis (f) offspring
tempestas, tempestatis (f) – storm (tempest)
terra, ae (f) land (terra firma, terra incognita, terrestrial)
ventus, ventī (m) wind (ventilation)
vinclum, -i (n) bond, chain
vox, vocis (f) voice (vociferous, vox populi) 

ater, atra, atrum – black (atrocity, atrocious )
celsus, a, um – high, lofty
certus, a, um – sure, certain
laxus, a, um – set free, loosened (relax, laxative)
diversus, a, um - scattered
fetus, a, um – teeming, full of, pregnant with + ablative case 

omnipotens, omnipotentis (adj.) all powerful 

praestans, praestantis (adj.) outstanding

profundus, a, um – deep, high, vast

proprius, a, um - one’s own (property) 

rapidus, a, um – swirling around sonorous, a, um – roaring, howling

stabilis, -e - stable
talis, -e (adj.) such

 

bis (adv.) twice
circum (adverb or prep. + acc.) around 

hīc (adv) in this place, here

hinc (adv.) from this place

hūc (adv.) to this place

Minerva & Ajax Vocabulary List

avertō, avertere, avertī, aversus - to avert, to turn away (ab + verto) 

carpō, carpere, carpsī, carptus - to pluck, to seize (carpe diem

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, to kill 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (occasion, cause) 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go, to yield (procession, procede) 

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - to cultivate, inhabit, worship (culture, cult) 

ēvertō, ēvertere, ēverti,ēversus– to overturn (ex + verto) 

exurō, exurere, exussī, exustus – to burn (up) 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - pour, scatter (effusive) 

gerō, gerēre, gessī, gestus, a, um – to conduct, wage, to wear, to manage 

incēdō, incēdere, incēssī – to stride, go forth 

iaculor, iaculārī, iaculātus sum (looks passive, has active meaning)– to throw, to hurl 

infīgō, infīgere – to impale, to fix upon (infix)  

possum. posse, potuī - to be able + complementary infinitive 

ruō, ruere, ruī - to ruin, crash down upon 

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus-  break, rupture (eruption) 

scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptus -  write (post scriptum) 

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus -  release, to set free, set sail (solvent, solution, solve) 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to perserve, to keep

submergõ, submergere – to sink, submerge
transfīgō, transfīgere, transfīxī, transfixus, a, um – pierce, transfix

vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn (invert, extravert, reverse) 

 

aes, aeris (n) bronze

āēr, āēris (m) air

aequor, aequoris (n) sea, surface of the sea

altum, altī (n) the deep, the see = mare, maris (n) 

annus, annī (m) year (annual, perennial) 

bellum, bellī (n) war

classis, classis (f) fleet (of ships) 

conspectus, conspectūs (m) sight (conspicuous) 

coniunx, coniugis (f) spouse, wife

flamma, flammae (f) flame

furia, furiae (f) rage, madness

ignis, ignis (m) fire

gens, gentis (f) race, clan 

noxa, noxae (f) crime

nubes, nubis (m) cloud

pectus, pectoris (n) chest, breast 

pontus, pontī (m) sea (Pontus Euxinus) 

ratis, ratis (f) ship, boat 

sāl, salis (m) salt

scopulus, scopulī (m) rock, cliff  

soror, sororis (f) sister (sorority) 

spuma, spumae (f) foam 

tellus, tellūris (f) earth, land

turbo, turbinis (f) whirlwind 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound

velum, velī (n) sail 

ventus, ventī (m) wind

 

ūnus, a, um - one (-ius paradigm) 

duo, duae, duo - two

tres, tria - three

 

acūtus, a, um - sharp

aeternus, a, um - eternal, everlasting (eternity) 

laetus, a, um - happy 

mollis, molle - soft (mollify) 

rapidus, a, um - swirling 

tot (indeclinable adjective) so many 

 

ast or at  (adversative conjunction) = but, and 

atque (coordinating conj.) and, and also

ob (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of

vix (adv.) hardly, barely

Ilioupersis ajax cassandra nola .jpg
Nimbus Anvil_shaped_cumulus_panorama_edit.jpg

List for Review of Latin Verbs - Beginning Latin II 

amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus - to love (amatory, amorous) 

do, dare, dedī, datus - to give (data) 

laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus-to praise (laud, summa cum laude

narrō, narrāre, narrāvī, narrātus - to tell (narrative, narrator) 

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare

portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus - to carry (transport) 

pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāvī, pugnātus - to fight (pugnacious) 

regnō, regnāre, regnāvī, regnātus - to reign; to rule 

secō, secāre, secuī, sectus - to cut (section) 

servō, servāre, servāvī, servātus - to save (preservation) 

spectō, spectāre, spectāvī, spectātus - to watch (spectator, inspection) 

stō, stāre, stetī, status (estoy; substantive, status quo) 

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call (advocate, evoke, convocation, vocation) 

 

audeō, audēre, ausus sum - to dare (audacity)

dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus - owe; ought + complementary infinitive 

doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus  -to teach (docent, doctor, indoctrinate) 

habeō, habēre, habuī, habitus- to have (avoir, avere, haber

habitō, habitāre, habitāvī, habitātus - to dwell, to live (inhabit) 

iaceō iacēre iacuī - lie (adjacent)
iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus - to order

maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsus - to remain 

mīsceō, mīscēre, mīscuī, mīxtus -  mix

moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise (admonition, admonish, monitor) 

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move (movable, motion) 

noceō, nocēre, nocuī + dative - to harm 

pareō, parēre, paruī - to obey + dative

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possess (tenacious) 

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see (video, vision) 

 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead (agent, agenda, action) 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to kill 

cadō, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (occasion, cause) 

cēdō, cēdere, cessī, cessus - to go, to yield (procession, procede) 

colō, colere, coluī, cultus - to cultivate, inhabit, worship (culture, cult) 

cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus - to complete, bring together 

credō, credere, credidī, creditus - to trust, to believe + dative (credit) 

crēscō, crēscere, crēvī, crētus - to grow, increase 

currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus - to run (current, curriculum; correr

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus   - to say (dictation, dictionary)

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (duct, aqueduct, conduct, produce) 

fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus - pour, scatter

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus -wear, do, conduct, manage 

laedō, laedere, laesī, laesus -  injure by striking, hurt

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to chose; to read (lecture, election, selection) 

mittō, mittere, mīsī, missus - to send (transmit, mission) 

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentus - to show 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus -  strike, beat, push, drive

petō, petere, petivī, petitus - to seek (competition, 

pōnō, ponere, posuī, positus - to put, to place (exponent, position) 

regō, regere, rēxī, rēctus - guide, rule

rumpō, rumpere, rūpī, ruptus-  break, rupture 

scrībō scrībere scrīpsī scrīptus -  write 

solvō, solvere, solvī, solūtus -  release, set sail

trahō, trahere, traxī, tractus - to pull, to drag (tractor, attraction)

 vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (invincible, veni, vidi, vici)

vīvō, vīvere, vīxī - to live (vivacious) 

 

capiō, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, to capture (captive, capture, caption) 

    recipiō -cipere -cēpi -ceptus - take back, 

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus  - to do, to make (fact, manufacture) 

         conficiō -ficere -fēcī -fectus - complete, 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (refugee, fugitive, centrifuge) 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (reject, object)                                

rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptus - to seize (rapacious, rapture, rapine, raptor) 

    ēripiō -ripere -ripuī -reptus - snatch away

 

aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus - to open (aperture; abierto, abrir)                 

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus - to hear (audio, audible, audit, audition) 

muniō, munīre, munīvī, munītus - to fortify 

saliō, salīre, saluī, saltus - to leap, to jump (salient) 

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus - to know (omniscient, science) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus (sensitive, sentient) 

serviō, servīre - to serve, be a slave + DATIVE CASE (serve, service)

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (venir; advent, adventure; veni, vidi, vici)                        inveniō -venīre -vēnī -ventus - to find, to discover (invention, inventor) 

                     

Irregular Verbs          

possum, posse, potuī - to be able (potis + sum) + complementary infinitive            

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - to be (ser in Spanish; future) (copulative verb)

volō velle voluī - to wish, be willing + complementary infinitive 

mālō mālle māluī - to prefer + complementary infinitive
nōlō nōlle nōluī -  be unwilling + complementary infinitive

ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus -  bear, carry, endure (odiferous) 

eō, īre, iī/īvī, itūrus - to go (perish, spanish ir

fīō, fierī, factus sum - to become, happen, be done (fiat lux) (copulative verb)

Vocabulary for Pyramus et Thisbe, Pars Prima

BONUS is todecline:    

hic miser amans

bibō, bibere, bibī (bibulous) - to drink 

clāmō (1) call out, to shout, cry out (exclamation, exclamatory) 

crescō, crescere, crēvī, cretus - to increase, to grow, to rise (crescendo, crescent moon) 

fallō, fallere, fefellī, falsus - to deceive (false, fallacious, fallacy) 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī - to flee (refugee, centrifuge, centrifugal) 

iaciō, iacere, iecī, iactus - to throw (eject, inject, reject) 

iaceō, iacēre, iacuī - to lie (adjacent) 

prohibeō, prohibēre, prohibuī, prohibitus (pro + habeo) - to forbid, to prevent (prohibition

quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesitus - to ask, seek, inquire (question) 

quaesō, quaesere - to seek, to beg

relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus - to leave behind (relinquish) 

sentiō, sentīre, sensī, sensus - to sense, feel, perceive, to think (sensitive, sentient) 

temptō (1) to attempt (temptation

teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus - to hold, to possesses (tenacious) 

optō (1) wish for (optative, option) 

 

amāns, amantis (f/m) a lover 

arbor, arboris (f) tree (arboreal) 

amor, amoris (m) love (amorous) 

animal, animāis (n) animal 

corpus, corporis (n) body (corporal, corpulent) 

consilium, -iī (n) plan, advice 

fissum, fissī (n) crack (fissure

fons, fontis (m) spring, fountain (font) 

iter, itineris (n) journey, path (itinerant, itinerary) 

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) youth (juvenile

locum, -ī (n) place (location, locative) 

nox, noctis (f) night (nocturnal) 

os, ossis (n) bone (ossify) 

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face (oral) 

pōmum, pomī (n) apple; fruit (pomegranate) 

rādix, rādicis (f) root (radical, radish) 

tempus, temporis (n) time (temporal, temporary) 

vēlāmen, vēlāminis (n) garment, clothing, a covering

vestigium, vestigiī (n) traces, footprints 

vir, virī (m) man (virile) 

vīs, vis (f) force (violence) 

vīrēs, vīrium (f. pl.) strength 

vox, vōcis (f) voice (vox populī, vociferous

 

———suī, sibi, se, se

 

quī, quae, quod (relative pronoun) who, whose, whom, which, that 

 

albus, a, um - white (albino) 

dignus, a, um - worth of, deserving of + ablative (dignity, indignant) 

miser, misera, miserum - poor, wretch, miserable 

liquidus, a, um - clear, flowing 

mollis, molle - soft (mollify

obscūrus, a, um (obscure) 

prior, prius (gen. sing. = prioris) earlier, before, previous (priority) 

suus, a, um - his own, her own, its own, their own 

tenuis, tenue - thin, fine, slender (tenuous) 

vicinus, a, um - close to, neighboring + dative (vicinity) 

 

aliō (adv.) to another place

(adv.) to that place

eōdem (adv.) to the same place

hīc (adv.) in this place, here

hinc (adv.) from this place

hūc (adv.) to this place

illīc (adv.) in that place

illinc (adv.) fro that place

Illīc (adv.) to that place

quia (subordinating conj.) because 

utrimque (adv) on each side, in each direct 

ut (subordinating conj.) + indicative mood = as, just as; when


The Death of Servius Tullius

Bonus:  Decline       eadem gravis rēs

addo, addere addidi, additus - to add

audeo, audēre - to dare (audacious) 

apello (1) to call, to name (copulative when passive) 

contemno, contemnere - to scorn 

debeo, debere, debui, debitus - to owe; ought + complementary infinitive 

duco, ducere, duxi, ductus - to lead 

excito, excitare, excitavi, excitatus - to stir, excite, rouse 

facio, facere, feci, factus - to do, to make

fio, fieri, factus sum - to be made, to happen, to become (copulative verb) 

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus - to throw 

interficio, interficere, interfeci, interfectus - to kill 

invideo, invidere, invidi, invisus - to envy + dative 

iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus - to join (junction) 

mallo, malle, maluī (magis + volo) to prefer

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move

parō, parāre, parāvī, parātus - to prepare (semper paratus

pereo, perire, perii, periturus (per + eo) - to perish 

relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictus - to leave behind, to abandon (relinquish) 

timeo, timēre, timui - to fear

 

animus, animī (m) mind, spirit 

consilium, -ii (n) plan, advice 

curia, -ae (f) Curia = the senate house 

diēs, dieī (m or f) day (per diem, carpe diem) 

equus, equī (m) horse (equestrian) 

manus, manūs (f) hand; band of men

mora, -ae (f) delay (moratorium)  

invidia, -ae (f) envy, jealousy; hatred

pars, partis (f) part, side, direction, faction

regnum, regnī (n) kingdom, kingship

rēs, reī (f) matter, situation (5th declension) 

scelus, sceleris (n) wickedness, evil 

sedēs, sedis (m) seat, place, location (Holy See) 

spēs, speī (f) hope

socius, sociī (m) ally (social, society) 

soror, sororis (f) sister (sorority) 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife

verbum, verbī (n) word (verbatim) 

vīta, vītae (f) life (vital signs) 

 

alius, alia, aliud (-ius paradigm)  other

aequus, a, um - equal, just 

alter, altera, alterum (-ius paradigm)—another;  the one…the other 

audax, audacis (adj.  1 term.) - bold, daring (audacious, audacity) 

duo, duae, duo - two 

fessus, a, um - exhausted

ferox, ferocis (adj.  1 term.) fierce, savage 

nullus, a, um - no (-ius paradigm) 

mītis, mīte - ripe, ready; gentle, kind (mitigate)

oblitus, a, um -having forgotten, forgetful + genitive case

par, paris (adj.  1 term.) equal (par, prīmus inter parēs) + dative case

 

ad (prep. + acc. ) to, toward; for 

atque - and, and also, also 

enim (postpositive part.) for, indeed, in fact 

neque…neque - neither…nor 

praeter (prep. + acc.) except 

statim (adv.) immediately 

tandem (adv.) finally, at last 

 

hic, haec, hoc - this, these

ille, illa, illud  - that, those

iste, ista, istud - that, those (of yours)

is, ea, id  - the, that, those 

īdem, eadem, idem (is + dem) - the same 

 

ūnus, a, um - one, only one

nūllus, a, um -no (negative of ullus, a, um) 

ūllus, a, um - any

sōlus, a, um - alone, only, sole

neuter, neutra, neutrum -neither (of two)

alter, altera, alterum - the other (of two); the second 

uter?, utra?, utrum?  - which (of two)?

uterque, utraque, utrumque - each (of two)

tōtus, a, um -whole, entire

alius, alia, aliud -another, other (alii...alii - some...others)

        (for genitive singular use alterius)

 

michael sleeping.jpg

Vocabulary list for the Reign of Servius Tullius

aedificō (1) to build (edifice

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to manage, to lead (agent, agenda, action, actor)

discedo, discedere, discessi, discessus (dis + cedo)  - to depart

dormiō, dormīre - to sleep 

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead (conduct, reduce) 

excitō (1) to stir, to rouse 

expellō, expellere, expulī, expulsus - to drive out

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus - to make, to do

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to become; to happen (copulative verb) 

gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus - to wage, to manage, to perform, to accomplish; to wear

interficiō, interficere, interfēcī, interfectus - to kill 

iubeo, iubēre, iussi, iussus - to order + acc. + infinitive 

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to chose, to read (election, select, lector

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move

pōno, pōnere, posuī, positus - to put, to place (exponent, proponent, position) 

possum, posse, potuī - to be able + complementary infinitive 

spectō (1) to look at, to watch 

sum, esse, fuī, futūrus - to be (copulative verb)

veto, vetare, vetui - to provent, to prohibit 

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (advent) 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer 

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call 

volō, volāre, volāvī, volātus - to fly 

volō, velle, voluī - to wish, to want 

 

caput, capitis (n) head (decapitate

conspectus, conspectūs (m) sight 

deus, deī (m) god (deus in machina

diēs, diēī(m) day (per diem, carpe diem

bellum, bellī (n) war (antebellum, bellicose) 

dolus, dolī (m) trick 

fossa, fossae (f) ditch 

fīlius, fīliī (m) son 

līber, līberī (m) child 

locus, locī (m) place

mons, montis (m) mountain, hill 

mora, morae (f) delay (moratorium) 

mūrus, mūrī (m) wall (intramural) 

Vocabulary List for Aeolus 

cado, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (intransitive) 

caedo, caederececīdī, caesus - to slaughter (transitive)

flammo (1) to inflame

furo, furere – to rage
pono, ponere, posui, positus – to place, to put (deposit, proponent)
indignor, indignari, indignatus sum – to be angry (indignant) 

iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus - to join (conjunction, subjunctive)
iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum – to order + acc. + infinitive
luctor, luctari, luctatus sum – wrestle, struggle 

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear (metus, ūs = fear)

mollio, mollire – to soften, sooth (mollify)
mulceo, mulcere, mulsi, mulsum - soothe, charm

navigo (1) to sail
porto (1) to carry
premo, premere, pressi, pressum – to press, control
sciō, scīre (4) to know (+ complementary infinitive = “to know how to verb”) or (+ acc.subject and infinitive
1) Ea scit interficere lepores = She knows (how) to kill rabbits.
2) Ea scit Rainam interficere lepores = She knows that Rainam kills rabbits (indirect statement).
tempero (1) to temper, subdue
tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - to raise, lift; destroy

traho, trahere, traxi, tractus - to pull, to drag

videor, vidērī, visus sum - to seem (copulative verb) + dative of reference 

utor, uti, usus sum (looks passive, but has active meaning) + ablative case – to use, employ, enjoy
voluto (1) – to turn over and over and over

animus, -i (m) spirit, courage; mind

antrum, -i (n) cave
arx, arcis (f) citadel
aura, -ae (f) air, breeze
caelum, -i (n) sky, heaven
carcer, carceris (m) prison, inclosure (incarcerate)
claustrum, -i (n) blot, latch (claustrophobia)
cor, cordis (n) heart (discord, concord)
conubium, -ii (n) marriage
homo, hominis (m) man (homo erectus, homo novus, ad homimem)
foedus, foederis (n) contract, treaty (federal, federation)
imperium, -ii (n) power, dominion (imperial)
locum, -loci (n) place (locative, location)
meritum, -meriti (n) service, reward, favour (merit)
moles, molis (f) mass, weight. burden
mons, montis (m) mountain
nimbus, nimbi (m) storm cloud
nympha, nymphae (f) nymph
patria, patriae (f) fatherland

Penates, Penatium (m. pl.) household or family gods 

pontus, pontī (m) sea (Pontus Euxinus)
proles, prolis (f) offspring
tempestas, tempestatis (f) – storm (tempest)
terra, ae (f) land (terra firma, terra incognita, terrestrial)
ventus, ventī (m) wind (ventilation)
vinclum, -i (n) bond, chain
vox, vocis (f) voice (vociferous, vox populi) 

ater, atra, atrum – black (atrocity, atrocious )
celsus, a, um – high, lofty
certus, a, um – sure, certain
laxus, a, um – set free, loosened (relax, laxative)
diversus, a, um - scattered
fetus, a, um – teeming, full of, pregnant with + ablative case 

omnipotens, omnipotentis (adj.) all powerful 

praestans, praestantis (adj.) outstanding

profundus, a, um – deep, high, vast

proprius, a, um - one’s own (property) 

rapidus, a, um – swirling around sonorous, a, um – roaring, howling

stabilis, -e - stable
talis, -e (adj.) such

 

bis (adv.) twice
circum (adverb or prep. + acc.) around 

hīc (adv) in this place, here

hinc (adv.) from this place

hūc (adv.) to this place

nomen, nominis (n) name 

pax, pacis (f) peace (pax vobiscum)

populus, populī (m) people (SPQR, vox populī)

prudentia, -ae (f) prudence, wisdom 

puer, puerī (m) boy (puerile) 

rēs, reī (f) matter, affair, situation, state (in medias res, republic) 

rēx, rēgis (m) king

regnum, regnī (n) royal power; kingdom

somnus, somnī (m) sleep; dream (insomnia) 

templum, templī (n) sacred space 

urbs, urbis (f) city (urbane) 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife

vir, virī (m) man, husband, hero (virile) 

vīs, vis (f) force (violence) 

vīta, vītae (f) life (curriculum vitae = CV)

 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, sharp (acrid) 

altus, a, um - high; deep 

ceterī, ceterae, cetera - the remaining, the rest, the other (etc. = et cetera)

ferox, ferocis (adj. one termination) fierce wild 

gravis, grave - heavy, serious

īrātus, a, um - angry 

līber, lībera, līberum - free (as noun = child) 

parvus, a, um - small (opposite of magnus, a, um) 

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful

tantus, a, um - so great, such a great

 

is, ea, id (weak demonstrative adjective) = the, that, those 

 

apud (prep. + acc.) with, among, in presence of 

circum (prep. + acc. ) around

ob (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of 

post (prep. + acc.) after (post hoc propter hoc, postmortem)

sine (prep. + abl.) without (sinecure) 

tum (adv.) then 

ubi (subordinating conj.) when; where

Rabbit with Gladius and Tunic Raina  Rabbit .jpeg

 

Final List for Matron of Ephesus

Be able to decline id melius opus or illud maius officium

 

affigo, affigere, affixi, affixus - fasten upon, attach to (affix) 

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to acknowledge (head verb) (confession)

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to catch sight of (conspicuous) 

detraho, detrahere, detraxi, detractus - to pull/take down (detractor) 

fruor, fruī, fructus sum - to enjoy + ABLATIVE CASE (fructose) 

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie (adjacent) 

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus - to throw (eject) 

impero (1) to command + dative + jussive noun clause (imperative) 

impendo, impendere - to hang on, to weight, place on the scales (impending) 

malo, malle, malui- to prefer + comp. infinitive 

mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus - to commit, consign, to order (mandate) 

miror, mirārī, miratus sum - to wonder (at), be amazed (miracle) 

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die (mortal)

obliviscor, obliviscī, oblitus sum - to forget + genitive case. (oblivion, oblivious) 

occīdo, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to cut down, to kill 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow + acc. + infinitive (patient, passive) 

persuadeo, persuadēre, persuasī - to persuade + dative + jussive noun clause

pereo, perire, perīre, periī, peritūrus, a, um (per + eo, ire) - to perish 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek (appetite) 

reor, reri, ratus sum - to think (head verb)

sino, sinere - to allow + acc. + inf. 

specto (1) to look upon, see, to watch 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - to raise, lift 

vaco (1) to be empty (vacant) 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

 

auxilium, -ii (n) help (auxiliary) 

funus, funeris (n) funeral; death 

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, sigh 

homo, hominis (m) man (homo sapiens, homo erectus, ad hominem

ingenium, -ii (n) genius, intelligence (ingenuity) 

maritus, -i (m) husband

mors, mortis (f) death 

mos, moris (m) custom (mores; mos maiorum - custom of ancestors)

numen, numinis (n) divine power (numinous) 

ordo, ordinis (m) rank, class, order (ordinal) 

officium, -ii (n) duty (official, officious) 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labor (magnum opus

opera, -ae (f) attention, effort

populus, -i (m) people (SPQR = Senatus Populusque Romanus

praesidium, -ii (n) protection 

ratio, rationis (f) reason(rational) 

rus, ruris (n) countryside (rural) 

 

quisquis, quid(c)quid (indefinite pronoun) whoever, whatever

 

carus, a, um - dear + dative 

fatalis, fatale - fated 

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

maior, maius (comp. adj.) great, bigger; older (major) 

melior, melius (comp. adj.) better (ameliorate) 

plenus, a, um - full of + genitive case 

posterus, a, um - next, following (posterity) 

pudicus, a, um - chaste, virtuous (of a female)

prudens, prudentis - wise, clever

 

atque (coordinating conj.) and

deinde - then, next 

ergo - therefore 

igitur - therefore

magis (comp. adv.) more, rather 

minus (adv. comparative) - less

propter (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of

quotiens (adv.) as often as

quasi (conj.) as if 

rus (acc.) to the countryside

ruri (locative) in the countryside

rure (ablative) from the countryside

secundum (prep. + acc.) next to; in accordance with; following

sine (prep. + abl.) without 

ultimo (adv.) finally

List One for Matrona Ephesī

 

Be able to decline idem lumen or quoddam pectus as part of this quiz. 

 

assideo, assidere, assedi + dative - to sit next to (assiduous) 

coepi, coepisse, coeptus (defective verb - lack present system) to begin + complementary inf. 

commodo (1) to give, bestow, lend, furnish 

afflicto (1) to distress, afflict, trouble (affliction, afflicted) 

custodio, custodire (4) to guard (custody, custodian) 

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus - to cease, fail, expire (deficient) 

evoco (1) to summon, call out (evoke) 

fundo, fundere fūdi, fusus - to pour out (effusive)

lugeo, lugere, luxi, luctum - to mourn, lament

potior, potiri, potitus sum - to gain possession of + gen. or abl. 

trado, tradere, tradidi, traditus - to hand over (tradition) 

traho, trahere, traxi, tractus - to pul, to drag (attractive) 

 

ancilla, -ae (f) female attendant, female servant (ancillary)

defunctus, -i (m) dead man, defunct

crinis, crinis, -ium(m) hair crinoline 

inedia, -ae (f) fasting, not eating

lumen, luminis (n) light; eye

magistratus, -ūs (m) magistrates 

matrona, -ae (f) matron (married woman)     (matronly)

mos, moris (m) custom, habit mores (mos maiorum = custom of ancestors, mores = customs) 

nox, noctis (noctium) f.  night

pectus, pectoris (n) chest, breast pectoral 

propinquus, -i (m) relative (propinquity)

pudicitia, -ae (f) modesty, purity, feminine virtue

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak, wounded

fidus, a, um - faithful, loyal + dative

idem, eadam, idem - the same

notus, a, um - known, well-known, remarkable, notorious

ops, ops (f) wealth, power, influence

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

opus, operis (n) work, task, labour (magnum opus, opera) 

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.)  - a certain, some

saucius, a, um - wounded

talis, tale (adj.) such

tantus, a, um - so great

vicinus, a, um - neighboring  + dative  (vicinity)

vulgaris, -e - common, ordinary (vulgar, Vulgar Latin) 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pron.) - anyone, anything (drops "ali" after si, nisi, and ne)

cum…tum (correlative conjunctions)  both…and 

ergo - therefore 

igitur - therefore, and so

quotiens (adv.) as often as

semel (adv.) once and for all 

simul (adv.) at the same time 

tamen - nevertheless, however

ultimō - finally

Latin Vocabulary for Indirect Commands & Indirect Questions

cogō, cogere, coēgī, coactus - to compel + acc. + inf. or ut + subjunctive
rogō, rogare, rogavi, rogatus - to ask (interrogate, abrogate, prerogative)
persuadeō, persuadēre, persuasī - to persuade + dative + ut + subjunctive

potior, potiri, potitus sum (+GEN. or ABL.) -to gain possession of
 

iubeō, iubere, iussi, iussus - to order + acc. + inf. or ut + subjunctive
imperō, imperāre, imperavī, imperātus  - to command, to order + dative + ut + subjunctive (imperative, imperium, imperator) 

hortor, hortārī, hortatus sum - to urge (hortatory) 

exhortor, exhortārī, exhortatus sum - to exhort
orō, orāre - to beg (orant, oration)
moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus - to warn, to advise petō a(b) + ut/ne + subjunctive mood (admonition)
quaerō, quaerere + a(b) + ut/ne + subjunctive mood 

Impersonal Constructions with noun clauses:

accidit - it happens + ut + subjunctive
oportet, oportēre, oportui - it is necessary + acc. + inf. or ut + subjunctiv

utor, utī, usus sum (+ABL.) to use, to employ

peritus, a, um + genitive = skilled at

imperitus, a, um - unskilled 

cupidus, a, um + gen.   desirous of

causā + preceding genitive = for the sake of

gratiā + preceding genitive = for the sake of

Interrogative Animals

cūr? why 

quāre - why? 

quot? How many (number) 

quantus, a, um - how great? what size? (magnitude) 

qualis, quale (adj.) what sort? 

quando?  when? (time) 

quis? quid? (interrogative pronoun) who? what? 

quī, quae, quod?  (interrogative adjective)  what? which? 

quō?  - to what place? where? 

quam? How? 

quam ob rem?  = on account of what matter? why?  

quō modo? = in what way 

ubi?  Where? or When? 

unde? from where? 

uter, utra, utrum? (-ius paradigm) which (of two)? 

utrum…an = whether… or

-ne (enclitic) - signal a neutral questions 

nōnne - signals a question expected a positive response 

num - signals a question expected a negative response

num (introducing an indirect question) = whether

Other Things

ne…quidem = not even   Ne Reona quidem id bene fecit = “not even Reona did it well”. 

undique (adv.) from all sides

tam (adv.) so

tantus, a, um - so great

talis, tale (adj.) such 

tot (indecl. adj.) so many

sīc (adv.) in such a way

ita (adv.) in such a way

adeo (adv) to such an extent

List for Battle of Alia & Gauls Sack Rome

ut (subordinating conj.) + indicative mood = as, when

ut (subordinating conj.) + subjunctive mood = in order that (purpose);  that (noun clause) 

coepī, coepisee, coeptus - to begin (defective verb - only has perfect system) 

cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognotus - to learn

cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum - to try + infinitive 

constituo, constituere - to establish 

credo, credere, credidi, creditus - to believe, to trust (+ dative or acc. + infinitive) 

defendo, defendere, defendi, defensus - to defend 

iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus - to join 

minor, minārī - to threaten (menace) 

nuntio, nuntiare - to announce 

pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus - to drive off

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek 

populor, populārī - to ravage 

recuso (1) to refuse 

redeo, redīre - to return (re + eo) 

reor, reri, ratus sum - to think, to reckon 

sto, stare, steti - to stand 

timeō, timēre - to fear 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - to raise 

tueor, tueri, tutus sum - to protect, to watch over 

vagor, vagārī - to wander 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

 

 

arx, arcis (f) citadel 

acies, acieī (f) battle line 

adventus, -ūs (m) arrival 

agmen, agminis (n) marching line 

clamor, clamoris (m) shout

cornū, -ūs (n) horn, wing or flank (of an army) 

copiae, -ārum (f. pl.) troops 

exercitus, -ūs (m) army 

fuga, fugae (f) flight 

insidiae, -arum (f. pl) plot, ambush 

iter, itineris (n) journey (facere iter = to march) 

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) youth 

lēgātus, -ī (m) general, ambassador 

magistrātus, -ūs (m) magistrate 

passus, -ūs (m) step 

senex, senis (m) old man 

 

 

certus, a, um - sure, certain, reliable 

ferox, ferocis (adj.) wild, ferocious 

īrātus, a, um - angry 

integer, integra, integrum - untouched, intact, unharmed 

parvus, a, um - small 

trepidus, a, um - restless, agitated, alarmed  

vagus, a, um - roving, wandering 

 

aegrē (adv.) sickly, weakly 

aliquamdiu - for sometime 

apud (prep. + acc. ) - among, with; near 

autem (postpositive) however, moreover 

extrā (prep. + acc.) outside of 

ne…quidem = not even (surrounds what it emphasizes) 

interim (adv.) meanwhile 

num - introduces a question, expects answer no     num mē interficies = Surely you will not kill me? 

obviam (adv.) to meet +  dative 

quidem (postpositive) indeed, infact

quamquam (subordinating conj.) although 

trans (prep. + acc.) across 

undique (adv.) from all sides 

ut (subordinating conj.) + indicative mood = as, when

ut (subordinating conj.) + subjunctive mood = in order that (purpose);  that (noun clause) 

vix (adv.) hardly, scarcely

List for Plebs Go on Strike

accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptus - to receive, to take (ad + capio)  (accept) 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead, to drive, to spend, to pass

appareō, apparēre, apparuī, apparitus - to appear + acc. & infinitive (appearance, apparition) 

alō, alere, aluī - to nourish 

āmittō, āmittere, āmīsī, āmissus - to lose (ab + mitto) 

conficiō, conficere, confēci, confectus - to complete, to finish off

coniūrō (1) to conspire, to swear together + ut…+ subjunctive mood 

dēpōnō, dēpōnere, dēposuī, dēpositus - to put down, to give up (de + pono) 

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus - to bring, to endure, to bear 

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to become to happen (copulative verb) 

imperō (1) to order, to command + dative case (imperative, imperator, emperor, imperial) 

incendo, incendere, incendi, incensus - to set on fire

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to chose; to read 

liceō, licēre, licuī - it is permitted (impersonal verb + dative + infinitive) 

morior, morī, mortuus sum - to die (looks passive, translates actively) dulce et decorum pro patriā morī = it is sweet and honourable to die for the fatherland) 

nuntiō (1) to announce (+ acc. subject + inf.) 

opprimo, opprimere, oppressī, oppressus - to overwhelm, to oppress (ob + primo) 

oppugno (1) to attack (ob + pugno) 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise (orient, oriental)  (looks passive, translates actively)

oportet, oportēre, oportuit (impersonal verb) it is necessary 

ostendō, ostendere, ostendī, ostentus - to show (ostentatious) 

placet, placēre, placuit (impersonal verb) it is pleasing, it is agreed 

polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum - to promise (looks passive, translates actively)

postulō (1) to demand (postulate) 

quaerō, quaerere - to seek 

reddō, reddere, redidī, redditus - to give back (re + do)

sēcēdo, sēcēdere sēcessi, sēcessus - to go away, depart, retire (secede, secession) 

vāstō (1) to destroy, devastate

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (invincible, sol invictus

 

aes, aeris (n) bronze 

aes alienum = debt 

auxilium, -iī (n) help, aid (auxiliary) 

cibus, cibī (m) food

cīvis, cīvis (m) citizen (i-stem)  (sum civis Romanus) 

condiciō, condiciōnis (f) condition, term

cūra, cūrae (f) care, worry, anxiety (sinecure) 

dens, dentis (m) teeth (-i stem noun) 

discordia, -ae (f) conflict, discord ( dis + cor, cordis

dominus, dominī (m) master, lord (dominus et deus

fīnis, fīnis (m/f) end (finite) 

hostis, hostis (m) enemy 

imperium, imperiī (n) legal power, authority

inimīcitia, -ae (f) hostility (in + amicitia

īra, īrae (f) angry, wrath 

labor, labōris (m) labour, struggle

lībertās, lībertātis (f) liberty 

membrum, membrī (n) limbs, membres 

mīles, mīlitis (m) soldier 

mīlia (n. pl) thousands (mile, milia meter 

multitūdō, multitūdinis (f) mass, large number

modus, modī (m) way, method (modus vivendi, modus operandi

mons, montis (m) mountain (i-stem noun) 

nihil (indecl. noun) nothing (nihilism) 

ōs, ōris (n) mouth (oral) 

pars, partis (f) part, side, direction 

pater, patris (m) father or senator

pāx, pācis (f) peace (Pax Romana, pax nobiscum

passus, passūs (m) step    tria milia passuum = three thousands of steps = 3 miles.

plebs, plebis (m) plebs (plebeian, plebiscite, plebe) 

potestās, potestātis (f) power

Tribunus Plebis - Tribune of the Plebs - an elected magistrate who protects the interest of the plebs 

tribūtum,  -ī (n) tax, taxation, tribute 

venter, ventris (m) stomach 

vinculum, -ī (n) chain, bond

 

alius, alia, aliud - another; one…the other (-iusparadigm)

alienus, a, um - of other, other’s, foreign (alien) 

cīvīlis, cīvīle - of citizens, civil 

īrātus, a, um - angry 

quīdam, quaedam, quoddam - a certain, some 

quī? quae? quod?  (interrogative adjective) what? which? 

similis, simile - similar + dative case 

tūtus, a, um - safe 

 

contrā (prep + acc.) against (contradiction) 

domī (locative case) at home

magis (comp. adv.) more 

ōlim (adv.) formerly, once upon a time, in the past

paene (adv.) almost (peninsula, penult) 

postea (adv.) afterwards

prō (prep. + abl. ) on behalf of

post (prep. + acc.) after 

propter (prep. + acc. ) on account of (post hoc, ergo propter hoc

priusquam = before

tum (adv.) then 

 

Verba Nova Discenda!

abdō, abdere, abdidī, abditus - to conceal 

absolvo, absolvere, absolvi, absolūtus - to free, to release 

aedifico (1) to build 

āmitto, āmittere, āmīsī, āmissus - to lose

ardeō, ardēre, arsī, arsus - to burn (ardent, arson) 

armo (1) to arm 

auferō, auferre, abstulī, ablātus- to remove, to steal, to take away 

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall 

caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus - to cut down, to kill 

cēdo, cēdere, cessi, cessus - to yield, to go, to proceed (procede, procession) 

claudō, claudere, clausī, clausus - to close, to shut (claustrophobia) 

coepī, coepisse, coeptus - to begin

convenio, convenire, conveni, conventus - to meet, to come together (convene, convent)

dēfīgō, defīgere, defīxī,defīxum - to pierce, to stab in a downward direct

dormiō (4) to sleep (dormitory, dormant) 

ēmittō, ēmittere, ēmīsī, ēmissus - to send out, emit (emission) 

evertō, evertere, everti, eversus, a, um – to overturn 

excipio, excipere, excepi, exceptus - to receive, to take 

exclūdō, exclūdere, exclusī, exclusus - to remove, exclude 

expellō, expellere, expuli, expulsus - to drive out, expel (expel, expulsion) 

exsequor, exsequī, exsecutus sum - pursue 

expugnō (1) to assault, to subdue, to attack 

fateor, fatērī, fessus sum - to confess

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus - to bring, to carry, to bear (refer, confer, collate, relate) 

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to become, to happen

iaculor, iaculārī, iaculātus sum – to throw, to hurl (ejaculate) 

incido, incidere, incidi - to fall upon, to happen (in + cado) 

inclinō (1) to bend, to sway (inclined, inclination) 

inveniō, invenīre, invēnī, inventus - to find, to come upon (invent, inventive, inventor) 

iugulō (1) to strangle

iurō (1) to swear

lībĕro,lībĕrāre, lībĕrāvi, lībĕrātum - to free

manō, manāre - to drip, to be wet 

misceō, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix 

morior, morī, mortuus sum - to die

muniō, munīre, munīvī, munitus - to build, to fortify

navigō, navigāre, navigāvī, navigātus  - to sail

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, to endure; to allow (patient, passive) + acc. + infinitive

peccō (1) to sin

quaerō, quaerere - to inquire, to ask

oborior, oborīrī, obortus sum - to rise up, to spring up

occīdo, occīdere, occīdi, occīsus - to kill (ob + caedo) 

opprimo, opprimere, oppressi, oppressus - to press against, to overwhelm

oppugnō (1) to attack 

orō, orãre - to beg, plead (orant) 

prolabor, prolabī, prolapsus sum - to fall forward 

pugnō (1) to fight (pugnacious) 

redeo, redire (re + eo, ire) - to go back, to return

ruo, ruere - to fall, to crash down upon 

sequor, sequī, secutus sum - to follow

stringō, stringere, strinxī, strictus - to draw (strict) 

stŭpeo, stŭpēre, stŭpui - to be amazed 

taceō, tacēre, tacuī - to be quiet (intransitive verb) (tacit, taciturn) 

versō (1) to turn over 

tradō, tradere, tradidī, traditus - to hand over

vertō, vertere, vertī, versus - to turn 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer

videor, vidērī, vīsus sum - to seem + dative of reference 

vīvo, vīvere, vīxī, vīctus - to live

 

adventus, adventūs (m) arrival

aequor, aequoris (n) sea

aes, aeris (n) bronze

aer, aeris (m) air

animus, -i (m) mind, heart, soul

altum, -i (n) deep, the sea

cena, -ae (f) dinner 

civitās, civitātis (f) state, nation; city-state

comes, comitis (m) companion, comrade 

classis, classis (f) fleet

coniunx, coniugis (f) spouse, wife

conspectus, -us (m) sight

consultum, -i (n) advice, decree 

consilium,-i (n) plan

conspectus, -ūs (m) sight 

cor, cordis (n) heart 

cruor, cruoris (f) blood, gore 

cubiculum, -i (n) bedroom 

cultrus, cultrī (m) knife, dagger 

dedecus, dedecoris (n) shame, disgrace

exemplum, -i (n) example

exercitus, -ūs (m) army 

facinus, facinoris (n) crime, bad deed

ferrum, -ī (n) iron; sword  

fīdes, fideī (f) faith, trust, loyalty  

fletus, -ūs (m) weeping 

gens, gentis (f) race, tribe, clan, family 

genus, generis (n) class, kind

hospĕs, hospĭtis (m) guest

indignitās, indignitātis (f) indignation, righteous angry 

ignis, ignis (m) fire (igneous)

imperium, -ii (n) power, authority, rule 

impetus, -ūs (m) attack

luctus, -ūs (m) mourning, weeping 

mare, maris (n) sea

metus, -ūs (m) fear

minae, minārum (f. pl.) threats

mīrācŭlum, -i (n) amazing event, strange event

mors, mortis (f) death

mulier, mulieris (f) woman

nubes, nubis (m) clouds

nuntius, -i (m) messenger; message 

ops, opis (f) help, power, aid 

ordo, ordinis (m) order; rank 

passus, --ūs (m) step, a foot (measurement) 

pars, partis (f) direct, side, part, faction 

pax, pacis (f) peace (pax vobiscum

pectus, pectoris (n) chest, breast

pontus, ponti (m) sea

prex, precis (f) prayer, request 

pudicitia, -ae (f) modesty, virtue, chastity 

regnum, -i (n) royal power, kingship; kingdom

sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood, lineage 

soror, sororis (f) sister

sol, solis (m) son (solar) 

somnus, -i (m) sleep (insomniac) 

stirps, stirpis (f) stock, lineage 

supplicium, -i (n) punishment 

terra, -ae (f) land (terra firma) 

tellus, tellūris (f) earth, land

testis, testis (m) witness

turbo, turbinis (m) whirl wind, storm

uxor, uxoris (f) wife

vestigium, -ii (n) footprint, traces 

vestis, vestis (f) clothing, garment 

ventus, ventī (m) wind

vox, vocis (f) voice 

vultus, --ūs (m) face, expression, countenance 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound 

 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, sharp, harsh

acutus, a, um – sharp 

alienus, a, um - foreign, strange 

atrox, atrocis (1 termination adj.) outrageous

benignus, a, um - kind

brevis, breve - short, brief

celer, celeris, celere - swift, fast 

chastus, a, um - chaste, morally pure

dexter, dextera, dexterum - right 

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh; unyielding 

hospitalis, hospitale - of a guest 

idem, eadem, idem - the same (-ius paradigm)

inscius, a, um - not-knowing, unaware

insons, insontis (ad.) innocent, guitless

ignarus, a, um - ignorant, unaware 

laetus, a, um - happy

latus, a, um - wide

lentus, a, um - slow

longus, a, um - long 

maestus, a, um - sad, grieving 

maior, maius (comp. adj.) bigger, greater (major) 

maximus, a, um - the greatest, the biggest

melior, melius (comp. adj.) better (ameliorate)

moribundus, a, um - dying (moribund) 

mollis, molle (2 term. 3rd. adj.) soft (mollify) 

nudus, a, um - naked

obstinatus, a, um - stubborn, obstinant 

obtusus, a, um - dull

pavidus, a, um - trembling, frightened 

pessimus, a, um - very bad, the worst (superlative form of malus, a, um) 

prior, prius - earlier (priority) 

salvus, a, um - safe, unhurt, preserved 

septimus, a, um - seventh

sinister, sinistra, sinistrum - left

 

sordidus, a, um - dirty, wicked 

sōlus, a, um - alone (-ius paradigm)

tantus, a, um - so great, such a great 

tardus, a, um - slow, late 

trists, triste - sad

tōtus, a, um (ius paradigm) - whole, entire

tūtus, a, um - safe

ultimus, a, um - last, final 

ūnus, a, um - one (-ius paradigm) 

 

at, ast (adversative conjunction) but, and 

deinde (adv.) then, next

circum (prep. + acc.) around 

circa (adv.) around, about 

enim (postpositive) for, indeed, in fact

hinc (adv.) from this place

forte (adv.) by chance 

satis (adv.) enough 

statim (adv.) immediately 

ne…quidem - not even

prae (prep. + abl.) before, in front of 

prope (prep. + acc.) near

prope (adv.) near

post (prep. + acc.) after

postquam (subordinating conj.) after 

plus - more

tantum (adv.) only

tum (adv.) then, at that time 

unde (adv.) from where, whence

ut + indicative mood = as, when

ut+ subjunctive + that, in order that 

in perpetuum - forever 

suā sponte - by his/her/its/their own accord

per diem - by day

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vocabulary List for Aeolus 

cado, cadere, cecidī, casus - to fall (intransitive) 

caedo, caedere  cecīdī, caesus - to slaughter (transitive)

flammo (1) to inflame
furo, furere – to rage
pono, ponere, posui, positum – to place, to put
indignor, indignari, indignatus sum – to be angry

iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus - to join
iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum – to order
luctor, luctari, luctatus sum – wrestle, struggle metuo, metuere, metui - to fear (metus, ūs = fear)

mollio, mollire – to soften, sooth
mulceo, mulcere, mulsi, mulsum - soothe, charm navigo (1) to sail
porto (1) to carry
premo, premere, pressi, pressum – to press, control
scio (4) to know (+ complementary infinitive = “to know how to verb”) or (+ acc.subject and infinitive)
e.g.
1) Ea scit interficere lepores = She knows (how) to kill rabbits.
2) Ea scit Reonam interficere lepores = She knows that Reona kills rabbits (indirect statement).
tempero (1) to temper, subdue
tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - to raise, lift; destroy

traho, trahere, traxi, tractus - to pull, to drag
 

utor, uti, usus sum (deponent verb) + ablative case – to use, employ, enjoy
voluto (1) – to turn over and over and over

animus, -i (m) spirit, courage; mind

antrum, -i (n) cave
arx, arcis (f) citadel
aura, -ae (f) air, breeze
caelum, -i (n) sky, heaven
carcer, carceris (m) prison, inclosure
claustrum, -i (n) blot, latch
cor, cordis (n) heart
conubium, -ii (n) marriage
homo, hominis (m) man
foedus, foederis (n) contract, treaty
imperium, -ii (n) power, dominion
locum, -i (n) place
meritum, -i (n) service, reward, favour
moles, molis (f) mass, weight. burden
mons, montis (m) mountain
nimbus, -i (m) cloud
nympha, -ae (f) nymph
patria, -ae (f) fatherland
Penates, -ium (m. pl.) household or family gods pontus, -i (m) sea
proles, prolis (f) offspring
tempestas, tempestatis (f) – storm
terra, ae (f) land
ventus, -i (m) wind
vinclum, -i (n) bond, chain
vox, vocis (f) voice

ater, atra, atrum – black
celsus, a, um – high, lofty
certus, a, um – sure, certain
laxus, a, um – set free, loosened
diversus, a, um - scattered
fetus, a, um – teeming, full of, pregnant with

omnipotens, omnipotentis (adj.) all powerful praestans, praestantis (adj.) outstanding

profundus, a, um – deep, high, vast

proprius, a, um - one’s own

rapidus, a, um – swirling around sonorous, a, um – roaring, howling

stabilis, -e - stable
talis, -e (adj.) such

bis (adv.) twice
circum (adverb or prep. + acc.) around hic (adv) in this place, here
 

Vocabulary List for Atalanta Et Hippomenes, Part II

carpo, carpere, carpsi, carptus - to plunk, to seize (carpe diem) 

curro, currere, cucurri, cursus - to run 

doceo, docere, docui, doctus (+ acc. of person and acc. of thing) -  to teach (docent, doctrine, doctor) 

dubito (1) to hesitate, doubt, waver 

fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bear, to bring (copulative verb) 

fio, fieri, factus sum - to be become, to be made, to happen 

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus - to throw (eject) 

iuvo. iuvare, iuvi - to help 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek (petition) 

pono, ponere, posui, positus - to put, to place (apposition, exponent, exposition) 

posco, poscere, poposci - to demand 

possum, posse, potui - to be able + complementary infintive

relinquo, relinquere, reliqui, relictus - to leave behind, to abandon 

specto, spectare - to look at, to watch 

sto, stare, steti, staturus - to stand (estar)

videor, videri, visus sum - to seem (often with dative of reference) 

 

ara arae (f) altar 

auctor, auctoris (m) agent, author, the doer 

auxilium, auxilii (n) help, aid 

cornu, cornūs (n) horn

fides, fidei (f) faith, trust, loyalty (fidelity, bonā fidē)

genu, genūs (n) knee

iuvenis, iuvenis (m) young man 

ignis, ignis (m) fire (igneous) 

manus, manūs (f) hand, band of men 

meta, metae (f) turning post, goal of a race

metus, metūs (m) fear (Metus Gallicus) 

prex, precis (m) prayer 

pretium, -i (n) price, reward 

pomum, pomi (n) apple fruit 

spes, spei (f) hope 

signum, signi (n) sign, signal; battle standard 

tergum, tergi (n)  back 

usus, usūs (m) use, purpose 

 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, sharp, keen

celer, celeris, celere - fast, swifty

defessus, a, um - tired 

invitus, a, um - unwilling 

iratus, a, um - angry 

remoratus, a, um - delayed 

sacer, sacra, sacrum - sacred 

secundus, a, um - second; favorable 

tertius, a, um - third 

ultimus, a, um - final, the last 

 

facile (adv.) easily 

forte (adv.) by change

iam (adv.) now, already 

iterum (adv.) a second time, again 

magnopere (adv.) greatly 

magis (adv.) more 

maxime (adv.) especially, the most 

nunc (adv.) now

propter (prep. + acc.) on account 

quia (subordinating conj.) because

 

Vocabulary List for Atalanta and Hippomenes, Part I

capio, capere, cēpī, captus - to take, capture (captive, caption, capture) 

crescō, crescere, crēvī, crētus - to grow (crescendo

culpō, culpāre, culpāvī, culpātus - to blame (culpable) 

damnō (1) to condem (damnatio memoriae, damnation

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus - to say (diction, dictionary) 

eō, īre, iī, itūrus - to go (irregular verb) (exit) 

ferō, ferre, tulī, latus - to bring, to carry, bear (coniferous, vociferous, legislature, confer, infer, refer, translation)   irregular verb but really 3rd conjugation. 

fugiō, fugere, fūgī, - to flee (centrifugal, refugee) 

fugō, fugāre, fugāvī, fugātus - to put to flight

ignoscō, ignoscere, ignōvī, ignōtus - to forgive + DATIVE CASE

iuvō, iuvāre - to help

laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus - to praise, to laud 

mīrōr, mīrārī, mīrātus sum (only has passive forms, but active meaning) - to wonder, to marvel 

moveō, moveō, mōvī, mōtus - to move (remote, motion, motive

petō, petere, petivī, petitus - to seek (competition, petition) 

optō, optāre, optāvī, optātus - to wish (opt, optional, optative) 

superō, superāre, superāvī, superātus - to surpass, to defeat 

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scitus - to know (+ complementary inf.  = to know how to verb)

sono (1) to sound (resonate) 

temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus - to try, to attempt

videor, vidērī, vīsus sum - to seem (copulative verb) 

vinco, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer (vēnī, vīdī, vīcī) 

vīvō, vīvere vīxi - to live (vivacious) 

 

aetās, aetātis (f) age, time of life, youth 

audacia, audiciae (f) boldness (audacity) 

avus, avī (m) grandfather, ancestor 

coniunx, coniugis (m. or f.) wife, spouse, husband (conjugal) 

cornū, cornūs (n) horn; moon, bow (corn, unicorn, cornucopia) 

culpa, culpae (f) fault (mea cupla

cursus, cursūs (m) race, race course, course (cursus honōrum - course of political office)  

currus, currūs (m) chariot 

certamen, certaminis (n) contest 

diēs, dieī (m) day (per diem, carpe diem, quotidian

fīnis, fīnis (m. or. f.) end, limit, boundary (Imperium sine fine, infinite, el fin

homo, hominis (m) human begin, man (homo sapiens, homo erectus

ignis, ignis, -ium (m) fire (i-stem noun) (ignition, igneous, ignite) 

lēx, lēgis (f) law (legislature) 

mors, mortis (f) death (mortal

rēs, reī (f) thing, matter (in mediās rēs, Rēs Publica

rūmor, rūmōris (m) rumor 

orāculum, orāculī (n) oracle, response (oracular) 

pes, pedis (m) foot (pedestrian, pedestal, pedal) 

praemium, -ii (n) reward, price (premium) 

turba, turbae (f) crowd, mob (disturbance) 

virgo, virginis (f) maiden, virgin (Virgo, Vestales Virgines) 

verbum, verbī (m) word (verbose, verbosity, verbal, verbiage

 

celer, celeris, celere - fast (celerity) 

clārus, a, um - bright, clear, famous 

dēterritus, a, um - deterred

dūrus, a, um - hard, harsh (durable) 

ipse, ipsa, ipsum (intensive adj.) himself, herself, itself, themselves, very (ipsō factō, rēs ipsa loquitur) 

iste, ista, istud - (demosntrative adj.) that of yours 

memor, memoris (1 term. 3rd. decl. adj.) mindful + Genitive case

tardus, a, um - slow (tardy, retarded) 

tantus, a, um - so great

quī, quae, quod - who, who, which

 

an - or

enim (postpositive) for, indeed, in fact 

forsitan (adv.) perhaps

magis (adv.) more

nisi - unless, if…not, expect 

nōndum (adv.) not yet 

prius (adv.) earlier, before

quoque (adv.) and also 

tam (adv.) so 

tardē (adv.) slowly

tardius (adv.) more slowly 

Atalanta and Hippomenes

Atalanta and Hippomenes

 

List for Vocabulary Quiz on Servius Tullius

aedificō (1) to build 

agō, agere, ēgī, actus - to do, to lead, to drive, to pass, to spend, to act

discedo, discedere, discessi, discessus - to depart

dormiō, dormīre - to sleep 

dūcō, dūcere, dūxī, ductus - to lead 

excitō (1) to stir, to rouse 

expellō, expellere, expulī, expulsus - to drive out

fiō, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to become; to happen 

interficiō, interficere, interfēcī, interfectus - to kill 

iubeo, iubēre, iussi, iussus - to order 

legō, legere, lēgī, lectus - to pick, to chose, to read 

moveō, movēre, mōvī, mōtus - to move

pono, ponere, posuī, positus - to put, to place 

spectō (1) to look at 

veto, vetare, vetui - to provent, to prohibit 

veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus - to come (advent) 

vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer 

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus - to call 

volō, volāre, volāvī, volātus - to fly 

volō, velle, voluī - to wish, to want 

 

caput, capitis (n) head 

conspectus, conspectūs (m) sight 

deus, deī (m) god 

bellum, bellī (n) war (antebellum, bellicose) 

dolus, dolī (m) trick 

fossa, fossae (f) ditch 

līber, līberī (m) child 

locus, locī (m) place

mora, morae (f) delay (moratorium) 

nomen, nominis (n) name 

pax, pacis (f) peace 

prudentia, -ae (f) 

rēs, reī (f) matter, affair, situation, state 

somnus, somnī (m) sleep; dream 

templum, templī (n) sacred space 

vīta, vītae (f) life 

 

ferox, ferocis (adj. one termination) fierce wild 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, sharp 

īrātus, a, um - angry 

ceterī, ceterae, cetera - the remaining, the rest, the other (etc. = et cetera

tantus, a, um - so great, such a great 

parvus, a, um - small (opposite of magnus, a, um) 

 

 

apud (prep. + acc.) with, among, in presence of 

circum (prep. + acc. ) around

ob (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of 

post (prep. + acc.) after 

 

 

List for Vocabulary Quiz on Tarquinius Priscus

abeo, abire - to go away

adeo, adire - to approach 

ago, agere, egi, actus - to lead, to do, to pass, to spend 

amo, amare, amavi, amatus - to love (amatory, Amanda)

audio, audire, audivi, auditus - to hear

augeo, augere, auxi, auctus - to increase (augment, augmentation) 

discedo, discedere, discessi, discessus, a, um - to depart, to scatter 

do, dare, dedi, datus - to give (data) 

eo, ire, ii, iturus - to go

exeo, exire - to go out (exit) 

facio, facere, feci, factus - to make, to do (hacer in spanish) 

fio, fieri, factus sum - to be made, to become, to happen (copulative verb)

iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussus - to order (+ accusative + infinitive) 

mitto, mittere, misi, missus - to send (transmit, transmission) 

possum, posse, potui - to be able + complementary infinitive 

regno, regnare, regnavi, regnatus - to reign 

teneo, tenere, tenui, tentus - to hold, to possesses (tenacious) 

sum, esse, fui, futurus - to be (copulative verb)

venio, venire, veni, venturus, a, um - to come (advent; veni, vidi, vici)

video, videre, vidi, visus, a, um - to see (video, vision) 

volo, volare, volavi, volatus - to fly (volatile)  

volo, velle, volui - to wish, to want + complementary infinitive

 

animal, animalis (n) animal 

aquila, aquilae (f) eagle (aquiline) 

caput, capitis (n) head (decapitate, capital) 

civis, civis (m) citizen 

civitas, civitatis (f) citizenship, citizen body, nation, state

dea, deae (f) goddess

deus, dei (m) god

impetus, impetūs (m) attack (impetuous) 

locus, loci (m) place (locus

mare, maris (n) sea (marine, maritime; ab mari usque ad mare

mors, mortis (f) death(postmortem) 

patria, patriae (f) fatherland (dulce et decorum est pro patria mori) 

populus, populi (m) people (vox populi, SPQR = Senatus Populusque Romanus)

prudentia, prudentiae (f) foresight, intelligence (prudence) 

regnum, regni (n) kingdom, kingship 

rex, regis (m) king

urbs, urbis (f) city (i-stem) (urban, urbane, suburban) 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife (uxorius) 

verbum, verbi (n) word

vir, viri (m) man, hero; husband (virile)

vita, vitae (vital signs, CV= curriculum vitae)

 

ego, mei, mihi, me, me - I, me

tu, tui, tibi, te, te - you

nos, nostri, nobis, nos, nobis - we, us

vos, vestri, vobis, vos, vobis - you (plural) 

 

acer, acris, acre - fierce, sharp, bitter 

amicus, a, um - friendly (+ dative)

audax, audacis (1 termination 3rd. adj.) bold, audacious 

brevis, brevis, breve - short, brief (brevity)

celer, celeris, celere - fast, swift

fortis, fortis, forte - brave, strong 

ingens, ingentis (1 termination 3rd. adj.) huge 

inimicus, a, um - hostile, unfriendly (+ dative) 

iratus, a, um - angry 

laetus, a, um - happy

novus, a, um - new, strange, novel 

peregrinus, a, um - foreign, strange (peregrination, peregrine falcon) 

repentinus, a, um - sudden 

tristis, tristis, triste - sad

 

enim (postpostive particle) for, indeed, infact 

diu (adv.) for a long time 

dum (subordinating conj.) while + indicative mood 

itaque (adv.) and so 

mox (adv.) soon 

numquam (adv.) never

olim (adv.) once, once upon at time, long ago

post (prep. + acc.) after 

quō (adv.) where, to where

quod (subordinating conj.) because 

super (prep. + acc.) above

semper (adv.) always (sic semper Tyrannis) 

sine (prep. + ablative) without (sinecure) 

umquam (ever) 

VOCABULARY FOR TEST ONE STOPS HERE 

 

Pliny the Younger on Vesuvius

Misenum, -i (n) Cape Misenum, where Rome’s fleet on the Tyrrhenian Sea was based

 

appareo, apparēre - to appear 

cognosco, congnoscere, cognovi, cognitus - to recognize, to learn 

conspicio, conspicere - to see

egredior, egredi, egressus sum (egress) to go out, to exit, to depart 

expremo, expremere, expressi, repressum - to express

incoho (1) to begin 

fero, ferre, tuli, latus - to bring, to bear

indico (1) to indicate, to point out (head verb) 

nosco, noscere, novi, notum - to become familiar with, to inquire into, to investigate, 

obeo, obire (ob + eo) - to complete, to perish (obituary) 

orior, oriri, ortus sum - to rise (sol oriens) 

oro, orare, oravi - to beg, pray, pled 

rego, regere, rexi, rectus - rule, guide, direct 

solvo, solvere, solvi, solutus - to set free, to release (ablative absolute) 

verto, vertere, veti, versus - to turn

 

animus, -i (m) courage, spirit, mind

arbor, arboris (f) tree 

classis, -is (f) fleet (classification) 

discrimen, discriminis (n) danger

hora, -ae (f) hour

fuga, -ae (f) flight 

imperium, -ii (n) power

locum, -i (n) place

magnitudo, magnitudinis (f) great size

miraculum, -i (n) miraculous or unusual thing/event

motus, -ūs (m) movement 

nubes, nubis (n) cloud 

ora, -ae (f) shore, shoreline 

pinus, -ūs (f) Italian Umbrella pine tree - See picture below

species, speciei (f) appearance 

 

alius, alia, aliud (-ius paradigm) another 

eruditus, a, um - learned (erudite) 

exterritus, a, um - terrified 

fortis, forte   brave, strong 

incertus, a, um - unclear, uncertain 

 

fere (adv.) nearly, almost

forte (adv.) by chance (fors, fortis (f) chance)

postea (adv.) afterward

procul (adv.) at a distance 

magis (adv.) more 

non modo (adv.) not only 

 

illuc (adv.) to that place

huc (adv. ) to this place

hīc (adv.) in this place

illic (adv.) in that place

hinc (adv.) from this place

illinc (adv.) from that place

 

Hannibal, pages 101 and 103

 

amitto, amittere, amisi, amissum - to lose 

augeo, augere, auxi, auctus - to increase, enlarge

confido, confidere, confisus (semi-deponent, like audeo, soleo, gaudeo) - to be confident + dative

committo, comittere, commisi, commissum - to undertake

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectum - to catch sight of, watch

constituo, -ere - to decide 

credo, credere, credidi, credtium + DATIVE - to believe, trust (is also a Head Verb)

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessum - to go away, to depart

finio (4) to limit, to restrain, determine

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie, to be lying down

incito (1) to urge, spur, inspire 

indignor, indignari, indignatus sum - to be offended; to be unworthy

iuro (1) to swear (head verb) 

nascor, nasci, natus sum - to be born (natal) 

operio, operire, operui, opertum -to cover

praeficio, praeficere, praefeci, praefectus - to put ACC.  in charge of DATIVE

parco, parcere, peperci - to spare + DATIVE

praebeo, praebere, praebui, praebitum - to supply, provide

restituo, restituere, restitui- to restore

reddo, reddere, reddidi, redditum - to give back, return 

studeo, studere, studui - to support + DATIVE

 

auctoritas, auctoritatis (f) authority, prestige

audacia, -ae (f) boldness, audacity

consilium, -ii (n) plan, council, strategic thinking

fides, fidei (f) trust, good faith, loyalty (bonā fidē) 

ingenium, -ii (n) genius, intelligence

ops, opis (f) wealth, influence; in plural = resources, power

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

opus, operis (n) work, labour (magnum opus)

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face (oral) 

os, ossis (n) bone (ossify) 

obsidio, obsidionis (f) sie

peritus, a, um + genitive case = skilled in 

quies, quietis (f) rest, quite

socius, -i (m) ally 

spes, spei (f) hope

vultus, -us (m) face, expression, countenance 

 

aptus, a, um - suitable, appropriate

carus, a, um + dative - dear to 

similis, -e + dative - similar to 

par, paris + dative + equal to

tantus, a, um - so great

talis, -e     such

 

atque = and

adeo (adv.) to such an extent

adversus (prep. + acc.)  against

tam (adv) so

tot (indecl.) so many

sic (adv.) thus, in such a way

numquam (adv.) never

unquam (adv.) ever

 

Final List for Matron of Ephesus

Be able to decline id melius opus or illud maius officium

 

affigo, affigere, affixi, affixus - fasten upon, attach to (affix) 

confiteor, confiteri, confessus sum - to acknowledge (head verb) (confession)

conspicio, conspicere, conspexi, conspectus - to catch sight of (conspicuous) 

detraho, detrahere, detraxi, detractus - to pull/take down (detractor) 

fruor, fruī, fructus sum - to enjoy + ABLATIVE CASE (fructose) 

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie (adjacent) 

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactus - to throw (eject) 

impero (1) to command + dative + jussive noun clause (imperative) 

impendo, impendere - to hang on, to weight, place on the scales (impending) 

malo, malle, malui- to prefer + comp. infinitive 

mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus - to commit, consign, to order (mandate) 

miror, mirārī, miratus sum - to wonder (at), be amazed (miracle) 

morior, mori, mortuus sum - to die (mortal)

obliviscor, obliviscī, oblitus sum - to forget + genitive case. (oblivion, oblivious) 

occīdo, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus - to cut down, to kill 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow + acc. + infinitive (patient, passive) 

persuadeo, persuadēre, persuasī - to persuade + dative + jussive noun clause

pereo, perire, perīre, periī, peritūrus, a, um (per + eo, ire) - to perish 

peto, petere, petivi, petitus - to seek (appetite) 

reor, reri, ratus sum - to think (head verb)

sino, sinere - to allow + acc. + inf. 

specto (1) to look upon, see, to watch 

tollo, tollere, subtuli, sublatus - to raise, lift 

vaco (1) to be empty (vacant) 

vereor, verērī, veritus sum - to fear 

 

auxilium, -ii (n) help (auxiliary) 

funus, funeris (n) funeral; death 

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan, sigh 

homo, hominis (m) man (homo sapiens, homo erectus, ad hominem

ingenium, -ii (n) genius, intelligence (ingenuity) 

maritus, -i (m) husband

mors, mortis (f) death 

mos, moris (m) custom (mores; mos maiorum - custom of ancestors)

numen, numinis (n) divine power (numinous) 

ordo, ordinis (m) rank, class, order (ordinal) 

officium, -ii (n) duty (official, officious) 

opus, operis (n) work, task, labor (magnum opus

opera, -ae (f) attention, effort

populus, -i (m) people (SPQR = Senatus Populusque Romanus

praesidium, -ii (n) protection 

ratio, rationis (f) reason(rational) 

rus, ruris (n) countryside (rural) 

 

quisquis, quid(c)quid (indefinite pronoun) whoever, whatever

 

carus, a, um - dear + dative 

fatalis, fatale - fated 

memor, memoris (adj.) mindful + genitive case

maior, maius (comp. adj.) great, bigger; older (major) 

melior, melius (comp. adj.) better (ameliorate) 

plenus, a, um - full of + genitive case 

posterus, a, um - next, following (posterity) 

pudicus, a, um - chaste, virtuous (of a female)

prudens, prudentis - wise, clever

 

atque (coordinating conj.) and

deinde - then, next 

ergo - therefore 

igitur - therefore

magis (comp. adv.) more, rather 

minus (adv. comparative) - less

propter (prep. + acc.) on account of, because of

quotiens (adv.) as often as

quasi (conj.) as if 

rus (acc.) to the countryside

ruri (locative) in the countryside

rure (ablative) from the countryside

secundum (prep. + acc.) next to; in accordance with; following

sine (prep. + abl.) without 

ultimo (adv.) finally

List One for Matrona Ephesī

 

Be able to decline idem lumen or quoddam pectus as part of this quiz. 

 

assideo, assidere, assedi + dative - to sit next to (assiduous) 

coepi, coepisse, coeptus (defective verb - lack present system) to begin + complementary inf. 

commodo (1) to give, bestow, lend, furnish 

afflicto (1) to distress, afflict, trouble (affliction, afflicted) 

custodio, custodire (4) to guard (custody, custodian) 

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus - to cease, fail, expire (deficient) 

evoco (1) to summon, call out(evoke) 

fundo, fundere fūdi, fusus - to pour out (effusive)

lugeo, lugere, luxi, luctum - to mourn, lament

traho, trahere, traxi, tractus - to pul, to drag (attractive) 

 

ancilla, -ae (f) female attendant, female servant (ancillary)

defunctus, -i (m) dead man, defunct

crinis, crinis, -ium(m) hair crinoline 

inedia, -ae (f) fasting, not eating

lumen, luminis (n) light; eye

magistratus, -ūs (m) magistrates 

matrona, -ae (f) matron (married woman)     (matronly)

mos, moris (m) custom, habit mores (mos maiorum = custom of ancestors, mores = customs) 

nox, noctis (noctium) f.  night

pectus, pectoris (n) chest, breast pectoral 

propinquus, -i (m) relative (propinquity)

pudicitia, -ae (f) modesty, purity, feminine virtue

 

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick, weak, wounded

fidus, a, um - faithful, loyal + dative

notus, a, um - known, well-known, remarkable, notorious

quidam, quaedam, quoddam (indefinite adj.)  - a certain, some

saucius, a, um - wounded

talis, tale (adj.) such

vicinus, a, um - neighboring  + dative  (vicinity)

vulgaris, -e - common, ordinary (vulgar, Vulgar Latin) 

 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinite pron.) - anyone, anything (drops "ali" after si, nisi, and ne)

cum…tum (correlative conjunctions)  both…and 

ergo - therefore 

igitur - therefore, and so

quotiens (adv.) as often as

semel (adv.) once and for all 

simul (adv.) at the same time 

tamen - nevertheless, however

ultimō - finally

 

Vocabulary List for Quiz on Thursday, April 7

adgredior, adgredī, aggressus sum - to attack, to advance

denuntio, denuntiare, denuntiavi - to announce, to declare (denounce) 

dimico (1) - to flash forth, to fight 

credo, credere, credidi, creditus - to trust, believe + dative case or indirect statement 

congrego (1) - to gather together (same root as egregious)

finio (4) to finish, complete

impero (1) to command + dative case

licet, licere, licuit (impersonal verb + dative + infinitive) it is permitted

mando (1) to demand, to order, to entrust 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, allow, endure

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus - to carry, convey

 

ars, artis (f) art, skill (-ium in gen. pl) 

collega, -ae (m) - colleague

copia, -ae (f) abundance, supply; in the plural = forces, troops

cornū, cornūs (n) horn, wing of army 

eques, equitis (m) knight

manus, manus (m) band (of men); hand

fames, famis (f) hunger (famine)

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor, reputation 

iussum, i (n) an order

opus, operis (n) task, labor, work (of literature)

opera, -ae (f) effort, attention

poena, ae (f) punishment (sub poena) 

praeda, -ae (f) booty (not our concept), plunder, spoils of war

umerus, -i (m) shoulder 

 

 

aliquot (indeclinable adjective like tot, quot) = some

amicus, a, um - friendly, allied + dative case (opposite of inimicus, a, um = hostile)

durus, a, um - hard, harsh

inimicus, a, um - hostile + dative case

grandis, -e - large, abundant

quot?  (indeclinable interrogative adj.) how may? 

talis, -e- such

tantus, a, um - so great, so large 

tot (indeclinable interrogative adj.)  so many

ultimus, a, um - final, last, extreme

 

adeo (adv.) to such an extent 

deinde - then, next

intra + acc.  - within

ita (adv.) in such a way

postea (subordinating conjunctive + indicative mood) after

tam (adv.) so 

tantum (adv.) only 

umquam (adv.) ever

si (subordinating conjunction) if

nisi (subordinating conjunction) if…not, unless, expect

ut + indicative = as, when

ut + subjunctive = in order that (purpose); that (result); that (indirect command)

Vocabulary for Catullus VIII and Result Clauses

adeo, adire, adii, aditus (ad + eo) to go to, to approach 

doleo, dolere - to suffer pain (dolor) 

fio, fieri, factus sum - to happen, to become, to be made 

fugio, fugere, fūgī - to flee 

fulgeo, fuglēre, fulsī - to shine, gleam, glitter (fulgent) 

maneo, manere, mansi, mansus - to remain 

mordeo, mordere, momordi, morsus - to bit (mordant, morsel) 

obduro (1) to be/become hard (obdurate) 

rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatus - to ask (interrogative, interrogate, abrogate) 

perdo, perdere, perdidi, perditus - to destroy 

pereo, perire, perii, periturus (per + eo) to perish 

perfero, perferre, pertuli, perlatus(per +fero) - to endure 

 

bellus, a, um - beautiful, charming 

mens, mentis (f) mind (mens sana in corpore sano) 

sol, solis (m) sun (solar) 

vita, -ae (f) life (vital signs, CV = curriculum vitae) 

 

invitus, a, um - unwilling 

iocōsus, a, um - playful 

miser, misera, miserum - wretch suffering in love 

nullus, a, um - no (-ius paradigm) 

scelestus, a, um - wicked, evil 

solus, a, um (-ius paradigm) alone, only 

talis, tale (adj.) such

tantus, a, um - so great

tot (indeclinable adj.) so many

 

at (adversative conj.) 

adeo (adv.) to such an extent

ibi (adv.) there, in that place 

iam (adv.) now, already

ita (adv.) in such a way, thus

non iam (adv.) no longer 

nec (neg. conjunction) and…not; nor 

nec…nec = neither … nor 

quantus, a, um? - how much, how large? 

quondam (adv.) once, formerly 

sic (adv.) in such a way, thus (Sīc Semper Tyrannīs)

tam (adv.) so 

 

quis, quid?  (interrogative pronoun) who? what? whose? whom? 

qui? quae? quod? (interrogative adj.) which? what? 

quō (adv.) to which place; where

Vocabulary List for Catullus 5 and 7             Derivates 

 

basio, basiare, basiavi, basiatus - to kiss            (spanish besar) 

conturbo (1) to throw into confusion, mix up 

dormio (4) to sleep                        dormant

fascino (1) to curse, bewitch

iaceo, iacere, iacui - to lie                    adjacent 

invideo, invidēre, invīdī, invīsus - to envy 

occido, occidere, occidi, occasurus - to fall, set, perish    occidental, occident  

quaero, quaerere - to inquire, seek, ask

redeo, redīre, rediī, reditus (re + eo) - to return, come back

sciō, scīre, scivī, scitus - to know                    omniscient, science 

taceo, tacere, tacui, tacitum - to be silent            tacit

vivo, vivere, vixi, victurus - to live                vivacious

 

amor, amoris (m) love                        amorous, 

basium, -ii (n) kiss                        (spanish beso) 

homo, hominis (m) man                    homo sapiens

harena, -ae (f) sand                        arena, arenaceous

lux, lucis (f) light                        Lucifer, fiat lux

nox, noctis (f) night                        nocturnal 

rumor, rumoris (m) gossip, rumor                rumormongering

sidus, sideris (n) star                        sidereal

sol, solis (m) sun                        solar

satis (indeclinable) - enough                    satiate

tantum, -i (n) such a quantity

 

aestuosus, a, um - full of hear, boiling           

curiosus, a, um - careful, meddlesome            curious 

furtivus, a, um - stolen, hidden, secret            furtive

brevis, -e - short, brief                        brevity

malus, a, um - bad, evil 

quot? (indeclinable) how many?                quotation

perpetuus, a, um - everlasting, continuous            perpetual

sacer, sacra, sacrum (+ dative) - sacred            sacred

severus, a, um - strick, stern                      severe

vetus, veteris - old                        veteran 

 

alter, altera, alterum - another, the other             alternative 

aliquis, aliquid (indefinte pronoun) some one, anyone or thing. 

aut (conj.) or;   aut...aut = either... or

cur (interrogative adv.) why? 

deinde/dein (adv.) then, next

inter (prep. + acc.) between, among                intercity

semel (adv.) once, once and for all 

super (adv.) over and above, more than enough

tam...quam (correlatives) as many as

usque (adv.) continuously, without interruption          ab mari usque ad mare   (Latin phrase on Canadian passports)

List for Ilioupersis, Part I

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)

compleo, complēre - to fill (complementary) 

conor, conārī, conātus sum - to try 

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus (compound verb: de +facio) fail, be lacking (defective)

ferio, ferīre - to strike, to hit

fero, ferre, tuli, latus, a, um - to bear, carry, endure (odiferous, suffer, relate, translate) 

figo, figere, fixī, fixus - to fashion, fix, attach (fix, fiction) 

fio, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to happen (fiat lux)

insto, instāre, institi (compound of in = sto) to press, to press against, attack; be at hand (instant)

loquor, loquī, locutus sum - to speak 

misceo, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix (mix) 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise (orient, oriental) 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow

procumbo, procumbere, procubui - to fall foward (procumbent)

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - to break, to burst (rupture) 

traho, trahere, traxi, tractus - to drag, to pull (tractor beam, attraction) 

tueor, tuērī, tutus sum - to protect; to watch over

ululo (1) to wail 

utor, utī, usus sum - to use, to employ + ablative case

 

aedes, aedis (f) building; temple (edifice) 

agger, aggeris (m) heap, mound 

caedes, caedis (f) bloody gore, slaughter 

cardo, cardinis (f) hinge, pivot (cardinal) 

gemitus, gemitūs (m) groan

gurges, gurgitis (m) whirlpool 

limen, liminis (n) threshold (liminal) 

moles, molis (f) mass, burden (mole) 

nata, -ae (f) daughter (from nascor)

natus, -i (m) son 

nepos, nepotis (m) grandson, decedent (nepotism) 

osculum, i (n) kiss (osculate) 

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face (oral, orifice)

ōra, ōrae (f) shoreline, boarder  

sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood (sanguine) 

sidus, sideris (n) star

telum, -i (n) spear; weapon 

tumultus, tumultūs (m) uproar (tumult)

vis, vis (f) force, violence

 

 

aureus, a, um - golden 

creber, crebra, crebrum - frequent, crowned 

patrius, a, um - of a father, fatherly, father’s  

pavidus, a, um - fearful, trembling 

vetus, veteris (adj. one term. 3rd) old (veteran) 

 

cur? (interrogative adv.) why? 

quid? - what? why? 

quot? how many? 

Quis? Quid? who? what? 

forsitan (adv.) perhaps 

iuxta (adv) near by, close 

magis (com. adv.) more, rather 

 

maximē (adv.) very greatly, especially 

nequiquam (adv.) in vain 

protinus (adv.) 

quā (relative adverb) where


Common Deponent Verbs for Quiz on Friday. 

arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum     to think, to judge        arbitrate 

conor, conari, conatus sum         to try                conation

for, fari, fatus sum             to speak            Forum Romanum

iaculor, iaculari, iaculatus sum    to throw            ejaculate

amplector, -ari, amplexus sum    to embrace            amplexus 

hortor, hortari, hortatus sum        to urge                exhortation, exhort

comitor, comitari, comitatus sum     to accompany

moror, morari, moratus sum         to delay            moratorium

miror, mirari, miratus sum        wonder at, admire        miraculous 

conspicor, conspicari, conspectus sum        to catch sight of         


vereor, vereri, veritus sum        to fear, be afraid

fateor, fateri, fassus sum         to confess, acknowledge    confess

tueor, tueri, tutus sum             to look at, to watch over    tutor

reor, reri, ratus sum             to think, to reckon        ratio


sequor, sequi, secutus sum        to follow            sequence

labor, labi, lapsus sum         to glide, to slip        lapse

loquor, loqui, locutus sum        to speak            loquacious

nitor, niti, nisus sum             to strive, rely on        

proficiscor, proficisci, profectus sum        to set out, to depart

utor, uti, usus sum + ablative        to use                use

ulciscor, ulcisci, ultus sum        to avenge            Mars Ultor

nascor, nasci, natus sum         to be born            natal

queror, queri, questus sum         to complain            


gradior, gradi, gressus sum         to step, to walk         

adgredior, adgredi, adgressus sum    to go to, to attack        aggressive

egredior, egredi, egressus sum     to go out; disembark         egress

ingredior, ingredi, ingressus sum     to enter, to step into        ingress

patior, pati, passus sum         to suffer, endure, to allow           patience, patient, passive

morior, morī, mortuus sum         to die                mortuary 


orior, oriri, ortus sum             to rise                orient

ordior, ordiri, orsus sum        to begin (to speak)

experior, experiri, expertus sum    to test, try            experiment 

potior, potiri, potitus sum +ablative    to get possession of    


Death of Priam - Vocabulary List One 

amplector, amplectī, amplexus sum - to embrace (amplexus)

compleo, complēre - to fill (complementary) 

conor, conārī, conātus sum - to try 

deficio, deficere, defeci, defectus (compound verb: de +facio) fail, be lacking (defective)

ferio, ferīre - to strike, to hit

fero, ferre, tuli, latus, a, um - to bear, carry, endure (odiferous, suffer, relate, translate) 

figo, figere, fixī, fictus - to fashion, fix, attach (fix, fiction) 

fio, fiērī, factus sum - to be made, to happen (fiat lux)

insto, instāre, institi (compound of in = sto) to press, to press against, attack; be at hand (instant)

loquor, loquī, locutus sum - to speak 

misceo, miscēre, miscuī, mixtus - to mix (mix) 

orior, orīrī, ortus sum - to rise (orient, oriental) 

patior, patī, passus sum - to suffer, endure; allow

procumbo, procumbere, procubui - to fall foward (procumbent)

rumpo, rumpere, rupi, ruptus - to break, to burst (rupture) 

traho, trahere, traxi, tractus - to drag, to pull (tractor beam, attraction) 

tueor, tuērī, tutus sum - to protect; to watch over

ululo (1) to wail 

utor, utī, usus sum - to use, to employ + ablative case


aedes, aedis (f) building; temple (edifice) 

agger, aggeris (m) heap, mound 

caedes, caedis (f) bloody gore, slaughter 

cardo, cardinis (f) hinge, pivot (cardinal) 

gemitus, gemitūs (m) groan

gurges, gurgitis (m) whirlpool 

limen, liminis (n) threshold (liminal) 

moles, molis (f) mass, burden (mole) 

nata, -ae (f) daughter (from nascor)

natus, -i (m) son 

nepos, nepotis (m) grandson, decedent (nepotism) 

osculum, i (n) kiss (osculate) 

ōs, ōris (n) mouth; face (oral, orifice)

ōra, ōrae (f) shoreline, boarder  

sanguis, sanguinis (m) blood (sanguine) 

sidus, sideris (n) star

telum, -i (n) spear; weapon 

tumultus, tumultūs (m) uproar (tumult)

vis, vis (f) force, violence



aureus, a, um - golden 

creber, crebra, crebrum - frequent, crowned 

patrius, a, um - of a father, fatherly, father’s  

pavidus, a, um - fearful, trembling 

vetus, veteris (adj. one term. 3rd) old (veteran) 


cur? (interrogative adv.) why? 

quid? - what? why? 

quot? how many? 

Quis? Quid? who? what? 

forsitan (adv.) perhaps 

iuxta (adv) near by, close 

magis (com. adv.) more, rather 


maximē (adv.) very greatly, especially 

nequiquam (adv.) in vain 

protinus (adv.) 

quā (relative adverb) where

List of The Story of Lucretia

aedifico (1) to build 

āmitto, āmittere, āmīsī, āmissus - to lose

ardeō, ardēre, arsī, arsus - to burn (ardent, arson) 

armo (1) to arm 

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus - to fall 

cēdo, cēdere, cessi, cessus - to yield, to go, to proceed 

claudō, claudere, clausī, clausus - to close, to shut (claustrophobia) 

dormio (4) to sleep

ēmitto, ēmittere, ēmīsī, ēmissus - to send out, emit 

exclūdo, exclūdere, exclusī, exclusus - to remove, exclude

expello, expellere, expuli, expulsus - to drive out, expel 

iugulo (1) to strangle 

pugno (1) to fight 

occīdo, occīdere, occīdi, occīsus - to kill (ob + caedo) 

opprimo, opprimere, oppressi, oppressus - to press against, to overwhelm

oppugnō (1) to attack

taceo, tacēre, tacuī - to be quiet 

vinco, vincere, vīcī, victus - to conquer

videor, vidērī, vīsus sum - to seen 


adventus, adventūs (m) arrival

cena, -ae (f) dinner 

civitās, civitātis (f) state, nation; city-state

comes, comitis (m) companion, comrade 

consultum, -i (n) advice, decree 

consilium,-i (n) plan

conspectus, -ūs (m) sight 

cor, cordis (n) heart 

cubiculum, -i (n) bedroom 

exercitus, -ūs (m) army 

facinus, facinoris (n) crime, bad deed

ferrum, -ī (n) iron 

fīdes, fideī (f) faith, trust, loyalty  

fletus, -ūs (m) weeping 

gens, gentis (f) race, tribe, clan, family 

imperium, -ii (n) power, authority, rule 

impetus, -ūs (m) attack

mulier, mulieris (f) woman

nuntius, -i (m) messenger; message 

ordo, ordinis (m) order; rank 

passus, --ūs (m) step, a foot (measurement) 

pax, pacis (f) peace

pectus, pectoris (n) chest, breast

pudicitia, -ae (f) modesty, virtue, chastity 

uxor, uxoris (f) wife

vultus, --ūs (m) face, expression, countenance 

vulnus, vulneris (n) wound 


alienus, a, um - foreign, strange 

atrox, atrocis (1 termination adj.) outrageous

inscius, a, um - not-knowing, unaware

ignarus, a, um - ignorant, unaware 

maestus, a, um - sad, grieving 

maior, maius (comp. adj.) bigger, greater (major) 

maximus, a, um - the greatest, the biggest

melior, melius (comp. adj.) better (ameliorate)

moribundus, a, um - dying 

pessimus, a, um - very bad, the worst (superlative form of malus, a, um) 

prior, prius - earlier 

septimus, a, um

sinister, sinistra, sinistrum - left

tōtus, a, um (ius paradigm) - whole, entire

tutus, a, um - safe

ultimus, a, um - last, final 


at, ast (adversative conjunction) but, and 

tamen - however

circum (prep. + acc.) around 

circa (adv.) around, about 

hinc (adv.) from this place

satis (adv.) enough 

statim (adv.) immediately 

postquam (subordinating conj.) after 

plus - more


in perpetuum - forever 

suā sponte - by his/her/its/their own accord

per diem - by day





List for Iuno & Aeolus 

flammo (1) to inflame

impono, imponere, imposui, impositum – to place on

incuto, incutere - to strike

iungo, iungere, iunxi, iunctus - to join

iubeo, iubere, iussi, iussum – to order

metuo, metuere, metui - to fear (metus, ūs = fear)

mollio, mollire – to soften, sooth

navigo (1) to sail

porto (1) to carry

premo, premere, pressi, pressum – to press, control 

tollo, tollere, sustuli, sublatus - to raise, lift; destroy

utor, uti, usus sum (deponent verb)  + ablative case  – to use, employ, enjoy

voluto (1) – to turn over and over and over (revolution)


animus, -i (m) spirit, courage; mind

antrum, -i (n) cave

arx, arcis (f) citadel

aura, -ae (f) air, breeze

caelum, -i (n) sky, heaven

carcer, carceris (m) prison, inclosure

claustrum, -i (n) blot, latch

cor, cordis (n) heart

foedus, foederis (n) contract, treaty

imperium, -ii (n) power, dominion

locum, -i (n) place

meritum, -i (n) service, reward, favour 

moles, molis (f) mass, weight. burden

mons, montis (m) mountain

nimbus, -i (m) cloud

nympha, -ae (f) nymph

Penates, -ium (m. pl.) household or family gods

pontus, -i (m) sea

tempestas, tempestatis (f) – storm

terra, ae (f) land

ventus, -i (m) wind

vox, vocis (f) voice


ater, atra, atrum – black, dark 

celsus, a, um – high, lofty

certus, a, um – sure, certain

laxus, a, um – set free, loosened

fetus, a, um – teeming, full of, pregnant with

omnipotens, omnipotentis (adj.) all powerful

praestans, praestantis (adj.) outstanding

profundus, a, um –deep, high, vast

proprius, a, um - one’s own

talis, -e (adj.) such


bis (adv.) twice

circum (adverb or prep. + acc.) around

hic (adv) in this place, here

Learn vocabulary for quiz on Thursday, December 3. 

tellus, telluris (f) land, earth

conspectus, -us (m) sight

aes, aeris (n) bronze

ruo, ruere - to fall, to crash down upon 

averto, avertere - turn away (avert) 

classis, classis (f) fleet

exuro, exurere, exussi, exustus – to burn (up) 

pontus, i (m) sea

ob (prep. + Acc.) on account of, because of

noxa, ae (f) crime

furia, ae (f) madness, rage

iaculor, iaculari, iaculatus sum – to throw, to hurl

nubes, nubis (m) clouds

ignis, ignis (m) fire

disiecio, disiicere, disieci, disiectus, a, um – to scatter

ratis, ratis (f) ship

everto, evertere, everti, eversus, a, um – to overturn

aequor, aequoris (n) – sea

ventus, i (m) wind

exspiro (1)  to breath out

transfigo, transfigere, transfixi, transfixus, a, um – pierce, transfix

pectus, pectoris (n) – chest, breast

flamma, ae (f) flame

turbo, turbinis (m) whirl wind, storm

corripio, corripere – to seize

scopulus, i (m) rock

infigo, infigere – to impale

acutus, a, um – sharp

ast or at(adversative conjunction) = but, and

soror, sororis (f) sister

coniiunx, coniugis (f) spouse, wife

gens, gentis (f) race



List for the Legend of Romulus and Remus

aedificio (1) to build

appropinquo (1) to approach + dative case

appello (1) to name (copulative verb when passive)

cado, cadere, cecidi, casus (intransitive) - to fall

condo, condere, condidi, conditus - to found, establish 

credo, credo, credidi, creditus - to believe, trust + dative case

constituo, constituere - to decide + infinitive

cingo, cingere - to surround

creo, creare, creavi, creatus - to appoint, create (copulative verb when passive)

cupio, cupere, cupivi, cupitus - to desire, want

defendo, defendere, defendi, defensus - to defend, protect 

educo, educere, eduxi, eductus - to bring up, raise 

excedo, excedere, excessi, excessus - to go out

invenio, invenire, inveni, inventus -  to discover, find

lego, legere, legi, lectus - chose, pick; read

ostendo, ostendere, ostendi, ostensus - to show

pario, parire, peperi, partus - to produce, to bring forth 

pello, pellere, pepuli, pulsus - driven away

postulo (1) to demand 

rapio, rapere, rapui, raptus - to sieze 

transsilio, transilire, transilui - to jump across

videor, videri, visus sum - to seem + dative of reference (copulative verb when passive) mihi videtur = it seems to me 


aedes, -is (f) temple

aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life 

amicitia, -ae (f) friendship, alliance

arma, -orum (n. pi.) arms, weapons 

avus, -i (m) grandfather

avis, is (f) bird

centum (indeclinable) one hundred 

civitas, civitatis (f) state, nation, citizen body

conditor, conditoris (m) founder

custodia, -ae (f) custody, protection, prison 

fama, -ae (f) story, rumor, reputation

frater, fatris (m) brother

forum, -i (n) open space in center of Rome for political, social and economic interaction

gemitus, -ūs (m) groan 

homo, hominis (m) man, human

honor, honoris (m) honor; a political or religious office/position

iniuria, -ae (f) wrong, injury, injustice 

impetus, -ūs (m) an attack

lupa, -ae (f) she-wolf 

lac, lactis (n) milk

ludus, -i (m) game, games

manus, manūs (f) hand;  band of men - 4th decl. rare feminine word, hence La Mano

metus, metūs (m) fear (4th dec.)

moenia, -ōrum (n. pl.) walls 

mors, mortis (f) death 

regnum, -i (n) kingdom, kingship

res, rei (f) matter, situation (generally takes its meaning from the context - 5th declension)

senatus, -ūs (m) senate 

spes, spei (f) hope(5th decl.)

species, speciei (f) appearance; pretense (5th decl.) 

pastor, pastoris (m) shephard 

praeda, -ae (f) booty 

partus, -ūs (m) birth; offspring -4th declension 


ingens, ingentis (adj. 3rd one termination) huge, large

geminus, a, um - born at same time; twins (as substantive) 

perpetuus, a, um - everlasting, perpetual 

regius, a, um - royal 

scelestus, a, um - wicked, evil

tenuis, -e - thin, shallow 

vicinus, a, um - neighbor, close to + dative case

uterque, utraque, utrumque (-ius paradigm) - each one


deinde (adv.) next, then 

forte (adv.) by chance 

inter (prep. + acc.) between; among 

ita (adv.) in this way, thus

itaque (conj.)  and so 

neque (conj.) - nor,  and...not

nec...nec (conj.) neither...nor

primum (adv.) first 

propter (prep. + acc. case) - because of, on account of 

secreto (adv.) in secret

subito (adv.) suddenly, immediately 

ut - as, when 



appropinquo (1) + dative case - to approach

carpo, carpere, carpsi, carptum - to pick, seize, pluck                 carpe diem

condo, condere, condidi, conditum - to found, establish                     ab urbe condita

debeo, debere, debui - to own; ought, should + infinitive

eo, ire, ii, iturus - to go (irregular verb)                        

erro, errrare - to wander                                     aberrant

fulgeo, fulgere, fulsi, fulsum - shine forth, flash                    fulgent

gero, gerere, gessi, gestum - to wage, conduct, accomplish; wear; carry           gestation 

narro (1) to tell                                        narrator 

nescio, nescire, nescivi, nescitum - to not know

premo, premere, pressi, pressum - to press, to control

pareo, parere, parui + dative - to obey                            

paro, parare, paravi, paratum - to prepare                semper paratus

ruo, ruere, rui - to rush down

servo (1) to save, preserve 

solvo, solvere - to release                            solvent 

ululo, ululāre (onomatopoeic word) to wail, howl (generally at a funeral)    ululate

verto, vertere, verti, versus - to turn                         reverse 

volo, volāre - to fly (do not confuse with volo, velle)                vuolo, 

volo, velle, volui - to want, wish                        volition 


aetas, aetatis (f) age, time of life

aedes, aedis (f) building, temple

amor, amoris (m) love                                         amorous

basium, -ii (n) kiss                                    (spanish beso)

bellum, - (n) war                                antebellum, bellicose, belligerent

causa, -ae (f) cause; case (leg.)                    

celeritas, celeritatis (f) speed                            accelerate 

cibus, -i (m) food                                                                 (Italian cibo

classis, -is (f) fleet of ships                

cura, -ae (f) care, worry, anxiety                            sinecure

dolor, doloris (m) pain, suffering                                                                               dolor

dies, diei (m) day                           per diem, carpe diem

fama, ae (f) rumor, story                                infamous 

flamma, -ae (f) flame

gens, gentis (f) race, clan

hostis, hostis (m) (-ium) enemy                        

ira, -ae (f) anger        

mensis, mensis (m) month

mulier, mulieris (f) woman                                (spanish mujer)

nihil (indeclinable noun) - nothing                                                                             nihilism 

nubes, nubis (f) cloud   (an i-stem noun)

pectus, pectoris (n) chest, breast                            pectoral

regina, -ae (f) queen

regnum, -i (n) kingdom

regia, -ae (f) palace, place where a rex and regina live and from which they rule their regnum

signum, -i (n) sign, signal; battle standard

tempestas, tempestatis (f) storm                            tempest

oculus, -i (m) eye                                    ocular 

unda, -ae (f) wave

uxor, uxoris (f) wife

velamen, velaminis (n) clothing, garment 

vertex, verticis (m) highest point 

vita, -ae (f) life                                             curriculum vitae


audax, audacis (one termination 3rd) bold, audacious

aeger, aegra, aegrum - sick 

caecus, a, um - blind                    (famous Roman statesman Appius Claudius Caecus) 

carus a,um - dear, beloved + dative case

dulcis, -e- sweet, pleasant         dulce et decorum est pro patria mori. 

ingens, ingenits (one termination 3rd adj.) huge, immense

inimicus, a, um - hostile to + dative case                        inimical 

insanus, a, um - insane

iratus, a, um - angry, enraged

laudābilis, -e   praiseworthy, laudable

mīrābilis, mīrābile - amazing 

miser, misera, miserum - wretch, poor, miserable 

niger, nigra, nigrum - dark, black 

sacer, sacra, sacrum - sacred (to) + dative case

summus, a, um - highest                              summa cum laude

suus, a, um (reflexive possessive adj.) - his own, her own, their own                     sui generis

(suus, a, um will takes its meaning from the subjective of the sentence)

vetus, veteris (adj. one termination 3rd decl.) old                                                veteran 

                    

autem (postpositive particle) - moreover, however

circum (prep.+ acc.) around                                circumvent 

eius (m/f/n genitive singular of is, ea, id) = his, her, its

hīc (adv.) here, in this place

subito (adv.) suddenly

tamen (post positive) however, nevertheless

tandem (adv.) at last, finally

ut - as, when + indicative mood 

ūnā (adv.) together


cum (subordinating conj.) - when 

dum (subordinating conj.) - while +  present tense

ubi (subordinating conj.)- when or where

si (subordinating conj.) - if        (negative form is nisi = if...not, unless, expect)

quod (subordinating conj.)- because


-que (enclitic coordinating conj.) - and 

-ve (enclitic coordinating conj.) or 

atque (coordinating conj.) and 

ac (coordinating conj.) and

eō ipsō tempore (ablative of time when) = at that very time



First List - Troia Capta

Verba Nova Discenda (“New Words to be Learned”):                     

Latin Dictionary Entry                             Derivatives/Related Words

duco, ducere, duxi, ductum - to lead                    aquaduct

capio, capere, cepi, captum - to take, capture                caption 

condō, condere, condidī, conditum - to establish, to found        condition 

facio, facere, fēcī, factum - to make, to do                 malefactor, fact     

fugio, fugere, fūgī - to flee                             fugitive 

iacio, iacere, ieci, iactum - to throw                    eject

invenio, invenīre, invēnī, inventum - to find, to discover        invention 

mitto, mittere, misi, missus, a, um - to sent                mission, transmit 

noceo, nocere, nocui + dative case    to harm             nocebo

pareo, parere, parui - to obey    + dative case

pono, ponere, posui, positum - to put, place                position, apposition  

possum, posse, potui    - to be able    

surgo, surgere, surrexi, surrectus    - to rise                insurrection     

sum, esse, fuī, futurus - to be                        future

video, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus - to see                        visual, vision, video        

                    

bellum, -i (n) wargerere bellum = to wage war            bellicose 

campus, -i (m) plain, field                             Campus Martius

celeritas, celeritatis (f) speed

consilium, -ii (n) plan                            counsel

corpus, corporis (n) - body                            corpse, corporal 

deus, dei (m) god                                deification 

dux, ducis (m) leader                               duke, doge, il duce

fatum, -i (n) fate

mora, -ae (f) delay                                moratorium 

mūrus, -i (m) wall                                intramural

nauta, -ae (m) sailor

oppidum, -i (n) town

rēx, rēgis (m) king

proelium, -ii (n) battle 

studium, -ii (n) eagerness, zeal                         study, student

socius, -ii (m) ally (pl. socii = allies)                    social, society 

uxor, uxōris (f) wife                                uxorius

virtus, virtutis (f) courage                            virtue 


altus, a, um - high, lofty 

acer, acris, acre (3 termination 3rd declension adj.) 

aequus, a, um - equal, indecisive                         equivocal

audax, audacis (one termination 3rd decl. adj.)              audacious 

brevis, -e     -short, brief                                 brevity                

celer, celeris, celere    - fast, quick                         celerity 

dūrus, a, um - hard                                durable

fortis, -e - brave, strong                            fortify, fortitude

gravis, -e - heavy, serious                            grave, gravity

lātus, a, um - wide                                 lateral

omnis, omne - all

plēnus, a, um - full of + genitive case                     plenty 



dum (subordinating conj.) while 

passim (adv.)     scattered about, far and wide, scattered at random     passim 

tandem (adv.) at last, finally 

sed (conj.) but